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Main References: Becher, Matthias. Charlemagne. New Haven: Yale U. Press, 2003. Boussard, Jacques. The Civilization of Charlemagne. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Main%20References:

  • Main References
  • Becher, Matthias. Charlemagne. New Haven Yale
    U. Press, 2003.
  • Boussard, Jacques. The Civilization of
    Charlemagne. London Weidenfeld Nicolson,
  • Brown, R. Allen. The Origins of Modern Europe
    the Medieval Heritage of Western Civilization.
    Woodbridge Boydell, 1996.
  • Bulfinch, Thomas. The Age of Chivalry and
    Legends of Charlemagne. New York New American
    Library, 1962.
  • Bullough, Donald A. The Age of Charlemagne.
    London Ferndale, 1980.
  • Cabaniss, Allen. Charlemagne. New York Twayne,
  • Calmette, Joseph. Charlemagne. Paris PUF,

  • Einhard. The Life of Charlemagne. Ann Arbor U.
    of Michigan Press, 1960.
  • Fichtenau, Heinrich. The Carolingian Empire.
    Toronto U. of Toronto Press, 1978.
  • Folz, Robert. The Coronation of Charlemagne, 25
    Decmber 800. London Routledge, 1974.
  • Halphen, Louis. Charlemagne and the Carolingian
    Empire. Amsterdam North-Holland Pub., 1977.
  • Hodges, Richard. Mohammed, Charlemagne and the
    Origins of Europe Archaeology and the Pirenne
    Thesis. Ithaca Cornell U. Press, 1983.

  • Loyn, H.R., et al., eds. The Reign of
    Charlemagne Documents on Carolingian Government
    and Administration. New York St. Martins
    Press, 1975.
  • Macdonald, Fiona. The World in the Time of
    Charlemagne. Philadelphia Chelsea House, 2001.
  • McKitterick, Rosamond. Charlemagne the
    Formation of a European Identity. Cambridge
    Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
  • Munz, Peter. Life in the Age of Charlemagne.
    London Putnam, 1969.
  • Nelson, Janet L. Courts, Elites, and Gendered
    Power in the Early Middle Ages Charlemagne and
    Others. Aldershot Ashgate, 2007.

  • Pirenne, Henri. Mohammed and Charlemagne.
    London Allen Unwin, 1968.
  • Riche, Pierre. Daily Life in the World of
    Charlemagne. Liverpool Liverpool U. Press,
  • Sullivan, R.E. The Coronation of Charlemagne
    What did it Signify? Boston Heath, 1959.
  • Thorpe, Lewis. Two Lives of Charlemagne.
    Harmondsworth Penguin, 1969.

  • 4th - 5th centuries synthesis of Classical and
    Christian Cultures
  • 8th century Germanic (thus, completed the
    Birth of Europe also the title of a book by
    Robert Lopez)
  • Historical background after the fall of the
    Western Roman Empire (in 476), in Gaul (modern
    France) were the Franks
  • Clovis (Louis) was the King of the Franks, r.
    481-511 Merovingian Dynasty

  • But soon, it was disorganized, weakened,
    disintegrated, and decentralized -- the
    Merovingian kings soon became figure heads
    (puppets) and power passed to the aristocracy
    cliques of nobles.
  • By the 7th century, the Carolingians, a great
    landholding family in medieval Europe as in
    China land was wealth, and wealth was power,
    rose to power. They became the mayors (or dux)
    of the itinerant royal household, that is, chief
    administrator and their offices were hereditary
    with own warriors, etc., indicating that they
    were the real masters.

  • Charles Martel (714-741), the Hammer, was a
    ruthless warrior, especially in the Battle of
    Tours (732), defeated the Muslims from
    Spain/North Africa and stopped the Muslims since
  • The Carolingians have been producing
    extraordinary able men over several generations
    luck (always only ONE surviving heir fro several
    generations) medieval feudalism could be
    disintegrating, because of divided succession
    among heirs (not yet primogeniture).

