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AGES OF HISTORY (part 2)

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AGES OF HISTORY (part 2) Middle Ages * * P.Trejo A serf was someone who farmed the land. Serfs had to pay rent and taxes to the nobles. P.Trejo Most people in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AGES OF HISTORY (part 2)


1
AGES OF HISTORY (part 2)
  • Middle Ages

2
Ages of History
  • Last classes its been studied that History is
    divided in Prehistory and Human History.
  • Prehistory is.
  • Human History is
  • What has marked up the beginning and end of each
    age, has been studied too.
  • Antiquity was studied too, and we found out that
    it begins with the origins of the writing
    process, and to specify a date in 776 BC with the
    First Greek Olympiads and it ends with the Fall
    of the Roman Empire (western side) in 476 AD.

3
MIDDLE AGES
  • The Middle Ages  or Medieval Ages, is a period
    from the 5th century through the 15th century. It
    starts with the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
    in 476, ends with the Fall of Constantinople in
    1453. It is the middle period among Classical
    History (Antiquity) and Modern Era. The term was
    coined in the 15th century and reflects the view
    that this period was a deviation from the path of
    classical learning, a path supposedly reconnected
    by Renaissance scholarship.

4
MIDDLE AGES
  • This period of History was marked up my several
    events and has been divided in two stages Early
    and High.
  • Early Middle Ages goes until around the 11th
    century.
  • High Middle Ages goes from that point to the Fall
    of Constantinople.

5
Early Middle Ages 476 - 1050
6
EARLY MIDDLE AGES
  • Some important events of this period are
  • The collapse of Rome
  • Kingdoms rise and migration period
  • The Rise of the European Empires
  • Feudalism
  • Christianity is spread and consolides its power
  • The Rise of Islam
  • Viking Age
  • Resurgence of Latin West

7
EARLY MIDDLE AGES
  • At the beginning of the Medieval times, the
    Western Roman Empire had fallen, Bavarian and
    other Germanic tribes had siezed Rome and what
    before use to be an organized territory in
    continuing growth, had broken down. For this
    certain historians call this period as Dark Ages.
  • Thus this age is basically an age of Europe
    History, of the several battles and depressions
    in a collapsing society.

8
Germanic Peoples
  • What occur was that the Roman empire was overran
    by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and
    constant warfare, having consequences
  • Breakdown of trade money became scarce.
  • Cities abandoned no longer center of economy
    or administration
  • Population became rural.
  • Decline of literacy priests and other church
    officials were the few that were literate.
  • Breakup of unified empire language began to
    change. No longer Latin.
  • End of Democracy

9
European Empire Evolves
  • After the decline of the Roman Empire small
    kingdoms sprang up all over Europe. Germanic
    tribes start to invade territory migrating from
    the north, occupying the cities, while the former
    Romans move to rural areas.
  • The largest and the strongest was controlled by
    the Franks
  • Lead by Clovis first Christian king
  • Area that is now France
  • Greatest king was Charlemagne
  • most powerful king in Western
  • Europe
  • encouraged learning
  • Defended the Pope

10
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11
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12
From Rome to Constantinople
  • CONSTANTINOPLE
  • (former city of Byzantium) became new capital and
    control centre for Roman Empire
  • Was largest city by population in the world west
    of China
  • Strategic location on trade routes
  • One of largest natural harbours in the world
    linked the east and west
  • Byzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main
    currency of international trade
  • Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors,
    bureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation and
    favouring of royal family and priests in trade
    and taxes

13
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14
Power of the Church
While the Roman Empire declined the Church
remained
  • Missionaries succeeded in spreading
    Christianity
  • Adapted to rural conditions by building
    monasteries religious communities
  • Rules established by Benedict
  • Became best educated communities
  • Shared belief bonded the people together
  • The church served as a stable force as well as
    social center

15
Power of the Church
  • Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and
    rituals
  • Created a system of justice to guide peoples
    conduct Cannon Law the law of the church
  • excommulgation banishment
  • interdict the denial of sacraments -
    important religious ceremonies (baptism, last
    rights)

16
The Clergy
Religious officials had different ranks within
the church structure
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18
Expanding Influence of the Church
  • Christian Church has become an important
    political, economic, spiritual and cultural force
    in Europe
  • Leading officials of Church were the Pope and
    Patriarch
  • Banning of heresy (holding beliefs that
    contradict the official religion)
  • conversion by force
  • Eventually in 11th Century, Church split into two
    independent branches Eastern Orthodox (Greek)
    based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in
    Rome

