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## Linear Motion

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### Chapter 4 Linear Motion – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Linear Motion

1
Chapter 4 Linear Motion
2
• You can describe the motion of an object by its
position, speed, direction, and acceleration.

3
I. Motion Is Relative (2.1) A. Everything moves.
Even things that appear to be at rest
move. 1. Motion is described by motion
relative to something else. a. Relative
to the sun, the center of the galaxy,
etc. b. We will discus motion (things in
our environment) relative to the surface of
the Earth.
4
II. Speed (4.2) A. Speed is measure of how fast
something is moving (rate at which distance is
covered) 1. Rate term used to describe
something divided by time. 2. Speed Units
of distance / units of time (distance covered
per unit of time)
5
3. Common Units a. miles/hour (mi/h) b.
kilometers/hour (km/h) c. meters/second (m/s)
Used in physics
6
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7
• Continental drift 2 mm/year (1mm one
millimeter 10-3 meters)
• Walking speed 3 miles/hour 4.4 feet/second
1.3 m/s (1m 1 meter, s seconds)
• Driving speed 60 miles/hr 100 km/hr 88 ft/s
26 m/s
• Orbital speed (near Earth orbit) 8 km/s
17,000 miles/hr
• Earth's speed around the sun 30 km/s
• Speed of light 300,000 km/s 186,000 miles/s.

8
B. Instantaneous Speed the speed at any instant
(What you see on a cars speedometer)
9
C. Average Speed total distance covered/time
interval   1. Does not indicate variations in
speed over time. 2. still describes rate at
which distance traveled
Total distance covered
Average speed
Time interval
10
4.2 Speed
• think!
• If a cheetah can maintain a constant speed of 25
m/s, it will cover 25 meters every second. At
this rate, how far will it travel in 10 seconds?
In 1 minute?

11
4.2 Speed
• think!
• If a cheetah can maintain a constant speed of 25
m/s, it will cover 25 meters every second. At
this rate, how far will it travel in 10 seconds?
In 1 minute?
• Answer In 10 s the cheetah will cover 250 m, and
in 1 min (or 60 s) it will cover 1500 m.

12
4.2 Speed
• think!
• The speedometer in every car also has an odometer
that records the distance traveled. If the
odometer reads zero at the beginning of a trip
and 35 km a half hour later, what is the average
speed?

13
4.2 Speed
• think!
• The speedometer in every car also has an odometer
that records the distance traveled. If the
odometer reads zero at the beginning of a trip
and 35 km a half hour later, what is the average
speed?

14
D. Velocity (4.3) 1. Velocity and speed are
often used interchangeably, but in physics are
different. a. Velocity is speed in a given
direction.   b. Speed is how fast object moves
(direction does not matter)
15
E. Constant Velocity must have constant speed
and direction 1. Object moves in straight
line 2. Objects path does not curve
16
F. Changing Velocity 1. Velocity will change if
either speed or direction changes. 2. Constant
speed and constant velocity are not the same.
17
4.3 Velocity
• think!
• The speedometer of a car moving northward reads
60 km/h. It passes another car that travels
southward at 60 km/h. Do both cars have the same
speed? Do they have the same velocity?

18
4.3 Velocity
• think!
• The speedometer of a car moving northward reads
60 km/h. It passes another car that travels
southward at 60 km/h. Do both cars have the same
speed? Do they have the same velocity?
• Answer Both cars have the same speed, but they
have opposite velocities because they are moving
in opposite directions.

19
III. Acceleration (4.4) A. acceleration is the
rate at which the velocity is changing 1.
applies to increases as well as decreases in
velocity. 2. decrease in velocity often
called deceleration or negative
acceleration
Change of velocity
Acceleration
Time interval
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B. Acceleration applies to changes in direction
as well as speed 1. When motion is in
straight line the term speed and velocity are
often used interchangeably.
22
1. When motion is in straight line the term speed
and velocity are often used interchangeably.
Change of speed
Acceleration along a straight line
Time interval
23
2. Units for acceleration a bit more complicated
Change of speed
Acceleration
Time interval
24
4.4 Acceleration
Accelerate in the direction of velocityspeed up
25
4.4 Acceleration
Accelerate in the direction of velocityspeed
up Accelerate against velocityslow down
26
4.4 Acceleration
Accelerate in the direction of velocityspeed
up Accelerate against velocityslow
down Accelerate at an angle to velocitychange
direction
27
4.4 Acceleration
• think!
• Suppose a car moving in a straight line steadily
increases its speed each second, first from 35 to
40 km/h, then from 40 to 45 km/h, then from 45 to
50 km/h. What is its acceleration?

