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Introduction to Climate: Overview

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Introduction to Climate: Overview Radiation Pathways and Budget (342 W/m2 is the total Solar 1,370 W/m2 averaged over the Earths Surface) Seasonal Radiation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Climate: Overview


1
Introduction to Climate Overview
2
Radiation Pathways and Budget (342 W/m2 is the
total Solar 1,370 W/m2 averaged over the Earths
Surface)
3
Seasonal Radiation
4
Solar Radiation Drives the Large Scale Flow
5
Unequal Distribution of Solar Radiation,
compounded by reflection
WATER
6
Atmospheric Temperature Profile US Standard
Atmosphere.
Cirrus cloud level. High cold clouds, visible
optical depth range 0.001 to 10, emits IR to
surface in the IR window.
From Liou
7
SOLAR ALBEDO OF VARIOUS SURFACES
8
Distribution of Radiation
9
Global Climate Models The Job
10
Global Climate Models The DOE ARM PROGRAM
  • Mission Statement
  • The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) ARM
    Climate Research Facility (ACRF) has been
    designated a national user facility for the
    purpose of providing this unique asset for the
    study of global change to the broader national
    and international research community. Research at
    this facility will include the study of
    alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans
    or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry,
    and ecological systems that may alter the
    capacity of the Earth to sustain life. Global
    change research also includes the study,
    monitoring, assessment, prediction, and
    information management activities to describe and
    understand
  • The interactive physical, chemical, and
    biological processes that regulate the total
    Earth system
  • The unique environment that the Earth provides
    for life
  • The changes that are occurring in the Earth
    system and the environment and how these changes
    are influenced by human actions.

11
Simple Model for Earths Atmosphere
12
Simple Surface Temperature Calculation Assuming
Solar Absorption only at the surface, IR emission
by the atmosphere and Earths surface, and IR
absorption by the Atmosphere.
S0 1376 W/m2Solar Irradiance at the TOA and
?Stefan-Boltzmann constant
13
Solar Radiation Components Direct beam, total,
and diffuse irradiance.
Sun image (NRL) from SKYLAB, 1973, 304 nm.
http//solardat.uoregon.edu/SolarRadiationBasics.h
tml
Direct Beam Irradiance (detector normal to sun
rays) like measuring laser irradiance. Total
Irradiance, also called Global Irradiance, direct
diffuse (detector horizontal) Diffuse
Irradiance (detector horizontal)
14
Mauna Loa Hawaii on a relatively clear day
BlueDirect Beam Irradiance (detector normal to
sun rays) YellowTotal Irradiance, direct
diffuse (detector horizontal) OrangeDiffuse
Irradiance (detector horizontal) GREENDiffu
se Longwave irradiance from the atmosphere.
http//cmdl1.cmdl.noaa.gov8000/www/all/rad/
15
Mauna Loa Hawaii on a partly cloudy day
BlueDirect Beam Irradiance (detector normal to
sun rays) YellowTotal Irradiance, direct
diffuse (detector horizontal) OrangeDiffuse
Irradiance (detector horizontal) GREENDiffu
se Longwave irradiance from the atmosphere.
http//cmdl1.cmdl.noaa.gov8000/www/all/rad/
16
Boulder CO on a relatively clear day
BlueDirect Beam Irradiance (detector normal to
sun rays) YellowTotal Irradiance, direct
diffuse (detector horizontal) OrangeDiffuse
Irradiance (detector horizontal) GREENDiffu
se Longwave irradiance from the atmosphere.
http//cmdl1.cmdl.noaa.gov8000/www/all/rad/
17
Boulder CO on a partly cloudy day
BlueDirect Beam Irradiance (detector normal to
sun rays) YellowTotal Irradiance, direct
diffuse (detector horizontal) OrangeDiffuse
Irradiance (detector horizontal) GREENDiffu
se Longwave irradiance from the atmosphere.
http//cmdl1.cmdl.noaa.gov8000/www/all/rad/
18
William Ruddiman, The Ruddiman Hypothesis.
The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Emissions Era Began
8 Thousands of Years Ago for CO2 and 3 Thousand
years ago for CH4. These emissions have
prevented North America and Europe from
experiencing 3 to 4 C cooling and an ice in North
East Canada. Agriculture would be difficult
without these emissions. CO2 comes from burning,
and CH4 (swamp gas) comes from the decomposition
of vegetation in standing water (rice fields,
wetlands, soon the tundra). Much CH4 is stored
as methane-ice in the ocean. Belching animals
also make CH4.
It is a good thing that we saved ourselves from
the ice age. Too much of a good thing could
cook us. Should we slow our pace of fossil fuel
use to better spread our effects over time?
William Ruddiman is a marine geologist. He
received his PhD from Columbia University, and is
currently Professor Emeritus of Environmental
Sciences at the University of Virginia. He was
the Chair of this department from 1993 -1996.
Prior to this, he was a senior research scientist
at the Lamont-Doherty Observatory in New York, a
program associate with the National Science
Foundation, and a Senior Scientist/Oceanographer
with the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office in
Maryland
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From Scientific American, March 2005, Ruddimans
article.
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THE CARBON CYCLE WHERE DOES CO2 GO???
CARBON RESERVOIRS (GIGATONS)
C Exchange Rate
25
CLIMATE DATA PUBLISHED ON THE IPCC WEBSITE
  • Recognizing the problem of potential global
    climate change, the World Meteorological
    Organization (WMO) and the United Nations
    Environment Programme (UNEP) established the
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    in 1988. It is open to all members of the ?UN and
    WMO.
  • The role of the IPCC is to assess on a
    comprehensive, objective, open and transparent
    basis the scientific, technical and
    socio-economic information relevant to
    understanding the scientific basis of risk of
    human-induced climate change, its potential
    impacts and options for adaptation and
    mitigation. The IPCC does not carry out research
    nor does it monitor climate related data or other
    relevant parameters. It bases its assessment
    mainly on peer reviewed and published
    scientific/technical literature.
  • See http//www.ipcc.ch/present/graphics.htm

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IR IMAGE OF GULF STREAM OCEAN CURRENT
See http//marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/sat_data/
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