19
You scratch my back Ill scratch yours.
  • Church was granted favours by Roman Emperors /
    Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in
    courts, positions in courts) and in return the
    Church would endorse kings to help secure their
    rule
  • Kings looked to Church to supply educated
    administrators to help run kingdoms and in return
    kings would enforce laws that prohibited other
    religions

20
Monasticism and Saints
  • Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions
    and devote themselves to a religious life
  • Established between 400 -700 communities called
    monasteries which became centres of education,
    literacy and learning
  • Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of
    St. Benedict
  • Saints- one who performs miracles that are
    interpreted as evidence of a special relationship
    with God
  • St. Augustine- wrote Confessions which
    discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and
    the role of free will which shaped monastic
    tradition and the influence of Church

21
Justinian the Great (ruled 527-565 CE)
  • Byzantine Emperor
  • goal to reunite the Roman world as a Christian
    Empire and suppressed all paganism
  • Ordered the codification of Roman laws in the
    Justinian Code or Body of Civil Law that
    defined civil law in the Middle Ages and the
    modern world
  • Crushed the Nika Riot with the help of his wife
    Theodora
  • During his reign Latin was the official language
    of the Byzantine Empire, but was later changed to
    Greek (another difference between two regions)

22
Byzantine Empire in 6th Century
23
Carolingians
  • Rise of aristocratic Charles Martel who dominated
    Frankish kingdom in 8th century
  • He confiscated land given to Church and began
    Church reforms that would restore spirituality to
    clerical life
  • His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms
    and eventually with the support of reformed
    Church, removed last Merovingian king from
    throne
  • Established the Carolingian dynasty, named to
    protect thepapacy and establish the popeand
    bishops are the makers of kings
  • Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or
    Charlemagne

24
The Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne
  • Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a
    military general and restored Pope Leo III who
    had been exiled
  • In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and
    named him the Emperor of the Romans which
    secured the relationship between Frankish kings
    and the papacy
  • Charlemagne became the first ruler of the Holy
    Roman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more
    than 700 years
  • Charlemagne- imposed order on empire through the
    Church and state
  • Ordered the standardization of Latin, textbooks,
    manuals for preaching, schools for clergy and
    people, new form of handwriting
  • All these promoted education and scholars and
    produced a precise written language (Latin)

25
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26
Feudalism
Think of a chess set
27
Feudalism
Provide knights in times of war
Fiefs land grants
Military protection
Fiefs land grants
service
protection
Based on mutual obligation
28
FeudalismManors
  • The lords estate
  • The lord provided the serfs with housing,
    farmland and protection
  • Serfs tended the lands, cared for the animals,
    maintained the estate

29
FeudalismManors
  • Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from
    the manor
  • Was home to 15 30 families
  • Self-Sufficient community
  • Peasants heavily taxed, including a tithe a
    church tax of 1/10 their income

30
The feudalism was a kind of government. It was
also a way of life.
31
The nobles promised to help fight the kings
enemies.
32
The kings gave land to the nobles under him.
33
The nobles were called vassals of the king. The
vassals who fought for their king or for other
nobles were called knights.
34
A serf was someone who farmed the land. Serfs had
to pay rent and taxes to the nobles.
35
Most people in the early Middle ages lived on a
manor.
36
A small church was an important part of each
manor.
37
The church saved education from completely
disappearing after the fall of Rome.
38
Christian priests learned to read an write. All
books were handwritten.
39
The church helped keep the knowledge of Greece
and Rome from being forgotten.
40
Religious men were called monks and nuns.
41
The (Turks) followers of Islam were known as
Mores, now know as Muslims.
42
Around A.D. 1000, Muslims in Jerusalem no longer
welcomed Christians visitors. The Christians went
on several journeys to try to capture Jerusalem.
These journeys were called the Crusades.
43
Christians made a long, difficult journey to
visit Jerusalem.
44
Crusaders who returned brought treasures home
with them.
45
Vikings Attack
  • Charlemagne's empire was broken up by his
    grandsons and was soon destroyed by invaders who
    would attack by sea, raid and plunder, then be
    quickly out to sea again.
  • Vikings Germanic people called Norsemen
  • From Scandinavia
  • Worshipped warlike gods
  • Warriors, traders, farmers, and explorers

46
Birth of Modern Languages
  • Development of Middle Ages
  • New languages born through migration,
    resettlement, conflict and changes
  • Old English (Anglo Saxon) began to incorporate
    words borrowed from Latin and Old French, Old
    German and Old Norse
  • Roots of contemporary Spanish, Italian and other
    Romance languages
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