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Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations The World of Islam – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Civilizations


1
Ancient Civilizations
  • The World of Islam

2
Arabs
  • Arabs nomadic Bedouins, Semitic speaking people
    who lived in Arabian Peninsula
  • Hostile surroundings made the Arabs move
    constantly to continue to feed their animals
  • Arabs organized into independent tribes to help
    each other with difficult lives
  • Sheikh leader of tribe
  • Early Arabs herded sheep farmed on the Arabian
    peninsula
  • After domestication of camel, expanded caravan
    trade from between Persian gulf Mediterranean

3
Bedouins
4
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5
Arabs
  • Early Arabs were polytheistic, Allah main god
  • Traced their ancestry to Abraham his son
    Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine
    called the Kaaba at Mecca
  • Black Stone, cornerstone of Kaaba, revered for
    its association with Abraham

Kaaba reflects a house in heaven Said to be
built by Abraham and Ishmael and kissed by
Mohammad
Hager and Ishmael
6
Really Old Stuff Around 600 A.D. to Around 1450
A.D.
  • The Rise of Islam
  • In the 7th century a new faith will take hold in
    the middle east
  • Islam, was monotheistic, like Judaism and
    Christianity
  • The followers are called Muslims, they believe
    that Allah (God) transmitted his words to the
    faithful through Mohammad, whose followers began
    to record those words in what came to be called
    the Quran (Koran)

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Muhammad
  • Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned
    early
  • Became a caravan merchant married his boss, a
    rich widow named Khadija
  • Muhammad was troubled with gap between the greedy
    rich honest poor
  • Muhammad went into mountains to meditate on the
    issue
  • While meditating, Muhammad received revelation
    from God through the angel Gabriel

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Muhammad
  • Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed
    himself partially to Moses Jesus and his final
    revelations were to him
  • Islam submission to the will of Allah
  • Quran Muslim bible based on Muhammad
    revelations
  • Quran contains ethical guidelines for Muslims
  • Islam has only one god, Muhammad is the prophet

11
Mosque Of The Prophet In Madinah
12
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Where
Muhammad Ascended Into Heaven
13
ISLAM
  • Muhammad became a religious, political,
    military leader
  • He assembled a military force to defend
    community/ military victories attracted many
    followers
  • In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000
    soldiers/ city surrendered many residents
    converted to Islam
  • Muhammad declared the Kaaba to be a sacred shrine
  • Muhammad died 2 years later, Islam spread through
    the Arabian peninsula

14
The Quran Holy Book Of Islam
15
Five Pillars of Islam
  • Faith Allah is the one true god and Muhammad is
    his prophet.
  • Prayer five times a day toward Makkah, noon on
    Fridays at mosque.
  • Alms Giving.
  • Fasting during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset.
  • Pilgrimage - a hajj to Makkah once in lifetime

16
There is no deity except Allah (the One and Only
God), Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
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19
Celebrating The Last Day of Ramadan
20
Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of
Makkah
Pil
21
Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba
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23
Values Honor parents Be kind to
neighbors Protect widows and orphans Give to the
poor
Condemns Murder Stealing Lying Adultery
The Quran
Forbids Gambling Pork Alcohol
Regulates Marriage Divorce Inheritance Business
Endorses Polygamy Slavery Jihad
24
Muslim Cartoon
25
Creation of Arab Empire
  • Difficult finding leadership after Muhammads
    death
  • Abu Bakr Muhammads father-in-law was chosen to
    be successor/ called caliph successor to
    Muhammad
  • Bakr Muhammad used Jihad to spread movement of
    Islam
  • Jihad struggle in way of god
  • By 650 Egypt, Syria, Persian empire were part
    of Arab empire/ Done under leadership of Bakr
  • Death in battle was assured place in
    palace/enhanced military courage

26
Abu Bakr
Muhammad Surrounded by the Four Rightly-Guided
Caliphs
27
The Meaning of Jihad
1. Jihad against oneself - the daily struggle
against evil and temptation in life. 2. Jihad
with knowledge - the struggle to use knowledge,
particularly from the Qur'an, to fight ignorance
and to gain converts to Islam not through battle,
but through the power of Qur'anic knowledge. 3.
Jihad with wealth - the struggle to give up
material wealth for the benefit of Islam, through
charitable donations. 4. Jihad with the sword -
the physical struggle to defend Islam against
harm from unbelievers. Muslims believe that if
they give their lives in this military jihad they
will be rewarded with eternal paradise. 5. Jihad
through righteousness - the struggle to
continuously undertake good deeds to please God
and benefit humanity.
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29
Arab Empire
  • First 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed
  • In 656 Muhammads son-in-law, Ali, became caliph
    but was assassinated 5 years later

30
Ali and Sons
Ali's Shrine
31
Umayyad Dynasty
  • In 661, general Muawiyah became caliph/ was
    rival of Ali
  • Was governor of Syria moved capital from
    Medinah to Damascus
  • Was known for only using force if necessary
  • Made the office of caliph hereditary
  • 8th century Arabs conquered converted the
    Berbers lived on coast of North Africa
  • Occupied southern Spain/ By 725 Spain was Muslim
    state
  • Arabs were defeated at Battle of Tours ending
    European expansion

32
Mu'awiyah
33
Damascus Umayyad Capital
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35
Umayyad Dynasty
  • In 717, Muslims attacked Constantinople, but
    their navy was defeated by Byzantines
  • Internal struggles led to revolts
  • Most important revolt was led by Hussein, 2nd son
    of Ali/ Most of his followers defected and he
    fought 10,000 soldiers with 72.All died
  • The struggles caused Islam to split into two
    groups, the Shiite Sunni
  • Split continues today.Most Muslims are Sunnis,
    but much of Iraq Iran consider themselves
    Shiites