  • Then, Carloman ruled as mayor for 6 years, then
    retired to a Benedictine monastery in 747 and
    left the power to his brother, Pepin the Short.
    When in 751, the Lombards captured Ravenna and
    threatened the Pope in Rome, who asked for help.
    Pepin the Short asked the Pope a far from
    theological question Is it right that a
    powerless ruler should continue to bear the title
    of king? Of course, the answer from the Pope
    was no, which meant the powerless Merovingian
    king should step down and thus, in 751, Pepin
    the Short became King of the Franks, (thus, ended
    the Merovingian Dynasty, and started the
    Carolingian Dynasty).

  • If Pepin the Short needed the support and
    blessings of the papacy (to legitimize his claim
    to the throne), the papacy needed Pepins support
    (or military protection) even more thus,
    alliance of the two.

  • Charlemagne, r. 768-814 a typical medieval
    feudal warrior king, a talented military
    commander, a statesman, and a friend of
    learning (limited) by his biographer Einhard,
    Life of Charlemagne.

  • While at his table, he Charlemagne listened to
    reading and music. The readings were stories and
    deeds of olden times he was also fond of St.
    Augustines books, especially of the one
    entitled, The City of God. ... He also tried to
    write, and used to keep tablets and blank pages
    in bed under his pillow so that in his leisure
    hours, he might accustom his hands to form the
    letters but as he did not begin his efforts at
    an early age but late in life, they were met with
    poor success.

  • Charlemagne was described as warm and talkative
    on the one hand, but hard, cruel, and violent on
    the other thus, admiration and fear (or, hope
    and fear).
  • Nevertheless, Charlemagne was ideal to later
    medieval ages what an emperor ought to be was
    often defined in term of what Charlemagne was,
    that is, Charlemagne was a model, a typical
    medieval feudal warrior king.

  • The Imperial Coronation at the Mass on Christmas
    Day, 800 crowned by Pope Leo III as the Holy
    Roman Emperor (cf. later and then, in 1804, the
    coronation of Emperor Napoleon and Empress
  • Yet, despite his military genius and political
    charisma, Charlemagne was a man of his age, in
    tune with its most progressive forces yet by no
    means removed from its past.

  • Conclusion The Empire of Charles the Great did
    not long survive the death of its founder, and it
    never really attained the economic and social
    organization of a civilized state. But, for all
    that, it marks the first emergence of the
    European culture from the twilight of prenatal
    existence into the consciousness of active life.
    (Christopher Dawson, The Making of Europe).

  • The Carolingian Renaissance
  • What The Carolingian Renaissance formed part of
    a program of religious renewal that Carolingian
    political clerical leaders sponsored and
    encouraged in the hope that it would lead to the
    moral betterment of the Christian people. John
    J. Contreni, The Carolingian Renaissance, in
    Warren Treadgold, ed., Renaissances before the
    Renaissance. (Stanford Stanford U. Press,
    1984), pp. 59-74.

  • The Carolingian Renaissance limitation, limited
    in scope and in depth mainly preservation only
    emphasized on the study of Christian scripts.
  • Because, in the Carolingian Dynasty, the Franks
    or the Germanic barbarians were illiterate, thus,
    the elite scholars were mainly foreign born, such
    as Einhard, Alcuin, etc.
  • Nevertheless, the Carolingian Renaissance had
    certain effect on education and culture moral
    regeneration of society.

  • Why How By 8th century, the Carolingian mayors
    of the palace had consolidated and were soon
    legitimizing their hold over the Frankish
    kingdom. Then, (1) Carolingian expansion brought
    the Franks into contact with active cultural
    centers in Spain, Rome, etc. (2) learned foreign
    scholars were invited and they arrived in France
    thus, concentrating the materials and human
    resources for cultural revival in the hands of
    the Carolingians.

  • Carloman copied out the Life of Arnulf of Metz
    (his ancestor), and wrote out the Deeds of the
  • Pepin the Short supported learning and religion,
    and reformed the Frankish Church.

