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Using Preventive Gerontechnology Systems to Monitor Residents Behavior for Health Services During Emergencies Dr. Robert Roush, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using

Using Preventive Gerontechnology Systems to
Monitor Residents Behavior for Health Services
During Emergencies
  • Dr. Robert Roush, Baylor College of Medicine,
    Houston, TX
  • Dr. Gloria Gutman, Simon Fraser University,
    Vancouver, BC
  • 7th World Conference of the International Society
    for Gerontechnology, Vancouver, BC
  • May 28, 2010

This educational resource was developed, in part,
with grants from the U.S. Health Resources and
Services Administration All rights reserved,
Our Wonderful World Is Also a Dangerous Place
Anthrax 2001 SARS 2003
Tsunami 2004 Bombings 2005 Hurricanes
2005 Avian Flu 2006 Swine Flu
2009 Earthquake floods 2010 Whats
next? 11
September 11, 2001
Is health care prepared? Are you?
Global Aging
  • 1.2 billion older people worldwide in 2025
  • 70 will be in developing countries
  • 1 million people turn 60 monthly worldwide now!
  • 12,000 persons in the U.S. turn age 62 daily!
  • 1st of 77 million U.S. boomers turn 65 in May

Context and Perspective GEPR
  • Older persons have altered levels of immune
  • Higher risk of infectious illness and reduced
    response to antibiotics
  • Few health care workers have had adequate
    training in disaster planning
  • Even robust elders have a greater risk in natural
  • We need all-hazards approach to geriatric
    emergency preparedness and response GEPR
  • Technology can play an important role in
    mitigating effects of disasters

Topics for This Program
  • Need for disaster training
  • Preparedness issues
  • Diagnosing treating older adults
  • Bioterrorism and emerging infections
  • Natural disasters, evacuation or shelter
  • in place
  • Communications and technology
  • Reverse alerts to PERS subscribers

Need for Local Training in GEPR
  • Heat waves France
  • Extreme cold England
  • Floods Manitoba and Nashville, TN
  • Wild fires Australia and California
  • Tsunamis S. Asia
  • Earthquakes Haiti
  • Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, and Ike!
  • Avian Influenza (H5N1), then Swine Flu (H1N1)
  • Weaponized biological agents
  • Your hometown
  • Your family
  • Your residents/patients

Need for National Training in GEPR
  • lt50 health care workers have had bioterrorism
    and emergency preparedness training, only 1 in 10
    have had geriatrics-specific training
  • Health care workers, acute and LTC
    administrators, 1st responders receivers, and
    ED staff need training in treatment and
    geroethics of triage, regardless of type of
    disaster whether natural or human-caused

Need for International Training
  • GEPR Geriatric Emergency Preparedness
    Response issues are global since 1995, heat
    waves, extreme cold, and floods in Europe plus
    earthquakes and weather-related disasters around
    the world have killed almost a million with over
    2.5 billion people affected and costing 738
    billion in US dollars .
  • Older people are always among those
    disproportionately affected.
  • The Public Health Agency of Canadas Division of
    Aging and Seniors has started a global initiative
    on GEPR issues.

Canadian-led Initiatives in GEPR PERS
  • 1st meeting of International Work Group on
    Emergency Preparedness held in Washington, D.C.,
    in 2005
  • Subsequent international conferences sponsored by
    the Public Health Agency of Canada/Division of
    Aging and Seniors held in Toronto, Winnipeg,
    Halifax, and Paris
  • Regular teleconferences of the IWG on EP
  • Research projects funded on GEPR tools used in
    LTC facilities and on use of PERS in disaster
    mitigation plans

Our Role in Emerging Threats
  • Think pre-event preparedness
  • Develop local relationships
  • Education and training
  • Communicate to our
  • patients/public
  • What is their risk?
  • What is being done to protect them?
  • How can I protect myself?
  • How can I protect my colleagues?
  • What else do we need to know?
  • Which technology can help?

