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Dairy Productivity


Dairy Productivity Factors Affecting Milk Yield The actual amount of milk produced during the lactation period is affected by several factors: Breed Season of calving ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dairy Productivity

Dairy Productivity
Factors Affecting Milk Yield
  • The actual amount of milk produced during the
    lactation period is affected by several factors
  • Breed
  • Season of calving
  • Geographic region
  • Management factors
  • Feed Quantity, nutrition
  • frequency of milking
  • IV technology
  • Hormone Therapy

Dairy Cattle Breeds
  • North America
  • In North America, the Holstein cow has the
    highest volume of milk production and the highest
    total production of all major milk components
    (i.e. fat, protein and lactose). However, there
    are a lot of variations in milk yield and
    composition between individuals within a certain
    dairy breed.
  • Tropical Areas

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Tropical Breeds
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Season of calving
  • The effect of season of calving on milk yield is
    confounded by breed, the stage of lactation, and
    climatic condition. Cows calving in late fall to
    spring produce more milk (up to 8 more) than
    cows calving in the summer.
  • This is likely due to an interaction between day
    light and ambient temperature.
  • Seasonal differences have become less significant
    because of better feeding and management of the
    dairy cow.

Geographic Region
  • Ambient temperature
  • The effect of ambient temperature on milk yield
    is dependent upon the breed.
  • Holsteins and the other larger breeds are more
    tolerant to lower temperatures, whereas the
    smaller breeds particularly the Jersey, are much
    more tolerant to high temperatures.
  • The optimum temperature for the Holstein cow is
    about 10 C. Milk production declines when
    environmental temperature exceeds 27 C. The
    reduction in milk yield is largely due to drop in
    feed intake.
  • High temperature affect high producing cows more
    than low producers and it is particularly harmful
    during the peak of lactation.
  • Disease The main disease that affect milk yield
    of dairy cows is mastitis.

Management Factors
  • Feed and water supply
  • Any restriction in feed or water supply will
    result in a drop in milk production. The most
  • dramatic effect is brought about by shortage of
    water as the cow has no means of storing
  • water. Withholding access to water, or
    insufficient supply of water for few hours will
  • result in a rapid drop in milk yield.
  • Growth hormones (BST)
  • There is a positive correlation between milk
    production of cows and the level of growth
  • hormone in their blood. Growth hormone causes
    redistribution of nutrient within the
  • cows body to favor nutrient utilization towards
    milk production. However, growth
  • hormone is not directly involved in milk
    secretion process.
  • Milking intervals
  • Cows are usually milked at equal intervals (12-h
    interval for 2 x milking). Cows milked
  • at unequal intervals produce less milk than those
    milked at equal intervals. The reduction
  • in milk yield is more in high producing cows than
    in low producing ones.
  • Milking frequency
  • Cows are usually milked twice daily. Milking a
    twice a day yields at least 40 more milk
  • than once a day.. The increase is usually highest
    for first lactation cow and declines
  • as the cow gets older.
  • Dry period

Developing Countries
  • Reasons for low Milk Yields

Lack of Feed/Nutrient Feed
  • Case of Punjab, Pakistan
  • The productivity of livestock in Punjab,
    despite their known genetic potential, is low. 
    This may be attributed to many reasons, of which
    mal-nutrition is probably the most important.
    Green fodders are not available in sufficient
    quantities especially in extreme hot months
    (June-July) and during cold seasons
    (December-January) and most of the animals are
    under-fed. Straws of the cereals and other
    by-products are commonly used to overcome feed
    shortages, but don't meet the actual
    requirements of the animals.
  • Source Feed resources of livestock in the
    Punjab, Pakistan M Younas and M Yaqoob Dept of
    Livestock Management, Faculty of Animal
    Husbandry, University of Agriculture,
    Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
  • Case of Nigeria
  • Poor nutrition (Adegbola, 2002) and low
    reproductive performance (Olaloku, 1999) have
    been highlighted as some of the major factors
    affecting milk production from our indigenous
    cattle breeds. ... The low nitrogen content of
    dry season fodder usually confer severe
    nutritional stress on ruminant livestock with the
    result that cattle grazing these poor quality
    forages without supplementation experience weight
    loss, Materials and Methods delayed growth rate
    and decline in milk production (Otchere, 1986).
  • Source Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing
    White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry
  • Waste-Cassava Peel Based DietsA.I. Ndubueze,
    S.N. Ukachukwu, F.O. Ahamefule and J.A.
    IbeawuchiCollege of Animal Science and Animal
    Health, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,
    Umudike, Nigeria

