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Microbial World and You

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Title: Microbial World and You


1
Microbial World and You
  • What did the male bacteria say to the female
    bacteria?
  • Who needs biology when we have chemistry.

2
What is Microbiology?
  • Micro - too small to be seen with the naked eye
  • Bio - life
  • ology - study of

3
Organisms included in the study of Microbiology
  • 1. Bacteria
  • Bacteriology
  • 2. Protozoans
  • Protozoology
  • 3. Algae
  • Phycology

4
  • 4. Parasites
  • Parasitology
  • 5. Yeasts and Molds
  • Mycology
  • Fungi
  • 6. Viruses
  • Virology

5
5 Characteristics of Life
  • 1. Cells
  • 2. Maintain structure by taking up chemicals and
    energy from the environment
  • 3. Respond to stimuli in the external environment
  • 4. Reproduce and pass on their organization to
    their offspring
  • 5. Evolve and adapt to the environment

6
Physical Requirements
  • Temperature
  • psychrophiles (cold loving microbes)
  • range 0 C - 20 C
  • mesophiles (moderate temp. loving microbes)
  • range 20 C - 40 C
  • thermophiles (heat loving microbes)
  • range 40 C - 100 C

7
pH
  • Most bacteria grow between pH 6.5 - pH 7.5
  • Very few can grow at below pH 4.0
  • many foods, such as sauerkraut, pickles, and
    cheeses are preserved from spoilage by acids
    produced during fermentation

8
Bacterial Growth - increase in the of cells
  • Binary Fission
  • Generation Time (Doubling Time)
  • time required for a cell to divide
  • most about 1 Hr. To 3 Hrs.
  • E. coli - 20 minutes
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis - 24 Hrs.

9
Binary Fission - unchecked
  • E. coli - generation time of 20 min.
  • 20 generations (about 7 hrs.)
  • 1 million cells
  • 30 generations ( about 10 hrs.)
  • 1 billion cells
  • 72 generations ( about 24 hrs.)
  • 1 x 1021
  • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • cells

10
Limiting factors in the environment
  • Lack of food, water or nutrients
  • space
  • accumulation of metabolic wastes
  • lack of oxygen
  • changes in pH
  • temperature

11
Phases of Growth
  • 4 Phases
  • 1. Lag Phase
  • 2. Log Phase
  • 3. Stationary Phase
  • 4. Death Phase

12
1. Lag Phase
  • Bacteria are first introduced into an environment
    or media
  • Bacteria are checking out their surroundings
  • cells are very active metabolically
  • of cells changes very little
  • 1 hour to several days

13
2. Log Phase
  • Rapid cell growth (exponential growth)
  • population doubles every generation
  • microbes are sensitive to adverse conditions
  • antibiotics
  • anti-microbial agents

14
3. Stationary Phase
  • Death rate rate of reproduction
  • cells begin to encounter environmental stress
  • lack of nutrients
  • lack of water
  • not enough space
  • metabolic wastes
  • oxygen
  • pH

Endospores would form now
15
4. Death Phase
  • Death rate gt rate of reproduction
  • Due to limiting factors in the environment

16
Bacteria - what comes to mind?
  • Diseases
  • Infections
  • Epidemics
  • Food Spoilage

17
When in fact
  • Only 1 of all known bacteria cause human
    diseases
  • About 4 of all known bacteria cause plant
    diseases
  • 95 of known bacteria are non-pathogens
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vIekdfJ-7Zyksafety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1safeactive

18
Microbes Benefit Humans
  • 1.Bacteria are primary decomposers - recycle
    nutrients back into the environment (sewage
    treatment plants)

19
They produce various food products
  • cheese, pickles, sauerkraut, green olives
  • yogurt, soy sauce, vinegar, bread
  • Beer, Wine, Alcohol

20
3. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics
  • Penicillin
  • Mold
  • Penicillium notatum
  • 1928 Alexander Fleming

21
4. Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our body
needs, but cannot synthesize
  • Example E. coli
  • B vitamins - for metabolism
  • Vitamin K - blood clotting
  • Escherichia coli
  • Dr. Escherich
  • Colon (intestine)

22
5. Competitive Exclusion
  • Our normal microbial flora prevents potential
    pathogens from gaining access to our body

23
6. Bioremediation
  • Using microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic
    wastes
  • Exxon Valdez - 1989
  • 2 Genera
  • Pseudomonas sp.
  • Bacillus sp.

