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Title: The%20Louisiana%20Purchase;%20A%20Clash%20of%20Cultures;%20New%20Land,%20New%20Beginnings


1
The Louisiana Purchase A Clash of Cultures New
Land, New Beginnings
2
The Louisiana Purchase
3
  • Napoleon Bonaparte seized power in France at the
    end of the French Revolution in 1799 and he set
    out to conquer the world. He wanted to restore
    the French Empire in North America and persuaded
    Spain to give up Louisiana Spain to give up
    Louisiana. President Thomas Jefferson was
    alarmed to learn that France would control New
    Orleans. After a failed attempt to gain control
    of the Mississippi because of a yellow fever
    epidemic, Napoleon agreed to sell the territory
    and New Orleans for 15 million. The United
    States bought some 600 million acres for about 4
    cents an acre. Congress first created two
    territories Oklahoma was part of the District
    of Louisiana

4
Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
  • In 1803, President Jefferson asked Congress to
    fund an expedition that would cross the Louisiana
    territory. Jefferson was very interested in
    learning about the geography of the West, the
    people, plants, animals, soil, rocks, and
    weather. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were
    in command of an expedition for which 2,500 was
    appropriated (set aside). The expedition, known
    as the Corpse of Discovery, traveled over 4,000
    miles by water and land to reach the Pacific
    Ocean. They returned with an enormous amount of
    information.

5
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6
  • The Sparks Expedition Jefferson wanted another
    expedition to firmly establish the boundary
    between Spain and the United States. Jefferson
    told the explorers to take detailed notes and to
    let the Native Americans know that there was a
    Great Father in Washington. Sparks was
    confronted by a large Spanish Army and forced to
    turn back.

7
  • The Pikes-Wilkinson Expedition - Zebulon M. Pike
    joined the army and became the protégé (young
    person who receives experienced guidance) of
    James Wilkinson. In 1805, Pike was ordered to
    explore the upper Mississippi River. Then, he was
    sent to explore the Arkansas and Red Rivers and
    make contact with the various tribes. Pike left
    St. Louis and went up the Mississippi River with
    23 men plus 51 Osage he was escorting to their
    villages. At the Arkansas River, Wilkinson, 5
    privates, and an Osage Guide left Pike to explore
    the river. Pike continued west toward the Rocky
    Mountains and arrived at the peak named for him.
    Pike and his men were arrested by a Spanish
    patrol and held until July 1807.

8
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9
  • The Sibley Expedition Salt, essential in diets
    and to preserve food and tan hides, was a
    valuable commodity (article of trade). Jefferson
    was intent on learning more about the rumored
    salt mountains on the Plains. In 1811, he sent
    Native American agent, George Champlin Sibley, to
    make friends and allies with the Natives and find
    the salt mountains. They came to an area that was
    glistening like a brilliant field of snow in the
    summer sun. Sibley called the 20 mile area of
    the Great Saline and described it as 2-6 inches
    of clean, pure salt.

10
  • The Long Expedition Stephen H. Long traveled
    26,000 miles in five expeditions, two of which
    ventured into Oklahoma. The War Department
    decided to establish a military post on the
    western boundary of the Arkansas territory to
    address the growing hostilities between the Osage
    and other tribes. Major Long had the job of
    finding a suitable site. He selected Belle
    Pointe, where the Arkansas and Red Rivers
    converge, for the post that became Fort Smith in
    1817. He then explored parts of eastern Oklahoma.

11
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12
  • The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
  • Spain sold Florida for 5 million border between
    Louisiana and Texas was established as the west
    bank of the Sabine River Spains northern border
    was the south bank of the Red River Spain gave
    up its claims to the Oregon Territory
  • In 1819, Major William Bradford, from the Fort
    Smith post, had orders to expel people who were
    in eastern Oklahoma illegally many of these were
    renegades (deserters) or fugitives. The noted
    botanist Thomas Nuttall joined. He studied plants
    and animals along the rivers and in the mountains
    of eastern Oklahoma. He wrote about his
    experiences in the area in the Journal of
    Travels into the Arkansas Territory

