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Title: Becoming a World Power Author: Linda Ashley Last modified by: Linda Ashley Created Date: 3/20/2011 1:26:07 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Standard:


1
  • Standard
  • 7. Identify on a map places related to the
    historic events studied and explain their
    significance
  • 10. Analyze how culture has contributed to
    cooperation and conflict within and between
    regions of the world
  • 14. Demonstrate knowledge of the development of
    Imperialism
  • 24. Explain the different methods countries use
    to resolve conflicts
  • Diplomacy
  • Treaties
  • Military involvement
  • 37. Identify the relationships the United States
    has with major countries and how these affect
    foreign and economic policies

2
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3
Imperialism
  • Building an empire by founding colonies or
    conquering other nations

4
Reasons for Imperialism
  • A source of raw materials and new markets
  • Reduced competition
  • A duty to spread religion and culture

5
  • Between 1870 and 1914, European nations
    controlled most of Africa and southern Asia

6
Two Mindsets in America
Isolationism
Expansionism
7
Isolationism
  • Avoiding involvement in the affairs of other
    countries.
  • steer clear of permanent alliances
  • -- George Washington

8
Expansionism
  • America should press westward and extend its
    national boundaries.
  • The United States is a rising empire
  • -- George Washington

9
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10
Samoa
  • The United States, Germany, and Great Britain
    wanted control of Samoa
  • The United States and Germany split Samoa

11
William Seward
  • 1867
  • Persuaded Congress to annex Midway

12
Sewards Folly
  • 1867 - Seward bought Alaska from Russia for 7.2
    million
  • Twice the size of Texas, for two cents an acre
  • Many felt it foolish to buy such a barren land

13
  • Alaska was rich in timber, copper and gold
  • today it is an important source of petroleum and
    natural gas.

14
Hawaii
  • 1820s
  • the first American missionaries arrived
  • To convert Hawaiians to Christianity
  • They raised sugarcane
  • 1875 signed a treaty to allow Hawaiian sugar to
    be shipped duty-free to the U.S.

15
  • Later American planters arrived, built
    plantations, gained power
  • Forced the Hawaiian king to write a new Hawaiian
    constitution
  • Known as the Bayonet Constitution
  • Granted more power to the planters

16
Queen Liliuokalani (lih lee oo oh kah LAH nee)
  • Resented the power of American planters
  • Proposed a new constitution
  • To return power to the monarchy

17
  • 1893 The planters revolted
  • The Ambassador called for Marine protection
  • They toppled the Queen
  • Formed a new government
  • In 1898 Congress voted to annex the Hawaiian
    Islands

18
  • Our interference in the Hawaiian Revolution in
    1893 was a disgrace I am ashamed
  • -- Grover Cleveland
  • Hawaii became a territory in 1900, then a state
    in 1959.

19
America and Foreign Trade
  • We traded with Europe, China, and the
    Philippines.
  • For hundreds of years Japan had closed its doors
  • The U.S. wanted to open trade with Japan before
    Europeans arrived

20
Matthew Perry
  • 1853 Perry was sent to Japan by President
    Millard Fillmore
  • Japanese ordered him to leave

21
Opening Trade with Japan
  • In 1845 Perry returned to Japan with seven
    warships
  • The presence of U.S. power persuaded Japanese
    officials to open trade with the U.S.

22
Japan Becomes a World Power
  • 1894 to 1895 Japan defeated China in the
    Sino-Japanese War
  • Gained territory, trading privileges

23
  • 1904 - Japan attacked Russian forces in China
  • President Theodore Roosevelt helped negotiate a
    peace treaty to end the Russo Japanese war

24
Spheres of Influence
  • Areas where foreign nations controlled resources
  • Germany, Great Britain, France, Japan, and Russia
    all took control of areas within China

25
  • The United States feared it would be barred from
    trading in China.

