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Using Capital Letters

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Using Capital Letters Why is correct capitalization important? First word of a sentence Salutations and closings of letters The pronoun I Proper nouns – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using Capital Letters


1
Using Capital Letters
Why is correct capitalization important? First
word of a sentence Salutations and closings of
letters The pronoun I Proper nouns Proper
adjectives Abbreviations School
subjects Titles Review A Review B
2
Why is correct capitalization important?
Capital letters are signals to readers. They can
mark important differences in meaning.
the White House
the white house
3
First word of a sentence
Capitalize the first word in every sentence.
More and more people are exercising regularly.
Daily workouts have many benefits. For instance,
they can help you sleep better at night.
4
First word of a sentence
Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
How many pets does your family have? asked Gwen.
Felipe said, We have two dogs, one cat, and two
parakeets, for a grand total of five.
5
Salutations and closings of letters
In letters or e-mails, capitalize the first word
in
the salutation
the closing
Dear Sir
Sincerely,
My dear Brenda,
Very truly yours,
6
The pronoun I
Capitalize the pronoun I.
When I visited Denver, I went to the zoo and to
the museum.
If you like, Ill show you photos from my trip
there.
7
Using capital letters
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. today i will finish my essay for science class.
2. the teacher said, pass in your tests now.
3. soon i came to the end of the letter, which
was signed sincerely, Henry Wheeler.
8
Using capital letters
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. Today I will finish my essay for science class.
Todayfirst word in sentence ICapitalize the
pronoun I.
9
Using capital letters
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
2. The teacher said, Pass in your tests now.
Thefirst word in sentence Passfirst word of
quoted sentence
10
Using capital letters
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
3. Soon I came to the end of the letter, which
was signed Sincerely, Henry Wheeler.
Soonfirst word in sentence ICapitalize the
pronoun I. Sincerelyfirst word in closing of
letter
11
Using capital letters
On Your Own
  • Correct each capitalization error in the
    following sentences.
  • our report is due at the end of the month.
  • my parents let me watch TV only after i have
    finished all my chores.
  • 3. the clerk said, tomorrow is a holiday, isnt
    it?
  • 4. the letter began dear Manager i have a
    complaint about the service at your store.