  • Charlemagne admired St. Augustines The City of
    God and he recruited and listened to an
    international constellation of Italian,
    Anglo-Saxon, Irish, and Visigothic men of
    letters, such as Alcuin, Einhard, etc.
  • All in all, according to Warren Hollister, The
    age of Charlemagne/Carolingian Renaissance
    witnessed the synthesis of Classical, Christian,
    and Germanic Cultures.

  • Significance (1) the Carolingians sponsored a
    literary Renaissance, whose principal effect was
    to preserve civilization Kenneth Clark, Thanks
    to the Carolingians, civilization survived by the
    skin of its teeth (2) The Carolingians were not
    at all original but simply imitated programs
    texts proposed earlier and elsewhere.

  • The Aftermath of Charlemagne the 2nd Wave of
    Barbarian Invasion in the 9th 10th centuries
    (Geoffrey Barraclough, The Crucible of Europe) --
    Vikings (pirates from Northern Europe Normans
    (North men) later Magyars in Eastern Europe
    Hungarians (Huns) later and Saracens in North
    Africa and Southern Italy (Muslims).

  • Charlemagne died in 814 -- the end of an era.
  • Louis the Pius, r. 814-840, was not incompetent,
    but he could not compare with Charlemagne, his
    father Pepin the Short, his grandfather Charles
    Martel, the Hammer, his great grandfather (in
    military, politics, charisma, etc.).
  • By the later part of his life, Charlemagne has
    already stopped expansion cf. The Song of
    Roland and by the time of Louis the Pius, he
    could not award his followers in land
    feudalism, thus, causing general grievances.

  • The Frankish feudalism at that time what kept
    the government going effective was loyal service
    from the vassals to the lords only, thus,
  • There was no bureaucracy perhaps, at the most,
    missi dominici (royal envoys to local counties)
    by Charlemagnes own initiative, not a permanent
    institution yet, it was the only link between
    the kings court and the local level.

  • Louis the Pius died in 840, and there were 3
    surviving sons to succeed his throne, thus,
    splitting the empire into 3 regions Lothar (the
    eldest) in Holy Roman Empire Louis the German in
    Western Germany and Charles the Bold in Eastern
  • A period of decline (?), yet, significant changes
    were happening under the surface (cf. the time
    between Han and Tang Dynasties in China --
    apparently barbaric, yet, many effective
    institutions proven to be successful in Tang
    China were rooted in this period).

  • The Vikings from Scandinavia Norway, Denmark,
    and Sweden of Northern Europe were called as the
    North men or Norsemen (cf. Sir James C. Holt)
    and they were adventurous with restless spirit
    (perhaps over-population?), and with improved
    Vikings ships, the breakdown of the Carolingian
    empire (causing attraction for invasion to
    western Europe).

  • Nevertheless, the Vikings were great navigators
    and adventurers, and they have contributed to the
    widening the perspectives and enhancing the
    horizons of the medieval Europeans.
  • The Magyars were swift moving Hungarian horsemen
    attacked and finally settled in Eastern Europe.

  • The Saracens (Muslims) were pirates from Northern
    Africa, plundering the coastal cities, such as
    Sicily in Southern Italy or Lombardy in
    Northeastern Italy.
  • Conclusion 9th to 10th centuries Europe was a
    formative period, and it was out of this 2nd wave
    of barbarian invasion that medieval Europeans of
    that generation had suffered, but eventually that
    a rising Europe took shape.

  • By the 10th century, Europe was on the eve of the
    High Middle Ages.
  • Causes of the recovery -- a series of
    interrelated causes (1) the barbarian invasions
    ended (2) the barbarians were settled and
    Christianized (3) there were no big
    plagues/famines, etc. (4) thus, rise of
    population and (5) arable land extended.

  • Expansion of frontiers (externally and
  • Lynn Whyte, Jr., Medieval Technology and Social
  • Robert Lopez, The Commercial Revolution of the
    Middle Ages.
  • Thus, by the 10th century, Europe was on the
    verge of a creative explosion!