Lack of Feed/Nutrient Feed
  • Case of Kerala, India
  • Ms. Gouri stressed the need to give the cattle
    good quality fodder and hay. The Government had
    taken up schemes for collecting hay, she said.
  • Milma had been given sanction to start a plant
    for increasing supply of hay. The
    Government-owned Kerala Feeds will soon increase
    its production to meet the requirement of cattle
    feed in the State. It was estimated that the
    State was facing a shortage of 3,600 tonnes of
    feed every year, she added.
  • source Artificial insemination failed to
    increase milk yield Minister
  • Staff Reporter Government-owned Kerala Feeds to
    increase cattle feed production

Other Issues in Developing Countries Cameroon
  • Source Contributions of Heifer Project
    International (HPI) to small-scale dairy
    development in Cameroon
  • R.M. Njwe1, L.N. Kwinji1, A.L. Gabche1 and E.N.
  • Surveyed farmers were asked to rank in order of
    importance five major constraints faced in their
    diary activities
  • marketing is the major constraint for more than
    90 of the farmers. poor road network coupled
    with lack of transport facilities lack of
    processing and storage or conservation equipment
    for fresh milk inadequate demand in the
    immediate environment of the farmers and low milk
    prices etc.
  • The second constraint is that of finance. Here,
    the problem is associated largely to insufficient
    savings to finance investments, limited access to
  • The next most important constraint as mentioned
    by the farmers is animal health. Lack of drugs
    and the presence of ticks are the main problems
    cited by farmers (about 65).
  • More than 80 of the surveyed farmers have
    reported the lack of funds to purchase
    concentrates and also the fact that in some local
    markets concentrates are not available. Feed
    scarcity during the dry season is an important
    constraint to adequate feeding of animals and
    often results in lower milk yields and lower
    income. The farmers (95) consider that this
    problem is very crucial because poor feeding
    would result in poor health and low milk yield.
  • Farmers are not very satisfied with the practice
    of artificial insemination (AI) as about 60 of
    the farmers have reported to have successful
    insemination only after two to three trials.
    Because of this, the request for bulls for
    natural crossing has been on the increase.
  • Also, The scarcity of local supplies of heifers
    of exotic breeds like Holstein, Friesians and
    Jerseys is an important obstacle to the rapid
    expansion of small-scale dairy development

How does supply management work for dairy?
  • In dairy, balancing supply with demand largely
    implies balancing milk production from all farms
    with domestic consumption of dairy products.
    Controlling national production at the farm level
    is achieved through the establishment of
    marketing quotas through the framework provided
    in the National Milk Marketing Plan .
  • Supply management also takes into account certain
    imports which enter Canada, as well as some
    production which is shipped to export markets.

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The Canadian Dairy Commission
  • CDC provides ongoing support to the Canadian
    dairy industry while operating in close
    co-operation with national and provincial
    stakeholders and governments
  • It acts as a facilitator and provides secretariat
    services to the revenue pooling and market
    sharing systems. 
  • It calculates and recommends to the CMSMC the
    target national milk production for industrial
    milk, or Market Sharing Quota
  • It has the authority to purchase, store, process,
    or sell dairy products on the domestic or export
    market, within World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • The Commission establishes support prices at
    which it will purchase butter and skim milk
    powder. These support prices are used as
    references by provinces to establish prices for
    milk used to manufacture products.
  • It administers the Special Milk Class Permit
    Program  and issues permits allowing further
    processors to have access to competitively-priced
    dairy ingredients, and allowing exporters to
    export dairy products within Canadas WTO
    commitment levels
  • It develops and implements marketing programs and
    services aimed at encouraging food manufacturers
    to maintain or increase their use of dairy
    ingredients in their various products.
  • The CDC carries out audits, and acts as a
    facilitator in advancing the harmonization of
    audit procedures for dairy plants.

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Market Sharing Quota
  • The Market Sharing Quota is the national milk
    production target for industrial milk in
    Canada.The Canadian Dairy Commission makes a
    recommendation to the CMSMC on the MSQ. This
    target is constantly monitored and is adjusted
    when necessary to reflect changes in demand,
  • The National Milk Marketing Plan establishes each
    province's share of the MSQ, and provides for the
    sharing of any quota increase or decrease. Each
    province allocates its respective share of the
    MSQ to its producers according to its own

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  • Supply Management
  • The Canadian dairy industry operates under supply
    management. Supply
  • management refers to the systematic use of
    production and border controls to
  • manage national supplies to satisfy projected
    demand at a target price. The
  • goal of controlling supply so the market clears
    at the target price is to stabilize
  • and enhance dairy farm incomes. The economic
    implications of supply
  • management are well known (Barichello, 1981
    Forbes, Hughes and Warley,
  • 1982 Schmitz and Schmitz, 1994). Supply
    management ensures a sizable
  • income transfer from consumers to producers.
    However, this dairy policy
  • reduces social welfare since the loses to
    consumers exceed the gains to
  • producers.
  • Using Demand and Supply graphs Can you show the
    impact when moving from free markets to
    controlled market in the form of supply

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