13
The Three Forks Area
  • Americans continued moving west. Fort Smith was
    established in 1817 that same year, two
    Americans, Robert M. French and Samuel M.
    Rutherford, started a trading post on the
    Verdigris River a few miles north of present-day
    Muskogee. In the next few years, more and more
    American traders came into the area. Brothers
    Pierre and Auguste Chouteau had a large trading
    operation.
  • Waterways were extremely important to early
    commerce, and trading posts were located near
    them. When water levels were high, rivers were
    the best way to travel. Indians used either rafts
    or dugout canoes (pirogues) made from trees found
    along the streams. Canoes carrying light loads
    were ideal for navigating through the narrowest
    waterways. Canoes helped move produce and deer,
    bear, otter, beaver, and buffalo skins to the
    Three Forks trading area and to the military
    posts Fort Gibson and Fort Smith.

14
  • The location just northeast of present-day
    Muskogee where three major rivers the Arkansas,
    Verdigris, and Grand joined (called the Three
    Forks area) soon became the hub of trading
    activity. Trappers and hunters used the trading
    posts in the area to stock up on supplies and
    sell furs. The Osage brought furs, fowl, wild
    honey, bear oil, and buffalo robes to trade for
    beads, blankets, knives, trinkets, and cloth.
    Nathaniel Pryor, a member of the Lewis and Clark
    expedition, opened a small trading post in the
    area. Colonel A.P. Chouteau and partner Joseph
    Revoir established the Osage Outfit trading post
    just north of Saline Creek. When Revoir and his
    Osage wife were killed by a band of Cherokees in
    1821 Chouteau moved from St. Louis to take over
    operations of the post.
  • 1830s, game was becoming scarce and the fur trade
    was slowing in eastern Oklahoma. Contrary to
    earlier reports of Oklahoma being unfit for
    agriculture, products like salt lead, pecans, and
    grain shipped out of the Three Forks area were
    certainly agriculture related.

15
Red River trading Post
16
Opening Trade Routes
  • In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain.
    Traders to the north hoped this would open up
    trade with Santa Fe and other settlements. Glenn
    and Pryor set north into Kansas and followed the
    Arkansas River into southeastern Colorado. They
    found excellent trading in the Pueblo area and
    returned to St. Louis when they had more furs
    then they could carry.
  • About the same time, William Becknell, a Missouri
    trader, left with a caravan headed for Santa Fe.
    The route Becknell took became known as the Santa
    Fe Trail hundreds followed this route.

17
River - Pirogues
18
Treaties
  • President Jefferson wanted to tie the Indian
    nations to the United States with treaties,
    partly to help assure the security of the new
    country. Jefferson intended to gain land and
    trade and keep the Indian tribes as allies of the
    US and not any European country. He hoped the
    treaties would encourage the Native Americans to
    adopt the European way of life, shifting from
    hunting to farming. While others felt they were
    inferior, Jefferson believed they could
    Americanize

19
New States
  • When Louisiana became a state, the territory
    including Oklahoma was renamed the Missouri
    Territory. Missouri Compromise Missouri was
    admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted
    as a free state. Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott
    decision

20
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21
Early Migrations
  • For years, many Native Americans tribes had found
    the land of Oklahoma ideal for hunting and
    trading, despite some calling it desert. Tribes
    sometimes moved from one area to another to find
    better food sources or to escape enemy tribes. An
    average territory or roaming area for many Plains
    Indians was 500 to 800 miles. Early on Oklahoma
    was included in the roaming area of several
    tribes.
  • The Wichita tribe had relocated from the northern
    part of Oklahoma to the southern Red River Valley
    partly to escape their hated enemy, the Osage.

22
  • Some Caddo were also living along the Red River
    in southeastern Oklahoma. The sociable,
    industrious tribe was known for its use of sign
    language, which had been developed to facilitate
    trade with other tribes.
  • The Kiowa tribe drifted to the Central Plains
    where they fought the Comanche. In the late
    1700s, the two tribes became allies. In 1833,
    Osage warriors attacked a Kiowa camp in
    southwestern Oklahoma killing some 150 Kiowa in
    what is now called the Cutthroat Massacre. The
    Osage lived between the Missouri River and the
    Arkansas River which includes northeastern
    Oklahoma.
  • Some Shawnee migrated (moved from one place to
    another) into Oklahoma in the early 1800s

