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Media%20effects

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Media effects How do the media influence us? Effects studies Early effects scholars Powerful effects theory Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion Harold Lasswell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Media%20effects


1
Media effects
  • How do the media influence us?

2
Effects studies
  • Early effects scholars
  • Powerful effects theory
  • Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion
  • Harold Lasswell, WWII propaganda
  • Bullet or hypodermic needle theory
  • Assumes that people are passive, uncritical

3
Minimalist effects theory
  • Paul Lazarsfeld, 1948
  • Two-step flow model
  • Status conferral
  • Agenda setting
  • Narcotizing dysfunction
  • Media lull people into passivity

4
Cumulative effects theory
  • Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann
  • cumulative effects theoryspiral of silence model
  • dominant view can snowball through the media
  • dominant view not sufficiently challenged
  • people fear rejection

5
Uses and gratifications studies
  • challenges to audience passivity
  • reevaluation of scholarly assumptions
  • gratifications--why people use media
  • surveillance function--scan environment for
    danger
  • socialization function--helps us maintain
    social relationships
  • parasocial relationships--artificial

6
Gratifications, cont
  • diversion function
  • stimulation
  • relaxation
  • release

7
Consistency theory
  • individual selectivity
  • selective exposure
  • we choose our media
  • selective perception
  • Walter Lippmann We do not see first and then
    define we define first and then see.
  • selective retention and recall
  • 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast

8
Socialization
  • Medias initiating role
  • by age 18, US children have watched 18,000-20,000
    hours of TV
  • children learn prosocial behavior
  • Role models--big influence
  • Stereotyping--forms images in our mind
  • Erosion of boundaries that separate
    generations--childrens exposure

9
Media-depictions of violence
  • learning about violence
  • observational learning
  • media violence--
  • a catharsis?
  • prods socially positive action?
  • teaches us the world is a scary place

10
Media violence as negative
  • Aggressive stimulation theory
  • Albert Banduras studies in 1960s
  • Zamora case
  • Bundy case
  • Deer Hunter cases
  • Catalytic theory-Schramm, Lyle, Parker
  • for some children under some conditions

11
George Gerbners Mean World Syndrome
  • Societally debilitating effects of violence
  • media world is more dangerous real world
  • desensitizing theory--more violence is necessary
    to make an impact
  • Gerbner Index since 1970s
  • 30,000 murders, 40,000 attempted murders seen on
    TV by age 18
  • give up freedom for personal safety

12
Media agenda-setting
  • creates awareness
  • establishes priorities
  • perpetuates issues
  • not what to think, but what to think about

13
Media induced anxiety and apathy
  • information overload or pollution
  • New York Times--12 million words! More info in
    one day than in a 17th century persons lifetime!
  • media induce passivity--couch potato
  • we neglect sports, neighborhood community
    activities
  • well informed futility
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