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Getting Started in High School Science: Process Skills

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Title: Getting Started in High School Science Author: gary carlin Last modified by: gcarlin Created Date: 6/16/2008 5:04:17 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Getting Started in High School Science: Process Skills


1
Getting Started in High School Science Process
Skills
  • Gary Carlin
  • CFN 603
  • Science Specialist
  • 917-714-7448
  • 718-828-5943

2
Science Process Skills Basic
3
1. Observing
  • 5 senses (see, hear, touch, smell, taste) to find
    out about objects and events
  • Characteristics
  • Properties
  • Differences
  • Similarities
  • Changes

4
2. Classifying
  • Grouping or ordering objects or events according
    to similarities or differences in properties
    Lists, tables, or charts are generated.

5
3. Measuring
  • Comparing an unknown quantity with a known
    (metric units, time, student- generated frames of
    reference)
  • Observations are quantified using proper
    measuring devices and techniques
  • Measurements are to be recorded in an orderly and
    systematic fashion with labeled units of measure.
  • Charts, graphs, or tables can be generated
    manually or with computer software.

6
4. Inferring
  • Interpreting or explaining observations More
    than one inference may be presented to explain an
    observation.

7
5. Predicting
  • Forming an idea of an expected result - not a
    guess - but a belief of what will occur based
    upon present knowledge and understandings,
    observations and inferences
  • A prediction should be followed by a written or
    oral explanation to clarify ideas and reveal any
    misconceptions or missing information.

8
6. Communicating
  • Using the written and spoken work, graphs,
    demonstrations, drawings, diagrams, or tables to
    transmit information and ideas to others
  • To reflect the true nature of science, ideas must
    be shared.
  • This allows ideas to be challenged, tested
    further, and built upon!

9
7. Using Number Relationships
  • Applying numbers and their mathematical
    relationships to make decisions
  • Numbers are basic to science - mathematical
    knowledge is applied.
  • Math is the language of science

10
Integrated Process Skills
11
Making Models
  • Constructing mental, verbal, or physical
    representations of ideas, objects, or events to
    clarify explanations or demonstrate
    relationships.
  • Constructing models helps clarify ideas.

12
Defining Operationally
  • Creating a definition by describing what is done
    and observed
  • It is in the language of the students.
  • Definitions are in context of students'
    experiences - not from the glossary, not to be
    memorized.

13
Collecting Data
  • Gathering and recording information about
    observations and measurements in a systematic way

14
Interpreting Data
  • Organizing, analyzing, and synthesizing data
    using tables, graphs, and diagrams to locate
    patterns that lead to the construction of
    inferences, predictions, or hypotheses.

15
Identifying and Controlling Variables
  • Manipulating one factor to investigate the
    outcome of an event while other factors are held
    constant.
  • Young children become confused with multiple
    variables.
  • Students need practice in identifying variables
    that affect outcomes.

16
Formulating Hypotheses
  • (Hypothesizing)
  • Making educated guesses based on evidence that
    can be tested through experimentation.

17
Experimenting
  • Designing one's own experiment to test a
    hypothesis using procedures to obtain reliable
    data
  • All basic and integrated skills to formulate a
    problem, collect data, and pose a solution are
    used.
  • Doing a teacher-orchestrated science activity is
    NOT experimenting.
  • Student demonstrates understanding and
    application of scientific method though inquiry,
    research and self-design of experiment to test a
    hypothesis.

18
Observing
19
4
  • The diagram shows four blocks on a balance beam.
    All four blocks have the same mass.
  • 38 Give one observation that shows side A has
    more mass on it. 1

20
4
  • 39 The diagrams below show a dog and a fish.
  • Identify two body structures the fish has that
    the dog does not have. 2
  • (1) __________
  • (2) __________

21
8
  • A student is given a ruler and a hand lens and
    asked to make observations and inferences about a
    rock sample collected on a field trip. The
    student wrote the nine statements below.
  • 1. The rock is mostly gray with white speckles on
    the outside surface.
  • 2. When acid is placed on the rock, a bubbling
    reaction occurs at the white speckles.
  • 3. The white speckles are probably the mineral
    calcite.
  • 4. The rock probably formed in a water
    environment.
  • 5. The rock measures 4 cm wide, 8 cm long, and 2
    cm thick.
  • 6. Fossil shells embedded in the rock can be seen
    with a hand lens.
  • 7. If the rock is broken with a hammer, it will
    probably contain more fossil shells within its
    interior.
  • 8. The rock has a smooth surface.
  • 9. The smooth surface is most likely the result
    of weathering and erosion over many years.
  • 77 List the numbers of the five student
    statements that are observations. 1