23
Early Forts
  • In an attempt to halt violence between tribes
    that discouraged other tribes from relocating to
    Oklahoma, the US Secretary of War ordered the
    establishment of Fort Smith.
  • Originally known as Cantonment, Fort Gibson was
    established on the Grand River by Colonel Matthew
    Arbuckle to protect white people and Native
    Americans in the area. While work had been
    underway on Fort Gibson, Arbuckle had other
    troops at the joining of the Red and Kiamichi
    Rivers called Towson. Here, soldiers regulated
    the trade between Native Americans and white
    people and helped to keep the peace in the
    region. Later, this Fort would help to protect
    the relocated Cherokee. Federal funds were
    appropriated to build a road from Fort Smith to
    Fort Towson.

24
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25
Cherokee Outlet
  • White settlers continued to press into Western
    Cherokee land in Arkansas. In 1828, the Western
    Cherokee agreed to exchange their Arkansas land
    for land in Indian Territory. The new Cherokee
    lands included 7 million acres in northeastern
    Oklahoma and a perpetual outlet west, which
    extended their land west in approximately 60 mile
    wide strip to the border of the U.S. territory
    (Oklahomas western border). This strip became
    known as the Cherokee Outlet.
  • In addition, the treaty included 50,000 for the
    inconvenience of moving, 2,000 a year for three
    years for livestock, 2,000 a year for ten years
    for education, 1,000 for printing press and
    type, 500 to Sequoyah for the great benefits he
    has conferred to the Cherokee people. This
    treaty laid the groundwork for relocating the
    eastern Cherokee to Indian Territory.

26
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27
Removal
  • in 1817, President James Monroe declared that the
    security of the nation depended on quick
    settlement along the southern coast which meant
    moving the natives west. Like Monroe, Jackson
    believed in speedy removal of the Natives despite
    the fact that some had adopted civilized
    lifestyles. By 1824, Jackson had negotiated nine
    treaties that added large parcels of land to the
    southeastern states. In the 1820 treaty of Doaks
    Stand, the Choctaw gave up their fertile
    southeastern lands for a large area in southern
    Oklahoma, southwest Arkansas, and part of New
    Mexico.

28
The 5 Tribes
  • The five major tribes in the southeastern United
    States were the Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw,
    Cherokee, and Seminole. The U.S. governments
    plan of educating Indians so they would conform
    to the way of white settlers had been underway
    for several years. Missionaries, primarily
    Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist, had worked
    among the tribes for some time to educate and
    Christianize them. A number of racial
    intermarriages had also taken place over the
    years between Indians and Europeans combining
    their cultures.

29
  • Because of their willingness to accept the new
    civilized ways, these tribes came to be known
    as the 5 Civilized Tribes. The lifestyles of many
    in the 5 Civilized Tribes changed from nomadic
    hunting and subsistence farming to raising
    livestock and operating large farms. Some with
    larger plantations bought black slaves and built
    large mansions. Tribal government became more
    centralized, and some tribes opened their own
    stores and trading posts.

30
  • Sequoyahs invention of a written Cherokee
    syllabary (alphabet) greatly assisted the
    teachers and his tribes. By 1828, the first
    Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, was
    published. Using the Syllabary, Samuel Worchester
    translated the Bible into Cherokee. The Cherokee
    developed a written constitution modeled after
    the U.S. constitution and established a capital
    at New Echota, Georgia. The capital included a
    council house, supreme court building, a building
    for a printing press, and a public square. Even
    though they were civilizing, white settlers
    continued to demand more and more of their land.
    The Cherokee attempted to use the U.S. legal
    system to protect their land.

31
  • Recreated Council House
    at New Echota

32
Indian Removal Act
  • In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act.
    Pushed by President Jackson, the bill caused an
    uproar in Congress. Some were strongly against
    the forced removal of the natives. However, some
    agreed with Senator Wilson who urged Congress to,
    build a fire under them. When it gets hot
    enough, theyll move.

33
  • The intention of the bill was to negotiate
    treaties with Indian tribes by which the tribes
    would exchange the land they were living on for
    other land west of the Mississippi River. Those
    who wished to remain where they were would become
    citizens of the state. The relocation was
    supposed to be peaceful and voluntary, and for
    the few who resettled quickly, it was. The War
    Department attempted to protect the Indians who
    stayed in their homes but settlers did not give
    up their pursuit of land. The far-reaching
    legislation affected not only the 5 Civilized
    Tribes in the southeast but also many tribes in
    the North and those who already called Indian
    Territory home.