28
4.4 Acceleration
• think!
• Suppose a car moving in a straight line steadily
increases its speed each second, first from 35 to
40 km/h, then from 40 to 45 km/h, then from 45 to
50 km/h. What is its acceleration?
• Answer The speed increases by 5 km/h during each
1-s interval in a straight line. The acceleration
is therefore 5 km/hs during each interval.

29
4.4 Acceleration
• think!
• In 5 seconds a car moving in a straight line
increases its speed from 50 km/h to 65 km/h,
while a truck goes from rest to 15 km/h in a
straight line. Which undergoes greater
acceleration? What is the acceleration of each
vehicle?

30
4.4 Acceleration
• think!
• In 5 seconds a car moving in a straight line
increases its speed from 50 km/h to 65 km/h,
while a truck goes from rest to 15 km/h in a
straight line. Which undergoes greater
acceleration? What is the acceleration of each
vehicle?
• Answer The car and truck both increase their
speed by 15 km/h during the same time interval,
so their acceleration is the same.

31
IV. Free Fall How Fast (4.5) A. The force of
Gravity causes object to accelerate
downward 1. If we disregard air resistance
(air friction) then free falling objects
only affected by gravity. Called free
fall 2. Use letter (g) to represent
gravity 3. gravity varies slightly around
the Earth. Average value is about 10
m/s2 4. More accurately, g is 9.8 m/s2
32
B. The instantaneous speed of an object falling
from rest is equal to the acceleration multiplied
by the amount of time it falls. Instantan
eous speed acceleration x elapsed time
(v symbolizes both speed and velocity)
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34
1. speed decreases at the same rate with an
object moving upwards as it increases when moving
downward 2. An object thrown upward will reach a
velocity of zero when it gets to its highest
point
35
V. Free Fall How Far (4.6) A. Relationship
between distance traveled, acceleration, and
velocity
Rearrange and solve for t
36
4.5 Free Fall How Fast
• think!
• During the span of the second time interval in
Table 4.2, the object begins at 10 m/s and ends
at 20 m/s. What is the average speed of the
object during this 1-second interval? What is its
acceleration?

37
4.5 Free Fall How Fast
• think!
• During the span of the second time interval in
Table 4.2, the object begins at 10 m/s and ends
at 20 m/s. What is the average speed of the
object during this 1-second interval? What is its
acceleration?
• Answer The average speed is 15 m/s. The
acceleration is 10 m/s2.

38
4.5 Free Fall How Fast
• think!
• What would the speedometer reading on the falling
rock be 4.5 seconds after it drops from rest?
• How about 8 seconds after it is dropped?

39
4.5 Free Fall How Fast
• think!
• What would the speedometer reading on the falling
rock be 4.5 seconds after it drops from rest?
• How about 8 seconds after it is dropped?
and 80 m/s, respectively.

40
VI. Graphs of Motion A. Equations and tables not
the only way to describe relationships such as
velocity and acceleration. 1. Linear
relationship- e.g. speed and time a. Forms
straight line curve. b. Has constant slope
(direct proportion)
41
2. Parabolic relationship e.g. distance versus
time a. Not straight line. Curved
line b. Tangent at any point gives slope at that
point (slope of this curve is instantaneous
speed. Remember that slope is rise/run or
change in y over change in x. Distance/time
speed
42
VII. Air Resistance and Falling Objects
(4.8) A. Air resistance noticeably alters
the motion of things (like feathers, paper,
etc.) B. Less effect on more dense
(compact) objects C. Air resistance is
small enough to be neglected in most cases.
43
VIII. How Fast, How Far, How Quickly. How Fast
Changes (4.9) A. speed and velocity-used to
describe how fast something free falls from
rest. equation to use
44
B. To specify how far the object has fallen we
are talking about distance.   equation to use
45
What is this graph telling us?
Change in velocity over time acceleration
46
C. Acceleration how quickly does speed or
velocity change 1. Very complex concept 2.
rate of a rate
47
Constant Positive Velocity
48
Constant Negative Velocity
49
Positive Velocity and Positive Acceleration
50
Positive Velocity and Negative Acceleration
51
Motion Diagram