22
8
  • 73 The diagram below shows a one-celled organism
    reproducing. This is an example of asexual
    reproduction. What information in the diagram
    supports this statement? 1

23
  • 50 Fill in all of the blanks in parts 2 and 3 of
    the dichotomous key below, so that it contains
    information that could be used to identify the
    four animals shown below. 2
  • Dichotomous Key
  • 1. a. Leg present Go to 2
  • b. Legs not present Go to 3
  • Characteristic Organism
  • 2. a. _____________ ...........
    _____________
  • b. _____________ ...........
    _____________
  • 3. a. _____________ ...........
    _____________
  • b. _____________ ...........
    _____________

LE
24
LE
  • 78 Describe what will happen to red onion cells
    in a wet-mount slide when a saltwater solution is
    added to them. 1

25
Classifying
26
4
  • 32 Identify property C. 1 __________
  • 33 Identify property D. 1 __________

27
4
  • 34 The blocks can be sorted based on the property
    of shape. The two boxes below are labeled
    Triangles and Not Triangles. Sort the blocks by
    writing the letter of each block in the box where
    it belongs. 1
  • 35 Identify the property used to sort all of the
    blocks into the two groups shown below. 1
    Property _____________________

28
8
  • 4 The diagram below shows two different
    organisms, a dog and a cat.
  • Which phrase best describes the classification of
  • these two organisms?
  • (1) same kingdom, same species
  • (2) same kingdom, different species
  • (3) different kingdoms, different species
  • (4) different kingdoms, same species

29
8
  • 55 List two structures that are found in both
    plant and animal cells. 1
  • (1) ______________________________
  • (2) ______________________________

30
LE
  • 34 Which model best represents the relationship
    between a cell, a nucleus, a gene, and a
    chromosome?

31
LE
  • 35 A researcher recently discovered a new species
    of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm living near
    a hydrothermal vent. He compared the DNA of this
    new bacterial species to the DNA of four other
    species of bacteria. The DNA sequences came from
    the same part of the bacterial chromosome of all
    four species. According to these data, the
    unknown bacterial species is most closely related
    to
  • (1) species I (3) species III
  • (2) species II (4) species IV

32
Measuring
33
4
  • 35 The diagram below shows a Fahrenheit
    thermometer in a classroom.
  • What is the air temperature shown on the
    thermometer? 1
  • _________ F

34
4
  • 36 A student uses a pan balance to compare the
    masses of an orange, an apple, and a pear. Using
    the same orange, the student compared its mass to
    the mass of the pear and then to the mass of the
    apple. The results are shown in the diagrams
    below. In the spaces below, list the three fruits
    in order from the least mass to the greatest
    mass. 1

35
8
  • 21 Which instrument could be used to determine
    the volume of an irregularly shaped solid?

36
8
  • 57 The diagram below shows a rock being placed in
    a graduated cylinder containing water.
  • What is the volume of the rock? Note 1 mL 1
    cm3. 1
  • ___________ cm3

37
LE
  • 31 What is the approximate length of the
    earthworm shown in the diagram below?
  • (1) 9 mm (3) 10.6 cm
  • (2) 90 mm (4) 106 cm

38
LE
  • 31 A laboratory procedure calls for heating 50
    milliliters of a sugar solution to 60C. Which
    piece of laboratory equipment will not be needed?
  • (1) protective eyewear
  • (2) ruler
  • (3) thermometer
  • (4) graduated cylinder

39
Inferring
40
  • 16 The sunrise and sunset times for three days in
    February are recorded in the chart below.
  • Which statement is an accurate conclusion based
    on this information?
  • A There are more hours of daylight as the month
    goes by.
  • B There are fewer hours of daylight as the month
    goes by.
  • C The Sun rises later as the month goes by.
  • D The Sun sets earlier as the month goes by.

41
4
  • 35 A student hung three wet shirts in the sun to
    dry, shirts A, B, and C. The student predicted
    that shirt B would dry the fastest. The data
    table below shows the results.
  • Drying Time of Shirts
  • Do the results agree with the prediction that
    shirt B would dry fastest?
  • Circle one Yes No
  • Use the data in the table to explain your answer.
    1

42
8
  • During an experiment, a strip of magnesium (Mg)
    metal wrapped around a nichrome (nonreactive)
    wire is placed in a flask. The nichrome wire
    outside the flask is insulated. The contents of
    the flask are sealed off from the environment
    with a rubber stopper. When the nichrome wire is
    connected to a battery, an electric current
    passes through the wire, causing a white powder
    called magnesium oxide (MgO) to form.
  • 16 The flask and its contents had a mass of 120
    grams before the experiment and a mass of 120
    grams after the experiment. Which conclusion can
    best be made from these measurements?
  • (1) A phase change took place. (3) Matter was
    conserved.
  • (2) Energy was destroyed. (4) New elements were
    formed.