RB McFee, 2004
The Disaster Cycle
What You Need to Know and Can Do Regarding
All Hazards
  • What is the threat?
  • What are the vulnerabilities?
  • What special geriatric preparedness issues need
    to be addressed?
  • What needs to be done?
  • What can we do now?
  • conduct community risk assessments
  • train, train, train
  • empower seniors
  • take preventive actions
  • use communications and technology

Understanding, Diagnosing, and Treating Older
Common Age-Related Changes
  • Homeostatic ?s
  • Baroreceptors postural, hypo-
  • tension, syncope
  • Thermoregulation hypothermia
  • cardiac reserve fluid overload
  • Renal perfusion nocturia, drug
  • toxicity
  • Barrier ?s
  • Skin thinner barrier with reduced blood flow
  • Lungs less active cough reflex
  • Stomach reduced gastric acid
  • CNS absence of fever

Older People Show Less Response to Severe
  • Clinical Features by Age
  • 20-49 50-64 65
  • Unclear History 12 23 44
  • Temp lt100 9 15 29
  • Peak Temp 104 103 102
  • WBClt10,000 26 40 34
  • Mortality 14 32 44
  • Patients with pneumoccocal infection where the
    bacteria grew from their blood.
  • gt65 were more frequently without fevers, had
    lower peak temperature, and had higher mortality.
  • Screening for infection in older people cant
    have absolute temperature cutoff many will be
  • Less response does not mean less severe

Gleckman, 1981, Chassagne, 1996
Human-caused Disasters BNICE
  • Biological weapons
  • Nuclear/radionuclides
  • Incendiary devices
  • Chemical agents
  • Explosive materials

Source RB McFee, 2004
Natural Disasters
  • Basic needs shelter, fuel, clothing, bedding,
    household items
  • Mobility incapacity, transport
  • Health access to services appropriate food,
    water, sanitation psychosocial needs
  • Family and social separation, dependents,
    changes in social structure, loss of status
  • Economic and legal income, information,

Source HelpAge International. 2001. Older
People in Disasters and Humanitarian Disasters
for Best Practice. Available online as a pdf
file http//
Emerging Infections SARS in Toronto
  • Outbreak of SARS, early March 2003 1st case
    diagnosed March 13, peaked mid-March
    resurgence early May with peak in mid-May
    ended mid-June
  • March 28th Baycrest received a directive (Code
    Orange) to take SARS prevention measures
  • gt15,000 persons underwent voluntary quarantine in
    greater Toronto area
  • 44 deaths,100 health care workers infected, 3

M. Gordon, 2006
Preparedness Issues

The Four Pillars of GEPR
  • Mitigation identifying threats and resources,
    taking preventive actions
  • Preparedness planning, training exercises
  • Response acting decisively with Incident
    Command structure
  • Recovery getting back to normal, feeling safe
    again, analyzing response mode for next event
  • Key How many health professionals have been
    trained for disasters where you live?

Natural vs. Human-caused Disasters
  • Similar concerns for frail elders whose lives are
    disrupted by hurricanes, floods, wild fires,
    power outages
  • Could experience interruption of home care
    services if damage is widespread and large
    numbers of people are affected i.e., their
    informal caregivers
  • Even robust elders are affected more than younger
    people in times of natural disasters
  • Same concerns for making people feel safe again
  • Evacuation vs. shelter-in-place decisions
  • Source Fernandez, LS, et al., Prehosp Disast
    Med 200217(2)67-74

Roles and Responsibilities Pre-event Public
Health Emergency
  • Public Health
  • Disease surveillance
  • Respond to outbreaks
  • Investigation
  • Control and prevention
  • Laboratory support
  • Participate in planning activities
  • Training
  • Assess for communications technology
  • Hospitals Health Care Workers
  • Disease reporting
  • Immediately notify public health of unusual
    group expressions of illness or outbreaks
  • State laboratory utilization
  • Participate in planning activities
  • Exercise plans
  • Training
  • Know where frail elders live and what their
    special needs are