End of Section
12
Using capital letters
Answers
Correct each capitalization error in the
following sentences.
1. Our report is due at the end of the month.
2. My parents let me watch TV only after I have
finished all my chores.
3. The clerk said, Tomorrow is a holiday, isnt
it?
4. The letter began Dear Manager I have a
complaint about the service at your store.
13
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
A common noun names any one of a group of
persons, places, things, or ideas. A proper noun
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea.
Common Nouns Proper Nouns
month November
country Kenya
writer Toni Morrison
14
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of persons and animals
the Garza family
Eric
Ms. Levine
W. C. Handy
Harriet Tubman
Lassie
15
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Geographical names
Asia (continent)
San Diego (city)
Costa Rica (country)
Hudson Bay (body of water)
16
Proper nouns
Words such as south, east, and northeast are not
capitalized when they indicate direction. They
are capitalized when they name a geographical
region.
Grammar Gal Says...
Turn east when you reach the river.
Meg goes to college in the East.
17
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of organizations, teams, institutions, and
government bodies
League of Women Voters (organization)
Kennedy Middle School (institution)
Los Angeles Dodgers (team)
Louisiana State Senate (government body)
18
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of historical events and periods, special
events, calendar items, and holidays
Battle of Bunker Hill (historical event)
Thanksgiving Day (holiday)
Texas State Fair (special event)
December (calendar item)
19
Proper nouns
Dont capitalize the name of a season unless it
is part of a proper name.
Grammar Gal Says...
Tomorrow is the first day of summer.
Will you attend the Oak Ridge Summer Carnival?
20
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of nationalities, races, and peoples
Mexican
Cherokee
Asian
African American
21
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of religions and their followers, holy days
and celebrations, sacred writings, and specific
deities
Christianity (religion) Christian (follower)
the Torah (sacred writing)
Yom Kippur (holy day)
Allah (specific deity)
22
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of businesses and the brand names of
business products
Thrifty Dry Cleaners
Bank of the West
(businesses)
Nike
Wrangler
Goodyear
(brand names)
23
Proper nouns
Do not capitalize a common noun that follows the
brand name and identifies the type of product.
Grammar Gal Says...
Chevrolet car
Goodyear tires
Wrangler jeans
24
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of planets, constellations, stars, and
other heavenly bodies
Venus
Big Dipper
Jupiter
Milky Way
Ursa Major
25
Proper nouns
Dont capitalize earth unless it is used along
with the names of other heavenly bodies that are
capitalized.
Grammar Gal Says...
How far is Saturn from Earth?
Oceans cover three fourths of the earths surface.
26
Proper nouns
The words sun and moon usually arent capitalized.
Grammar Gal Says...
The sun rose at 709 this morning.
How many moons does Jupiter have?
27
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spacecraft
Sputnik
Air Force One
City of New Orleans
Mayflower
Atlantis
Queen Elizabeth 2
28
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of monuments, memorials, and awards
Mount Rushmore
Jefferson Memorial
Navajo National Monument
Academy Award
29
Proper nouns
Capitalize proper nouns.
Names of specific buildings and other structures
Fairmont Hotel
Eiffel Tower
Brooklyn Bridge
Tower of London
Hoover Dam
St. Louis Cathedral
30
Proper adjectives
Capitalize proper adjectives.
A proper adjective is an adjective formed from a
proper noun.
Proper Nouns Proper Adjectives
Rome Roman army
King Arthur Arthurian legend
Japan Japanese tea ceremony
Mars Martian landscape
31
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. the Pacific Ocean
the Pacific ocean
2. a japanese restaurant
a Japanese restaurant
3. the Lincoln Memorial
the Lincoln memorial
4. University of Texas
university Of Texas
5. the revolutionary War
the Revolutionary War
32
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. the Pacific Ocean
the Pacific ocean
the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Oceangeographical name
33
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
a Japanese restaurant
a Japanese restaurant
2. a japanese restaurant
Japaneseproper adjective
34
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
3. the Lincoln Memorial
the Lincoln memorial
the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorialname of a memorial
35
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
4. University of Texas
university Of Texas
University of Texas
University of Texasname of an institution
36
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Identify the correctly capitalized word group in
each pair. Be prepared to explain your answers.
the Revolutionary War
the Revolutionary War
5. the revolutionary War
Revolutionary Warhistorical event
37
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
On Your Own
  • Correct the capitalization errors in the
    following word groups.
  • decorated with chinese lanterns
  • pictures of the golden gate bridge in san
    francisco
  • 3. to see the florida marlins play in the world
    series
  • 4. winner of the nobel prize
  • 5. riding on the orient express

End of Section
38
Proper nouns and proper adjectives
Answers
Correct the capitalization errors in the
following word groups.
1. decorated with Chinese lanterns
2. pictures of the Golden Gate Bridge in San
Francisco
3. to see the Florida Marlins play in the World
Series
4. winner of the Nobel Prize
5. riding on the Orient Express
39
Abbreviations
Capitalize abbreviations if the words they stand
for are capitalized.
Abbreviations that come before or after personal
names
Mr. Edward Yowe
Gary Stamos, Sr.
Gen. Crane
Abbreviations of the names of organizations,
businesses, and government bodies
UN (United Nations)
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)
40
Abbreviations
Capitalize abbreviations if the words they stand
for are capitalized.
Abbreviations used in addresses
9120 Maple Ave.
Apt. 206
P.O. Box 9410
Abbreviations of geographical names
Cook Co.
St. Louis
Bahama Is.
Okla.
41
School subjects
Do not capitalize the names of school subjects.
health
science
history
art
social studies
Exception Do capitalize the names of language
classes and courses that contain a number.
English
German
Music III
American History 201
42
Titles
Capitalize a persons title when the title comes
before the name.
Judge OConner
Mrs. Santos
Mayor Bradley
Generally, a title that is used alone or
following a persons name is not capitalized.
Has the judge arrived, yet?
43
Titles
Capitalize a word showing a family relationship
when the word is used before or in place of a
persons name.
Aunt Susan
Cousin Ben
Grandmother
Do not capitalize a word showing a family
relationship when the word follows a possessive
noun or pronoun.
your aunt Susan
my cousin Ben
Tys grandmother
44
Titles
Capitalize the first and last words and all
important words in titles and subtitles.
Womans Day (magazine)
Broken Chain (short story)
The Wizard of Oz (movie)
The Ballet Class (artwork)
45
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. Have you heard the song on top of old
smokey?
2. My cousins mailing address is 111 Pine st.
3. I gave my copy of oliver twist to aunt Sally.
4. The senator met with governor Blanco.
46
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
1. Have you heard the song On Top of Old
Smokey?
On Top of Old Smokeysong title (Capitalize
only the important words.)
47
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
2. My cousins mailing address is 111 Pine St.
St.abbreviation that stands for a word (Street)
that is capitalized in an address (The word
cousins is not capitalized because it follows
the possessive pronoun my.)
48
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
3. I gave my copy of Oliver Twist to Aunt Sally.
Oliver Twisttitle of a book AuntCapitalize a
word showing a family relationship when it is
used before a persons name.
49
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Capitalize each lowercase letter that should be
a capital. Be prepared to explain your answers.
4. The senator met with Governor Blanco.
GovernorCapitalize a persons title when it
comes before the persons name. (The word senator
is not capitalized because it is used alone and
not with the persons name.)
50
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
On Your Own
  • Correct the capitalization errors in the
    following sentences.
  • According to mom, judge Johnson is very strict.
  • Doesnt dr. Perry live in st. Louis now?
  • My sister works for the fbi.
  • I asked mrs. Jones for a copy of readers digest.
  • Mara just read the short story gorilla, my love.