43
8
  • 37 The diagram below shows the life cycle of a
    liver fluke.

44
LE
  • 13 When antibiotics were first developed, most
    infectious diseases could be controlled by them.
    Today, certain bacteria are resistant to many
    antibiotics. One possible explanation for this
    change is that
  • (1) the antibiotics killed most of the bacteria
    that did not have a genetic variation for
    resistance
  • (2) the bacteria needed to change in order to
    produce more antibiotics
  • (3) some of the bacteria learned how to resist
    the antibiotics
  • (4) antibiotics have become weaker over the years

45
LE
  • 21 What will most likely occur if two different
    plant species compete for the same requirements
    in an ecosystem?
  • (1) They will usually develop different
    requirements.
  • (2) One species may adapt to a different
    environment.
  • (3) One species may be eliminated from that
    ecosystem.
  • (4) They will alter the environment so that they
    can both survive in that ecosystem.

46
Predicting
47
4
  • 12 A student measured the volume of water in a
    pan. The student boiled the water for thirty
    minutes and then measured the volume of the water
    again. The volume of water most likely
  • A decreased
  • B increased
  • C remained the same

48
4
  • 29 The data table below shows the height of a
    bean plant over a three-month period. The height
    of the plant is recorded in centimeters (cm).
  • If the pattern shown continues, the height of the
    plant in June will be
  • A 6 cm
  • B 12 cm
  • C 14 cm
  • D 19 cm

49
8
  • 58 The table below lists four changes to the
    materials in the diagram. Will the changes cause
    the distance the wooden platform moves to
    decrease, increase, or remain the same? For each
    change in the left column, circle your answer in
    the right column. 3

50
8
  • 73 What would happen to the metal paper clip if
    the string were cut? 1
  • 74 Explain how this diagram would be different if
    the paper clip was made of plastic. 1

51
LE
  • A park with a small lake is home to a population
    of ducks. The building of a housing complex
    eliminates a nearby pond. Soon other ducks and
    waterbirds like geese and egrets come to live at
    this small lake.
  • 58 Predict one way the new populations of birds
    may affect the populations of plants that live in
    and around the lake. 1

52
LE
  • 33 The diagram below represents a species of bee
    that helps one type of orchid plant reproduce by
    carrying pollen on structure X from one orchid
    flower to another. Pollination by this species of
    bee is the only way the orchid can reproduce. If
    this bee species dies out, this orchid species
    would most likely
  • (1) cease to exist
  • (2) find another animal to carry the pollen
  • (3) flower at a different time of year
  • (4) develop another way to reproduce

53
Communicating
54
4
  • 38 Complete the chart below by describing one way
    that some trees respond to each change in season
    listed. 2

55
4
  • 40 Diagrams A and B below show the same bar
    magnet attracting the same
  • paper clip from two different distances.
  • Explain why the bar magnet attracts the paper
    clip with more force in diagram B than in diagram
    A. 1

56
8
80 Use the data in the table to construct a line
graph on the grid below. Using an X for each
point, plot the data for the age and average
height of females. Connect the Xs with a line.
2
57
8
  • 46 The locations for August 29 through September
    5 have been plotted on the hurricane tracking
    chart.
  • Plot the five remaining locations of Hurricane
    Betsy shown on the data table by following the
    directions below.
  • a Place an X for each remaining location of
    Hurricane Betsy from September 6 through
    September 10. 1
  • b Label each X with the appropriate date. 1
  • c Connect the Xs using straight lines to show the
    continuing path of Hurricane Betsy. 1

58
LE
  • 51 In the space below, sketch a chemical molecule
    that might be released from nerve
  • cell A and be recognized and bind to area I of
    nerve cell B. 1

59
LE
  • 60 A population of bats feeds on flying insects.
    Some of these bats have a gene that results in
    much stronger flight muscles than those of the
    other bats in the area. Explain how this
    variation could lead to evolutionary change
    within this species of bat. In your answer, be
    sure to include an explanation of
  • competition within the bat population 1
  • survival of various individuals within the bat
    population 1
  • how the frequency of the trait for stronger
    flight muscles would be expected to
  • change within the bat population over time 1
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