D. Lakey, 2004
Roles and ResponsibilitiesDuring a Public
Health Emergency
  • Hospitals Health Care Workers
  • Implement notification protocols
  • Activate staff
  • Implement response plans/guidelines
  • Coordinate efforts with public health
  • Provide care
  • Coordinate health-related information
  • public health officials
  • citizens
  • media outlets
  • check on communications with elders

D. Lakey, 2004
Roles and Responsibilities Post-Event Public
Health Emergency
  • Public Health, Hospitals Health Care Workers
  • Evaluate response
  • Review after-action reports
  • Coordinate/implement changes to plans and
  • Implement recovery plans
  • Determine if communications technology worked

D. Lakey, 2004
Overview of American Society on Aging Article in
Healthcare and Aging
  • 1st step knowing where our frail elders are
    before, during, and after disaster
  • 2nd step training frontline health care
    providers on how older people present differently
  • 3rd step teaching all-hazards approach on
    physical, mental, and psycho-social issues
  • 4th step ensuring that providers know about
    culturally and linguistically appropriate
    communication strategies and services
  • 5th step making sure health care providers and
    older persons are involved in planning for such
    practical considerations as evacuations,
    shelters, and receiving emergency alerts

Communications and Resources
Challenges to Aging in Place
  • Gerontechnology can be used to assess
  • Expensive smart homes to inexpensive devices
  • Activities of Daily Living Reporting Systems
  • e-ADLRS gather data on elders routine home
  • Wireless motion and light sensors upload data
  • Establishes baseline, looks for marked changes
  • Clients sent reports via website, e-mail or
  • Possible problems checked out sooner
  • Receiving reverse alerts from PERS in

PERS Helps Elders.
  • Live safer and more independently in their
    homes longer by
  • Alerting caregivers to emerging problems,
    thereby reducing risks
  • of hospitalization
  • Providing circle of safety via e-ADLRS
    integrating PERS
  • motion sensor monitoring bi-directional
    communications 24/7
  • Recognizing and better understanding
    resident/patient condition
  • Facilitating eldercare agencies to fill gaps in
    coverage and direct
  • care where most needed
  • Reducing anxiety of and burden on family
  • Mitigating effects of disasters

Indications for Smart Home Technology
  • What are the leading medical indications CVD,
  • frequent faller, recent hospitalization?
  • What are the main social indications living
  • no informal caregivers nearby, cant afford
    in-home help?
  • What criteria should be used in writing an
  • Rx for e-ADLRS monitoring?
  • Is the SmartHT bundled with a reverse-alert

Smart Home Technology for Telecare

Only required information leaves home

  • Congregant care communities are where
  • the density of elders at risk is far higher
  • among community dwelling elders
  • 24/7 emergency response and motion-by-
  • locus monitoring systems help mitigate risks
  • of elders harmed in disasters when systems
  • have bi-directional communications capability
  • Mitigation requires interoperability between
  • caregivers, both at a distance and those on
  • site

Funded Study on PERS in GEPR
  • DAS contracted with Sandra P. Hirst, RN, PhD,
    GNC(C), Director,
  • Brenda Strafford Centre for Excellence in
    Gerontological Nursing,
  • University of Calgary, for a 3-phase
    environmental scan to determine
  • the state of PERS services used to mitigate
    harm to elders in disasters
  • 1. Literature scan on general uses of technology
    in personal and large
  • scale emergency settings to understand key
    technical and non-
  • technical considerations and hence criteria
    for studys assessment
  • 2. Detailed survey of North American PERS
    providers, to understand
  • product capabilities and variations in
    technologies, target clients, and
  • patterns of communication
  • 3. Contacted PERS providers to obtain company
    assessments of
  • the actual and potential benefits of their
    systems in disaster settings

Assumptions of Study on PERS GEPR
  • PERS system support in disasters settings would
    have these minimum capabilities
  • Be able to reach all the targeted individuals
  • Allow broadcast of specific messages to a
    targeted set of individuals
  • Permit local authorities to provide messages for
  • Putative benefits of PERS systems for disaster
    situations were these
  • PERS have databases of client information,
    including medical information and
  • chains of contacts for both caregivers or
    family and the entire caregiver network
  • PERS technology designed to accommodate older
    adults with special needs,
  • e.g., large buttons, lights or audio
    accessories for those with hearing impairment
  • PERS technology is accessible to and accepted by
    older adults and
  • communications/systems infrastructure is in

