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Scientific Methods Not 1 specific formula ?


... (quantity or amount), descriptions = qualitative data (quality of ... 7. Analyze data Put into tables, charts, ... your data show support ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Methods Not 1 specific formula ?

Scientific MethodsNot 1 specific formula ?
  • I. Hypothetical Deductive Method
  • many hypothesis (ideas),
  • eliminate those without data to support them
  • actual experiment(s)
  • II. Correlation Method
  • multi variable situations
  • Use statistics and computer models to compare
    data to situations
  • ex predict the weather
  • Very common

Steps in (a) Scientific Method (Hypothetical
deductive)Used more like a flow chart than a list
  • Observation
  • Curiosity, skepticism, senses/ observations,
  • Question
  • Why? , How? , What if?
  • 3. Research
  • background information , look for an answer,
    list all possible explanations, what you already
  • 4. Hypothesis
  • If then therefore statement, cause and
    effect, educated guess, prediction, testable/
    measurable, explanation on trial claims and

Scientific method continued
  • 5. Design an Experiment
  • Independent variable manipulated
  • I/ the scientist manipulate or investigate,
  • only 1, the IF..,
  • what is being tested/varied/modified/changed by
    the researcher,
  • x axis
  • Dependent variable responding variable
  • depends on what I did (independent) plant is
    TALLER because of the fertilizer,
  • Then, what is measured/changes, y axis
  • Controls
  • everything you keep the same so that there is
    only one independent variable., comparison/ base
    line, control group

Scientific method continued
  • Collect data (during and after experiment)
  • numbers and units quantitative data (quantity
    or amount),
  • descriptions qualitative data (quality
    of something)
  • 7. Analyze data
  • Put into tables, charts, graphs, look for TRENDS
    and correlations between Ind.V and Dep. V.,
    relationships. Show work, calculations and
  • Either verify or falsify your claim with these
    steps retest, restart, restate, re-evaluate
    ask more questions and do it again. LOOPS !
  • 8. Conclusion
  • Does your data show support for your prediction.
    Accept Hypothesis or declare Null Hypothesis.
    Explain what happened, what your results were and
    where you could improve/change (error analysis is
    statistical work done to show the precision of
    your measurements)
  • Do not say Prove you didnt prove 100
    forever, you supported or eliminated, until there
    is new evidence
  • 9. Repeat/ report/ publish
  • Lab report or publication grant money, peer
    review, share results, more testing, etc.

Assignment this may be done individually or in
collaboration with a partner (BOTH write and
  • 1. on a sheet of plain paper (or your iPad)
    create a flow chart version of the steps usually
    covered in any scientific experiment.
  • 2. Read page 29 - 31 and list the steps taken by
    Rita Colwell to verify or correlate that water
    temperature is an indicator of cholera risk.
    (Might loop)
  • 3. Choose an article from the red folders
    provided and list the steps taken during a
    classic experiment (Redi, Lister, Pasteur,
    Jenner, etc)

What was the hypothesis or claim? Set up/
control group, procedure Independent
variable, dependent variable, data or results,
Conclusion/ eliminate or support
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