52
Motion Diagram

Standing still

Moving constant speed

Speeding up

Slowing down
53
• Particle Model
• Replace object with single point
• Simplified version of motion diagram

54
Particle Model

Standing still

Moving constant speed

Speeding up

Slowing down

55
Assessment Questions
• Jake walks east through a passenger car on a
train that moves 10 m/s in the same direction.
Jakes speed relative to the car is 2 m/s. Jakes
speed relative to an observer at rest outside the
train is
• 2 m/s.
• 5 m/s.
• 8 m/s.
• 12 m/s.

56
Assessment Questions
• Jake walks east through a passenger car on a
train that moves 10 m/s in the same direction.
Jakes speed relative to the car is 2 m/s. Jakes
speed relative to an observer at rest outside the
train is
• 2 m/s.
• 5 m/s.
• 8 m/s.
• 12 m/s.

57
Assessment Questions
• A gazelle travels 2 km in a half hour. The
gazelles average speed is
• 1/2 km/h.
• 1 km/h.
• 2 km/h.
• 4 km/h.

58
Assessment Questions
• A gazelle travels 2 km in a half hour. The
gazelles average speed is
• 1/2 km/h.
• 1 km/h.
• 2 km/h.
• 4 km/h.

59
Assessment Questions
• Constant speed in a constant direction is
• constant velocity.
• constant acceleration.
• instantaneous speed.
• average velocity.

60
Assessment Questions
• Constant speed in a constant direction is
• constant velocity.
• constant acceleration.
• instantaneous speed.
• average velocity.

61
Assessment Questions
• A vehicle undergoes acceleration when it
• gains speed.
• decreases speed.
• changes direction.
• all of the above

62
Assessment Questions
• A vehicle undergoes acceleration when it
• gains speed.
• decreases speed.
• changes direction.
• all of the above

63
Assessment Questions
• If a falling object gains 10 m/s each second it
falls, its acceleration can be expressed as
• 10 m/s/s.
• 10 m/s2.
• v gt.
• both A and B.

64
Assessment Questions
• If a falling object gains 10 m/s each second it
falls, its acceleration can be expressed as
• 10 m/s/s.
• 10 m/s2.
• v gt.
• both A and B.

65
Assessment Questions
• A rock falls 180 m from a cliff into the ocean.
How long is it in free fall?
• 6 s
• 10 s
• 18 s
• 180 s

66
Assessment Questions
• A rock falls 180 m from a cliff into the ocean.
How long is it in free fall?
• 6 s
• 10 s
• 18 s
• 180 s

67
Assessment Questions
• The slope of a speed-versus-time graph represents
• distance traveled.
• velocity.
• acceleration.
• air resistance.

68
Assessment Questions
• The slope of a speed-versus-time graph represents
• distance traveled.
• velocity.
• acceleration.
• air resistance.

69
Assessment Questions
• In a vacuum tube, a feather is seen to fall as
fast as a coin. This is because
• gravity doesnt act in a vacuum.
• air resistance doesnt act in a vacuum.
• greater air resistance acts on the coin.
• gravity is greater in a vacuum.

70
Assessment Questions
• In a vacuum tube, a feather is seen to fall as
fast as a coin. This is because
• gravity doesnt act in a vacuum.
• air resistance doesnt act in a vacuum.
• greater air resistance acts on the coin.
• gravity is greater in a vacuum.

71
Assessment Questions
• Speed and acceleration are actually
• one and the same concept, but expressed
differently.
• rates of one another.
• entirely different concepts.
• expressions of distance traveled.

72
Assessment Questions
• Speed and acceleration are actually
• one and the same concept, but expressed
differently.
• rates of one another.
• entirely different concepts.
• expressions of distance traveled.