24
7. Recombinant DNA Technology Gene
Therapy Genetic Engineering
  • Bacteria can be manipulated to produce enzymes
    and proteins they normally would not produce
  • Insulin
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Interferon

25
8. Microbes form the basis of the food chain
  • Marine and fresh water microorganisms

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTHRgkllfj1Asafety_
modetruepersist_safety_mode1safeactive
26
Microbes do benefit us, but they are also capable
of causing many diseases
  • Pneumonia Whooping Cough
  • Botulism Typhoid Fever Measles
  • Cholera Scarlet Fever Mumps
  • Syphilis Gonorrhea Herpes 1
  • Chlamydia Tuberculosis Herpes 2
  • Meningitis Tetanus RSV
  • Strep Throat Lyme Disease AIDS
  • Black Plague Diarrhea Gangrene
  • bacteria, virus

27
Spontaneous Generation
  • Theory that life just spontaneously developed
    from non-living matter
  • Example
  • toads, snakes and mice - moist soil
  • flies and maggots - manure and decaying flesh

28
Experiments to disprove Spontaneous Generation
  • Francesco Redi
  • 1668
  • Rudolph Virchow 1858
  • Theory of Biogenesis
  • Cells can only arise from preexisting cells
  • Louis Pasteur 1861

29
Pasteur designed special swan-necked flasks
with a boiled meat infusion
Shape of flask allowed air in (vital force) but
trapped dust particles which may contain microbes
30
Germ Theory of Disease
  • Hard for people to believe that diseases were
    caused by tiny invisible wee animalcules
  • Diseases, they thought, were caused by
  • demons
  • witchcraft
  • bad luck
  • the wrath of God
  • curses
  • evil spirits

31
Kochs Postulates
  • 1. The same organisms must be found in all cases
    of a given disease.
  • 2. The organism must be isolated and grown in
    pure culture.
  • 3. The isolated organism must reproduce the same
    disease when inoculated into a healthy
    susceptible animal.
  • 4. The original organism must again be isolated
    from the experimentally
  • infected animal.

32
Exceptions to Kochs Postulates
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy
Never been grown in pure culture on artificial
media
33
Koch established the Microbial Origins of 3
important diseases of his day
  • 1. Cholera (fecal-oral disease)
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • 2. Tuberculosis (pulmonary infection)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • 3. Anthrax (sheep and cattle)
  • Bacillus anthracis

34
Golden Age of Microbiology 1857 - 1914
  • Pasteur
  • Pasteurization
  • Fermentation
  • Joseph Lister
  • Phenol to treat surgical wounds 1st attempt to
    control infections caused by microoganisms
  • Robert Koch
  • Kochs Postulates
  • Edward Jenner
  • vaccination
  • Paul Erlich
  • 1st synthetic drug used to treat infections
  • Salvarsan - arsenic based chemical to treat
    Syphilis
  • salvation from Syphilis

35
Bacterial Morphology
  • Bacilli
  • Cocci
  • Spiral

36
Arrangements
  • Diplo
  • Strepto
  • Staphylo
  • Tetrad
  • Vibrio comma shaped
  • bacter bacilli
  • bacterium bacilli

37
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Rhodospirillium rubrum
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Micrococcus luteus
  • Bacillus anthrasis
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Steptococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus faecalis
  • Campylobacter jujuni
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
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