34
Choctaw Removal
  • The Choctaw tribe was first encouraged to
    relocate to Indian Territory after the 1820
    Treaty of Doaks Stand, which included an
    exchange of lands funds for education, police,
    and moving and a government agent. In 1825, the
    Choctaw Boundary Treaty helped rid the area of
    settlers and established an eastern boundary of
    what was to become Oklahoma. Reluctantly, Choctaw
    leaders saw removal as the only way to survive.
    Choctaw chiefs Greenwood Leflore, Moshulatubbe,
    and Nitakechi met with the Secretary of War John
    Eaton and General John Coffee at the Dancing
    Rabbit Creek council ground the 1830, Treaty of
    Dancing Rabbit Creek, the Choctaw Nation ceded
    all its lands east of the Mississippi River and
    agreed to move to the Indian Territory for 3
    years. The US agreed to pay the tribe education
    and relocation funds, as well as to provide
    plows, axes, hoes, blankets, spinning wheels,
    looms, rifles, bullet molds, and ammunition.
    Choctaw who stayed were allotted a set amount of
    land, and they were subject to the laws of the
    state. George Gaines, supervisor of the Choctaw
    removal, set a timetable of moving 1/3 of the
    people each year from 1831 to 1833. Removal was
    difficult food shortages, poorly clothed, and
    epidemic diseases

35
Creek Removal
  • The Muscogee (Creek) was a confederacy of several
    tribes in the Georgia-Alabama area who were
    referred to as the Upper Creek or Lower Creek.
    Chief William McIntosh ceded all Lower Creek land
    in the Treaty of Indian Springs in 1825. Angered
    by the treaty, tribal members killed McIntosh and
    other leaders they believed had betrayed them.
    By 1830 some 3,000 Creek were living on their new
    land. A few wealthy Creek built comfortable log
    homes, but most suffered from hunger and disease
    and a delay in government-promised supplies. They
    also faced raids by Delaware and Osage who
    resented newcomers. In 1832, the Creek signed
    another treaty it opened a large portion of
    their Alabama land to settlers. Land speculators
    cheated many Creek out of their land and the
    destitute Creek began stealing livestock and
    crops from settlers. In 1836, troops were sent to
    end the Creek War. Defeated, hungry,
    miserable, almost 15,000 Creek were forcibly
    removed and escorted overland to the Indian
    Territory.

36
Chickasaw Removal
  • The Chickasaw of northern Mississippi were also
    targeted for removal. The Chickasaw, like other
    tribes, were encouraged to purchase trade goods
    beyond their ability to pay for them. Many would
    cede their land to pay for the debt. In the 1832,
    Treaty of Pontotoc Creek, the Chickasaw agreed to
    sell their lands east of the Mississippi River.
    Each family could stay on an allotment (portion
    of land) until suitable homes in the West were
    found. By 1836, the Chickasaw agreed to relocate
    to a district within the Choctaw Nation for
    530,000. The Chickasaw removal, aided by
    location and good tribal management, was probably
    the smoothest of the 5 Tribes. But, they too
    faced hardships cholera, spoiled rations.

37
Cherokee Removal
  • Many Cherokee had embraced the white lifestyle,
    and they were prospering. Their capital, New
    Echota, was a bustling town written constitution
    in 1827 many young people went to eastern
    colleges. In 1828, Georgia claimed all of the
    land within its borders. Cherokee appealed to
    the U.S. Supreme Court but lost. Also, Samuel
    Worchester and other missionaries were indicted
    for working with the Cherokee without a state
    license which was an attempt to stop them from
    helping the Cherokee resist removal. The case of
    Worchester v Georgia was appealed to the Supreme
    Court in 1832, and the Georgia law was declared
    invalid. However, President Jackson ignored the
    Courts ruling and said that Chief Justice John
    Marshall, had rendered his decision, now let him
    enforce it.