26
Open Door Policy
  • Secretary of State John Hay urged an Open Door
    Policy in China
  • Any nation could trade in the spheres of
    influence of other nations

27
The Boxer Rebellion
  • 1900 Some Chinese (called Boxers) were opposed
    to foreign influence in China
  • They attacked foreigners in China
  • 200 foreigners were killed
  • An international army entered China and crushed
    the rebellion

28
A New World Power
  • Some nations saw the rebellion as an excuse to
    seize more land
  • Hay urged China independence
  • Other nations agreed
  • The US gains influence in world affairs

29
  • Review
  • Pg 696 1a-c, 2a-c,3a-c

30
Competition of Newspapers
  • Joseph Pulitzer
  • and
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • In fierce competition for readers

31
Yellow Journalism
  • Writing sensational stories, often biased or
    untrue, printed to sell newspapers

32
Spanish American War
  • http//www.history.com/videos/roosevelt-fights-in-
    spanish-american-warthe-confederacys-last-stand

33
Spain in the Caribbean
  • Spain controlled Cuba and Puerto Rico
  • 1868 - the Cubans rebelled
  • They burned sugar cane fields and mills, and
    moved ½ million Cubans into detention camps
  • 100,000 or more Cuban civilians died from
    starvation and disease

34
Sinking of the Maine
  • Fighting broke out in Havana
  • McKinley sent the Maine to protect American
    Citizens
  • Feb. 15, 1898
  • an explosion ripped through the ship killing 266
    sailors and officers
  • The cause of the explosion remains a mystery

35
  • Joseph Pulitzers World
  • Randolph Hearsts New York Journal

36
War Fever
  • Two American magazines compete to print stories
    blaming Spain
  • Remember the Maine became a rallying cry for
    angry Americans

37
President McKinley
  • Requested 50 million to prepare for war
  • Congress approved
  • April 20 Congress declares Cuba independent
  • Demanded Spain to leave

38
Teller Amendment
  • Stated that the United States had no interest in
    taking control of Cuba
  • Spain responded by declaring war on the United
    States

39
On April 25, 1898 Congress declared war on Spain
40
Spanish-American War
  • Lasted four months
  • Stretched to the Philippine Islands

41
Philippines
  • Attention was focused on Cuba, but
  • Filipinos were also rebelling against Spanish
    rule
  • When war was declared Commodore George Dewey
    sailed to Manila, the Spanish naval base
  • At dawn he said, You may fire when you are
    ready, Gridley.
  • By noon, the Spanish fleet had been destroyed

42
  • U.S. troops with Filipino rebels led by Emilio
    Aguinaldo took control of Manila, Capital of the
    Philippines

43
War in the Caribbean
  • The U.S. Army landed 280,000 troops in Cuba
  • Without enough rifles or bullets
  • With woolen uniforms (in a tropical climate)
  • 2,000 died of deadly diseases
  • 400 were killed in battle

44
Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders
  • A group of volunteer soldiers
  • (Native Americans, college athletes, cowboys,
    miners, and ranchers)
  • Stories of their heroism reached America

45
Santiago Bay
  • The Spanish Fleet was destroyed and Spain
    surrendered
  • American troops then landed on Spanish held
    Puerto Rico and claimed the island

46
Peace Treaty
  • Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines are
    under U.S. control

47
Anti-Imperialist League
  • A group that opposed the treaty and the creation
    of an American colonial empire
  • The treaty denied self government to the people
    living in the territories

48
  • John Hay
  • Its been a splendid little war.
  • War veteran I was lucky I survived.

49
Cuba
  • U.S. allowed Cuba to write their own
    constitution, but . .
  • Included the Platt Amendment
  • Limited Cubas right to make treaties
  • Allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs
  • Required Cuba to sell land to the U.S.
  • Guantanamo Bay

50
Puerto Rico
  • The U.S. made the island a territory
  • Foraker Act of 1900
  • Established a civil government in Puerto Ricans
  • 1917 the Jones Act gave Puerto Ricans U.S.
    citizenship
  • Another 30 years would pass before Puerto Ricans
    could elect their own governor

51
Philippines
  • Spain surrendered the Philippines for 20 million
  • Filipino rebels had expected independence
  • They helped the U.S. forces to capture Manila
  • The U.S. decided to keep the islands