36
Abbasid Dynasty
  • In 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad
    dynasty founded Abbasid which lasted until 1258
  • In 762, Abbasid built new capital of Baghdad on
    the Tigris river/ location took advantage of
    river caravan traffic
  • Harun al-Rashid led dynasty through golden age/
    known for charity and patronage
  • Son al Mamun was a great patron of learning
  • Baghdad became center of a huge trade empire

37
Baghdad
38
Abbasid Dynasty Falls
  • Abbasid experienced problems fighting over
    succession of caliph
  • Vast wealth led to financial corruption
  • Shortage of qualified Arabs to fill government
    positions allowed non-Arabs to become a dominant
    force in the military bureaucracy which led
    disintegration
  • Rulers of provinces began to break away
  • Spain, Morocco, Egypt independent with own
    caliphate

39
Umayyad Mosque In Spain
Samanid Mosque In Bukhara
40
Fatimid Mosque in Cairo
41
Seljuk Turks Crusades
  • Fatimid dynasty became center of Islamic
    civilization important because it was located
    on Nile river Cairo
  • Created a strong army by non-native soldiers
    Seljuk Turks
  • Seljuk Turks nomadic people from central Asia,
    converted to Islam
  • Took over much of Abbasid empire captured
    Baghdad held political and military power
  • Turks took over Anatolian plateau, Byzantine
    empire turned west for help

42
Crusades
  • Byzantine emperor Alexius I asked Christian
    states of Europe for help against Turks
  • Europeans agreed and a series of Crusades began
    in 1096
  • Crusaders put Muslims on defensive first
  • 1169, Saladin took control of Egypt ended
    Fatimid dynasty, took offensive _at_ Christians
  • 1187, Saladins army destroyed the Christian
    forces in the kingdom of Jerusalem
  • Main effect of Crusades centuries of mistrust
    between Muslims Christians

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44
Mongols
  • Pastoral people who came out of the Gobi desert
    in early 13th century
  • Were highly destructive conquerors whose goal was
    to create such a terror that people would not
    fight back
  • 1258, Mongols seized Persia Mesopotamia
  • Leader Hulegu hated Islam, detroyed Baghdad
    Abbasid caliphate ended
  • Mongols advanced as far as the Red Sea
  • They failed to conquer because resistance of
    Mamluks Turkish slave soldiers who had power
    after overthrowing Saladin

45
Mongols
  • Mongol leaders began to convert to Islam
    intermarried with local peoples
  • 14th century, Mongol empire split into separate
    kingdoms
  • Islamic empire ended
  • Because Mongols had destroyed Baghdad, Cairo
    became center of Islamic civilization

46
Mongols
47
Genghis Khan United Mongol Cavalry
48
Kublai Khan
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51
Islamic Civilization
  • Arab empire was generally prosperous
  • Based on extensive trade by ship camel
  • Camel caravans went to Morocco in far west to
    countries beyond Caspian Sea
  • Trade began to prosper during Abassid dynasty
  • Large magnificent cities began to
    prosper..Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Cordoba
  • Islamic cities had their own physical appearance
  • Palace mosques most impressive buildings
  • Fountains, public baths, bazaars

52
Bazaars
53
Islamic Society
  • Muslims live their lives in accordance with
    Allahs teachings revealed in the Quran
  • Islam claims that all people are equal in the
    eyes of Allah/ was not always the case in the
    Arab empire well defined upper class of ruling
    families wealthy merchants
  • Slaves were not considered equal/Muslims could
    not be slaves/ Slaves came from south Africa or
    Asia, mostly captives of war/treated pretty well,
    many were set free
  • Women were not treated equal, Quran does not tell
    men to do so

54
Islamic Society
  • Men dominated Arab empire
  • Every woman had a male guardian/ Women were
    secluded at home kept from social contacts with
    men outside their families
  • Parents arranged marriages for children/ Muslim
    men could have up to 4 wives\had to pay dowry
  • Women covered much of their bodies while in
    public
  • These customs are more connected with Arab
    practice than to the teachings of the Quran

55
Islamic Achievements
  • Al-Mamuns House of Wisdom Baghdad, Arab
    scholars translated Greek works by Plato,
    Aristotle, etc./ Mathematics texts were included
  • Ibn-Rushd scholar, wrote commentaries on
    Aristotles works
  • Math created algebra passed on Indias
    numbering system known as Arabic in Europe
  • Science perfected astrolabe-used by sailors to
    determine location by looking at position of
    planets stars/ observatory in Baghdad where
    scientists studied and named many stars

56
Arabic Achievements

57
Ibn-Rushd
58
Islamic Achievements
  • Medicine developed medicine as a field of
    study/ Ibn Sina wrote medical encyclopedia, Canon
    of Medicine, it showed how diseases could spread
  • History Ibn Khaldun proposed cyclical history,
    cause effect, wrote Muqaddimah- Intro to
    History
  • Literature Quran was main book/ Omar Khayyam
    wrote Rubaiyat/ Arabian Nights (1001 Nights)
    collection of folktales fables that were first
    told orally then written down over many years
  • Art/Architecture blends together Arabic,
    Turkish, Persian traditions

59


Ibn Sina
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Islamic Achievements
  • Art is expressed in Mosques/ decorations
    arabesques- geometric patterns of Arabic letters,
    plants, abstract figures
  • No representation of Muhammad in any art/ prophet
    warned against imitating God by creating pictures
  • Great Mosque of Samarra is the largest Mosque
    ever built present day Iraq, covers 10 acres
  • Mosque in Cordoba, Spain 514 columns make
    building into a forest of trees\
  • Palaces reflected the glory of Islam
  • Alhambra in Granada, Spain is finest Islamic
    palace

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