38
  • Worcester

39
  • Then, the discovery of gold in Georgia fueled the
    frenzy for land. The state militia destroyed the
    Cherokee Phoenix printing press, and many
    Cherokee began to view removal as the best way to
    survive. The Cherokee received 5 million for
    their eastern lands and were relocated to the
    Western Cherokee lands within two years. Some
    refused to recognize the treaty in 1838, some
    7,000 U.S. troops were ordered to round up the
    remaining Cherokee and place them in stockades.
    Groups of about 1,000 traveled on foot along
    various routes to Indian Territory, enduring bad
    roads, storms, blizzards, sickness, and sorrow.
    An estimated 4,000 Cherokee died before reaching
    the new land in early springs. In June 1839, the
    Western Cherokee and Eastern Cherokee had
    separate council meetings. Three days after this
    meeting, Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias
    Boudinot were assassinated. In July, the Eastern
    and Western Cherokee adopted an Act of Union
    and became one body as the Cherokee Nation. They
    adopted a constitution in September, and it was
    approved in June 1840.

40
Seminole Removal
  • The Seminole were the last of the 5 Tribes to be
    forced into Indian Territory. Freedom-seeking
    slaves often found protection and refuge in the
    Seminole land, which greatly angered slave
    owners. From 1817 to 1818, General Andrew Jackson
    waged war against the tribe in the First Seminole
    War. One result of that war was that Spain ceded
    East Florida to the US. The 1823 Treaty of
    Moultrie Creek provided that the tribe move to
    swampland in central Florida. The 1832 Treaty of
    Paynes Landing called for the Seminole to move
    to Indian Territory when suitable land was
    found for them within three years. Some Seminole
    peacefully left Florida beginning in 1836, but a
    group led by Osceola fiercely resisted. From 1835
    to 1842, U.S. troops fought, tracked down, and
    captured 3,000 Indians in the Second Seminole
    War, another 500 eluded capture. The war cost
    more than 20 million, and 1,500 U.S. Soldiers
    were killed. Those caught were forced onto
    steamboats that carried them to New Orleans and
    then up the Mississippi. They were sent overland
    to Fort Gibson and to the Creek lands.

41
Stokes Commission
  • Some sort of commission was needed to help
    Indians adjust and work out problems. President
    Jackson appointed Montfort Stokes of North
    Carolina to chair the Federal Indian Commission
    in 1832. Although in his seventies, Stokes proved
    to be a tireless warrior for the Indians.
    Conflicting boundaries were resolved, and western
    and eastern tribes were harmoniously brought
    together. He argued against, and won, moving
    troops from Fort Gibson to Fort Smith.

42
New Land, New Beginnings
  • Forts - a flurry of military posts, both
    temporary and more permanent ones, were set up in
    the first half of the 1800s. The posts helped
    maintain a variety of people in the territory, as
    some cultures adapted to the changes and others
    did not.

43
  • Fort Sill

44
Negotiating Peace
  • The Osages Cutthroat Gap Massacre of the Kiowa
    Indians was one of the many attacks by Plains
    Indians on other Indians, white traders, and
    hunters. In 1834, General Henry Leavenworth led
    an expedition form Fort Gibson that was designed
    to impress the Wichita, Kiowa, and Comanche with
    the U.S. military power, in hopes of securing
    peace. The eight companies of 500 dragoons (armed
    cavalry men) wore striking uniforms with gold
    adornments, plumed caps, shiny black boots with
    yellow spurs, white gloves, steel sabers, and
    orange silk sashes. In 1835, a treaty was signed
    that provided that travelers and traders would
    not be harmed and that all tribes would keep
    peace with each other.

45
New Forts
  • Fort Coffee was built in 1834 near Swallow Rock
    on the Arkansas River in what is now LeFlore
    County as an entry post for relocated Osage.
    Troops also attempted to prevent illegal whiskey
    from coming into the territory. Fort Wayne, in
    Delaware County, was built in 1838 in the
    Cherokee Nation. Fort Washita was founded in 1842
    near Durant to protect the Chickasaw and Choctaw
    tribes. Fort Arbuckle was set up near present-day
    Davis in 1851 to prevent harm to the southeastern
    tribes.

46
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47
Surveying
  • Without a formal survey (making a detailed map of
    an area), there was confusion and overlapping
    boundaries. In 1831, Reverend Isaac McCoy was
    commissioned to survey the boundaries of the 7
    million-acre Cherokee Nation as set out in the
    treaty in 1828. It was not until 1866 that all of
    the Indian Territory, except the Panhandle, was
    surveyed.