End of Section
51
Abbreviations, school subjects, and titles
Answers
Correct the capitalization errors in the
following word groups.
1. According to Mom, Judge Johnson is very strict.
2. Doesnt Dr. Perry live in St. Louis now?
3. My sister works for the FBI.
4. I asked Mrs. Jones for a copy of Readers
Digest.
5. Mara just read the short story Gorilla, My
Love.
52
Review A
Correct the following sentences by capitalizing
or lowercasing letters as needed. 1. Volunteers
from the peace corps helped build a
Bridge. 2. one of the best dentists in york is
dr. ken winslow. 3. In english class on Monday,
we watched a Scene from romeo and
juliet. 4. The french revolution changed
european Society. 5. Did your Sisters favorite
show win an emmy award? 6. this year i hope to
visit the rocky mountains.
End of Section
53
Review A
Correct the following sentences by capitalizing
or lowercasing letters as needed. 1. Volunteers
from the peace corps helped build a
Bridge. 2. one of the best dentists in york is
dr. ken winslow. 3. In english class on Monday,
we watched a Scene from romeo and
juliet. 4. The french revolution changed
european Society. 5. Did your Sisters favorite
show win an emmy award? 6. this year i hope to
visit the rocky mountains.
1. Volunteers from the Peace Corps helped build a
bridge.
2. One of the best dentists in York is Dr. Ken
Winslow.
3. In English class on Monday, we watched a scene
from Romeo and Juliet.
4. The French Revolution changed European society.
5. Did your sisters favorite show win an Emmy
Award?
6. This year I hope to visit the Rocky Mountains.
54
Review B
Correct the sentences in the following paragraph
by capitalizing or lowercasing letters as
needed. (1) The titanic, a huge ocean liner,
sank on april 15, 1912. (2) It lay untouched in
the icy waters of the atlantic ocean for more
than seventy years. (3) on September 1, 1985, dr.
robert ballard of the woods hole oceanographic
institution and his Crew found the ship. (4) The
Scientists used a remote-controlled vehicle
called argos to view the ocean floor. (5) they
used a special underwater sled with lights and
cameras to take Photographs of the Titanic.
End of Section
55
Review B
Correct the sentences in the following paragraph
by capitalizing or lowercasing letters as
needed. (1) The Titanic, a huge ocean liner,
sank on April 15, 1912. (2) It lay untouched in
the icy waters of the Atlantic ocean for more
than seventy years. (3) On September 1, 1985, Dr.
Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution and his crew found the ship. (4) The
scientists used a remote-controlled vehicle
called Argos to view the ocean floor. (5) They
used a special underwater sled with lights and
cameras to take photographs of the Titanic.
56
The End
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