52
Filipino War for Independence
  • Filipinos fought for their freedom, and lost
  • Ruled similar to Puerto Rico, but no citizenship
  • 1946 - U.S. allowed Filipinos to govern themselves

53
  • Review
  • Pg 702 1ab, 2ab

54
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55
Panama Canal
56
  • http//www.history.com/videos/guts--bolts-panama-c
    anal---locksguts--bolts-panama-canal---locks

57
President Theodore Roosevelt
  • Determined to build a canal through the Isthmus
    of Panama

58
Building the Panama Canal
  • Between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea
  • A trip from west to east would be 8,000 shorter
  • Would link naval fleets

59
Revolution in Panama
  • The Isthmus of Panama was part of Columbia
  • Columbia wouldnt lease
  • Panama revolted against Columbia and won
  • Became an independent country

60
  • Roosevelt sent Hay to negotiate with Panama and
    offer
  • 10 million in cash, plus
  • 250,000 a year rent

61
Challenges in Building the Canal
  • Challenges
  • Swamps
  • Tropical diseases carried by mosquitoes
  • Malaria
  • Yellow fever
  • Tropical heat
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Solutions
  • Drain swamps
  • Spray insecticide and spread oil to kill
    mosquitoes

62
More Challenges
  • 4,000 workers
  • Blasted through mountains
  • Widened the river and created the largest
    artificial lake in the world
  • Built up gigantic locks to raise and lower ships

63
How a Canal Lock Works
  • http//gcaptain.com/miraflores-lock-panama-canal-t
    imelapse-video/?2369
  • http//www.haworth-village.org.uk/nature/how/canal
    -lock.asp

64
Opening the Canal
  • The Panama Canal was finally opened to ships on
    August 15, 1914 it linked the Atlantic and
    Pacific oceans.

65
Benefits and Drawbacks
  • Ship goods cheaply to South America and Asia
  • But . . .
  • Latin American nations were bitter about how the
    U.S. gained control of the canal

66
Big Stick Diplomacy
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick you will go
    far.
  • -- Theodore Roosevelt
  • Meaning U.S. military force to protect U.S.
    interests in Latin America

67
Europe and Latin America
  • European banks made loans to Latin American
    countries
  • Some refused to pay the debt
  • Roosevelt wanted them to pay their debts, but
  • Did not want Europeans to intervene in Latin
    America
  • It would violate the Monroe Doctrine
  • Threaten U.S. power in the area

68
Roosevelt Corollary
  • An addition to the Monroe Doctrine
  • Warned that in cases of wrongdoing by Latin
    American countries, the United States might
    exercise international police power.

69
Dollar Diplomacy
  • Influencing governments through economic, not
    military, intervention
  • President William Howard Taft
  • substitute dollars for bullets.
  • Urged bankers to invest in Latin America

70
Moral Diplomacy
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • The U.S. has a moral obligation to promote
    democracy in Latin America

71
Mexico
  • America had invested 1 billion to develop mines,
    oil wells, railroads, and ranches
  • Most Mexicans were poor, which led to discontent

72
Mexican Revolution
  • 1910 - Mexicans revolted against the harsh rule
    of dictator Porfirio Dias
  • 1914 - Wilson learned of a German ship bringing
    weapons to Mexico

73
  • Wilson ordered the navy to seize Veracruz

74
Francisco Pancho Villa
  • Mexican rebel leader
  • Took 17 Americans off a train and shot them
  • Raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and
    killed 18 Americans

75
General John J. Pershing
  • 1916 Sent to Mexico with an army of thousands
    to capture Pancho Villa
  • Pershing failed
  • Wilson recalled the troops

76
Americas New World Role
  • Kept troops and ships in Latin America and Asia
  • Had business interests around the world
  • Could no longer ignore the war in Europe that had
    raged since 1914

77
  • Review
  • Pg 709 1a-c, 2ab,3ab

78
  • Next up

79
  • Evaluation
  • Ch 22 test
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