48
Adapting to Indian Territory
  • There were no established towns and little
    shelter broken promises from the U.S. government
    were frequent food if it arrived was
    spoiled traders took advantage and sometimes
    sold supplies intended for the tribes other
    trades got tribes members drunk and left them
    penniless

49
The five tribes
  • Food, clothing, and shelter were the first order
    of business for the new arrivals. Once their
    basic needs were met, they turned their attention
    to reestablishing life.

50
Choctaw
  • In 1834, the Choctaw adopted a new constitution
    that gave the lawmaking authority to 27 elected
    council members and an extensive bill of rights
    protects human rights. In 1843, a house of
    representatives was added. By 1860, Choctaw
    government included 3 branches leg, jud, and
    exec. Missionaries encouraged the Choctaw to
    formally educate their children if they were to
    co-exist the first Choctaw school was started in
    1821, before relocation.

51
  • One of the first schools in the territory was
    Wheelock Academy, founded in 1833 by Alfred and
    Harriet Wright. In 1842, the Choctaw took control
    of Wheelock Academy and turned it into a girls
    school with an academy for boys built nearby. By
    1837, the Choctaw were improving and prospering
    in their new homes. Extra corn was being sold to
    troops at Fort Towson and two cotton gins were
    built near the Red River. Sheep, cattle, hogs,
    and horses were raised. Three of the five stores
    in Doaksville were owned by Choctaw Indians.
    African American slaves helped make the cotton
    industry in the territory and helped build the
    large plantation homes of their owners. A
    newspaper, the Choctaw Telegraph, was published
    in Doaksville in 1848 the Choctaw Ingelligencer
    newspaper began publication in 1850 in Choctaw
    and English.

52
Creek
  • Lower Creek settled on farms and plantations
    along the Arkansas and Verdigris Upper Creek
    reestablished towns along the Canadian River and
    its branches. Creeks used logs to build their
    houses cooking was done inside the fireplace and
    outside over an open fire. In 1839, the Upper
    Creek and Lower Creek joined as a single
    government at the National Council at High
    Springs. Ball games, dances, races, feasts, and
    camp meetings provided entertainment. The Creek
    owned a large number of slaves who helped them
    produce crops of corn, sweet potatoes, beans,
    peas, melons, peaches, cotton, and rice. The
    Creek were suspicious of white people and many
    resented missionaries for trying to make them
    give up their tribal customs.

53
Chickasaw
  • The industrious Chickasaw raised cotton, wheat,
    oats, rye, and corn. White emigrants on their way
    to Texas made up a market for their goods.
    Hostile Indians frequently raided the Chickasaw
    and desperados (bold outlaws) fleeing Texas law
    took refuge in unpoliced areas. In 1844, the
    first written Chickasaw law was printed and in
    1848, the tribe adopted its first constitution.

54
Cherokee
  • In 1840, Tahlequah was selected as the tribal
    capital. Several missionaries in 1829, the
    Dwight Mission was established in Indian
    Territory. Samuel Worchester was named
    superintendent of Park Hill Mission which
    included a printing press, grist mills, shops,
    stables, farms, book binderies, and dormitories.
    In 1841, the Cherokee planned 11 public schools,
    with the superintendent and teachers being paid
    30 a month. In 1844, the Cherokee published
    their first newspaper in Indian Territory, The
    Cherokee Advocate, in Tahlequah which was printed
    in both Cherokee and English.

55
Seminole
  • Battle weary, the exhausted Seminole arrived cold
    and hungry in a land that was vastly different
    form their Florida home. They were expected to
    live on the Muscogee Lands and become part of the
    Creek nation but they refused to live under the
    Creek government. In 1845, the Creek agreed to
    let the Seminole settle as a group or as they
    pleased in the Creek Nation and make their own
    regulations, subject to the Creek Council.
    Seminole did not adapt to the moves as quickly as
    the other tribes. In 1856, a treaty separated the
    Seminole and Creek and provided additional funds
    to other Seminole to relocate from Florida.

56
  • Many historians refer to the time between removal
    and the Civil War as the Golden Years.
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