Results of Study on PERS GEPR
  • SWOT analysis of 28 PERS companies revealed
  • PERS communications systems are not generally
    designed for mass broadcast
  • PERS on-person alert devices are usually not
    designed for incoming notices
  • Geographic coverage is fragmented a
  • region may be covered by multiple PERS providers,
    resulting in even greater difficulty for local a
    authority to distribute messages
  • No existing channels for local authorities to
    communicate with PERS providers

Recommendations for PERS use in Disasters
  • Demographics
  • Assess percentage of seniors using PERS to
    solicit response in personal medical
  • emergencies and coverage of providers
  • Plan for next generation of seniors or their
    caregivers who will be looking for
  • PERS with such enhanced capabilities as
    wide-area coverage, global positioning
  • Technical aspects
  • How can current technologies such as GPS, and
    cellular voice data services be
  • packaged into simple, effective devices
    easily usable by seniors with a variety of
  • age-related limitations?
  • What data flows will be needed between PERS and
    other agencies so PERS can
  • participate as fully as possible in an
    overall disaster management setting?
  • Non-technical aspects
  • What information security, privacy, and
    regulation considerations are needed for
  • private companies to play key roles in
    overall disaster management?

Center for Aging Services Technologies CAST

CAST Members with Reverse Alert Capability
  • CAST director Majd Alwan, PhD, in a personal
    communication on May 14, 2010, stipulated that,
    to his knowledge, only two PERS companies have
    reverse alert capability ltmalwan_at_agingtech.orggt.
  • Touchtowns e-Notify system was recently used to
    warn residents
  • of Holley Creek Retirement Community near
    Denver, CO, to take
  • appropriate action as they were in the path
    of a tornado.
  • http//
  • Wellcores bi-directional communication
    capability converts text messages to voice,
    forwarding them to residents regarding up-coming
    events. While not used yet for disaster messages,
    the on the go feature uses GPS with compatible
    mobile phones to locate residents should they
    leave the facility for any reason.

Touchtowns e-Notify System

Touchtown Command Center Showing Location of
Unit Acknowledging OK

Wellcores Bi-directional Communications

Wellcores On-the-Go Feature Uses GPS and
Residents Mobile Phones

Online Resources 1
  • Center for Aging Services Technologies (CAST)
  • http//
  • International Community on Information Systems
  • for Crisis Response and Management
  • WHO Report, A Safer Future Global
  • Public Health Security in the 21st Century
  • http//

Online Resources 2
  • Decision-making Criteria for Evacuation of
    Nursing Homes
  • http//
  • GAO Report on Evacuation of Hospitals and Nursing
    Homes Due to Hurricanes
  • http//
  • Older people in disasters and humanitarian
    crises Guidelines for Best Practice
  • http//

Online Resources 3
  • Public Health Agency of Canada Pandemic Flu
  • Plan
  • http//
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human
  • Services Disasters and Emergencies
  • http//
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
  • Prevention - Pandemic and Avian Flu

Online Resources 4
  • U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and
  • Disaster Response Tools and Resources
  • http//
  • U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
  • Management Resource Centers
  • http//
  • Baylor College of Medicine American Medical
  • Association Best Practices for Managing
  • Disaster Victims
  • http//

  • Healthcare workers must have mitigation training
  • for all disasters, natural human-caused
  • HCWs need to have training for each vulnerable
  • population the young, the old, the
  • HCWs need to remember that were always in the
  • pre-event mode of the next disaster
  • GEPR planning frequent exercises required
  • Need reverse alert capability via PERS

Smart Homes of the Future Aging Trekkie
Welcomes R2D2

Contact Information for GEPR/PERS Issues
  • Dr. Robert E. Roush
  • Huffington Center on Aging
  • Baylor College of Medicine
  • One Baylor Plaza, MS230
  • Houston, Texas 77030
  • (713) 798-4611