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Safety Professional

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Behavior Based Safety Safety Professional s View Objectives Today: Identify differences between traditional vs BBS Know when and when not to implement BBS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety Professional


1
Safety Professionals View
Behavior Based Safety
2
(No Transcript)
3
Objectives Today
  • Identify differences between traditional vs BBS
  • Know when and when not to implement BBS
  • Explain why most traditional safety programs
    dont work!
  • Understand why positive reinforcement is much
    more powerful than negative reinforcement

4
Why Safety Programs Do Not Work
  • Safety is a priority, not a value!
  • Safety is not managed in the same manner as
    production, quality, and cost issues!
  • Safety is not driven through continuous
    improvement!

5
Fallacies or Realities in Safety Fables?
  • Conditions cause accidents!
  • Enforcing rules improves safety!
  • Safety professionals can keep workers safe!
  • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are
    working well!
  • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents
    will improve safety!
  • Awareness training improves safety!
  • Rewards improve safety!

6
Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs
  • A culture that says safety is important around
    here!
  • A tight accountability system!

7
Safety Intervention Strategies(By NSC)
  • Approach of Studies of Subjects
    Reduction
  • Behavior Based 7 2,444 59.6
  • Ergonomics 3 n/a
    51.6
  • Engineering Change 4 n/a 29.0
  • Problem Solving 1 76
    20.0
  • Govt Action 2 2
    18.3
  • Mgt. Audits 4 n/a
    17.0
  • Stress Management 2 1,300 15.0
  • Poster Campaign 2 6,100 14.0
  • Personnel Selection 26 19,177
    3.7
  • Near-miss Reports 2 n/a
    0

8
Behavior Based Safety What Is It?
  • An excellent tool for collecting data on the
    quality of a companys safety management system
  • A scientific way to understand why people behave
    the way they do when it comes to safety
  • Properly applied, an effective next step towards
    creating a truly pro-active safety culture where
    loss prevention is a core value
  • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to
    implement and sustain

9
Behavior Based SafetyWhat It Is Not!
  • Only about observation and feedback
  • Concerned only about the behaviors of line
    employees
  • A substitution for traditional risk management
    techniques
  • About cheating manipulating people aversive
    control
  • A focus on incident rates without a focus on
    behavior
  • A process that does not need employee involvement

10
Interventions Always Consider These 3 Components
Safety Management System
Behaviors
Engineering Controls
11
Traditional Hierarchy of Safety Interventions
Included
  • Attempts to eliminate the hazard
  • Having employees work around the hazard
  • Guarding or warning employees about the hazard
  • Training employees to deal safely with the hazard

12
Safety Management System Interventions 7
components
  • Management leadership
  • vision, values, commitment
  • safety goals objectives
  • costs of safety performance
  • Responsibility accountability
  • defined for management employees
  • accountable for performance
  • Safety organization
  • safety committees
  • safety staff resource
  • safety budget

13
Safety Management System Interventions 7
components (continued)
  • Safe work practices procedures
  • general job specific
  • housekeeping
  • contractors
  • emergency
  • Safety review improvement
  • a Plan / Do / Check / Act process
  • accident investigation process
  • safety audit / inspection process

14
Safety Management System Interventions 7
components (continued)
  • Safety training
  • Based on needs assessments
  • Designed presented effectively
  • For both management employees
  • Results in observable changes in behavior on the
    job
  • Safety communications
  • Internal external
  • Appropriate for audience
  • Effectiveness of communication methods

15
If Safety Interventions are Effective You Will
See
  • of safe behaviors increasing and the at-risk
    behaviors decreasing
  • Reporting of near misses / hits increasing
  • Both the number of observations and level of
    participation increasing
  • Frequency severity of injuries decreasing
  • Increasing acceptance of responsibility and
    accountability for personal behavior

16
Business is Behavior
  • A business succeeds or fails through the
    performance of all of its employees
  • Success Good performance
  • Failure Bad performance
  • Performance the combined results of a series of
    behaviors

  • Aubrey Daniels, author
    and behavioral psychologist

17
Suggested BBS Process
  • Discovery - Determine Behaviors That Have
    Greatest Loss Impact
  • Design - Identify Team Who Will Define Design
    BBS Process
  • System Up - Implement BBS Observation Process
    Collect Data
  • System Check - Ensure BBS Process Has Been
    Effectively Implemented

18
Observations, Feedback Data Collection
  • Use a design team of hourly workers, supervisors
    and managers, to design the process - forms,
    training, data collection and ID roles
    responsibilities
  • Clearly define critical behaviors that will be
    observed - what is safe vs at-risk?
  • Give feedback on safe at-risk behavior observed
  • Determine who will act on data collected through
    observations

19
Use Prior Experience Data to Target Jobs for
Observation
  • Loss runs from insurance carrier or broker
  • OSHA logs
  • First aid logs
  • Near miss / hit reports
  • Absenteeism / turnover reports

20
Define Critical Behaviors - What is Safe What
is At-risk?
  • Focus on relevant behaviors that will have a
    direct impact on losses
  • Many behaviors that are directly related to the
    losses are unconscious behaviors that occur
    quickly
  • Select critical behaviors to focus on through
    actual observation of people at work - not just
    through discussion brainstorming

21
Obstacles To Success
  • Poorly Maintained Facilities
  • Top-down Management Practices
  • Poor Planning/Execution
  • Inadequate Training

22
Keys to Success
  • Meaningful Employee Empowerment
  • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS
    Process
  • Managing BBS Process with Integrity

23
Human Behavior is a function of
ð Activators (what needs to be done)
ð Competencies (how it needs to be done)
ð Consequences (what happens if it is done)

24
Human behavior is both
  • ð Observable
  • ð Measurable

therefore Behavior can be managed !
25
Attitudes are inside a persons head
-therefore they are not observable or measurable

however
  • Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors

26
ABC Model
  • Antecedents
  • (trigger behavior)
  • Behavior
  • (human performance)
  • Consequences
  • (either reinforce or punish behavior)

27
Definitions
  • Activators A person, place, thing or event
    that happens before a behavior takes place that
    encourages you to perform that behavior.
  • Activators only set the stage for behavior or
    performance - they dont control it.

28
Some examples of activators
29
Definitions
Behavior Any directly measurable thing that
a person does, including speaking, acting, and
performing physical functions.
30
Some examples of behavior
31
Definitions Consequences Events that follow
behaviors. Consequences increase or decrease the
probability that the behaviors will occur again
in the future.
If you dont send in that payment well take you
to court
Oh please let it be Bob!
32
Some example of Consequences
33
Consequences - How would you view them?
Sunbathing
Aggressive Drivers
34
Only 4 Types of Consequences
  • Positive Reinforcement (R)
  • ("Do this you'll be rewarded")
  • Negative Reinforcement (R-)
  • ("Do this or else you'll be penalized")
  • Punishment (P)
  • ("If you do this, you'll be penalized")
  • Extinction (E)
  • ("Ignore it and it'll go away")

Behavior
35
Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon
Individual Perceptions of
Magnitude - large or small
  • Significance - positive or negative

Impact - personal or other
  • Timing - immediate or future
  • Consistency - certain or uncertain

36
Both Positive (R) Negative (R-) Reinforcement
Can Increase Behavior
  • R any consequence that follows a behavior and
    increases the probability that the behavior will
    occur more often in the future - You get
    something you want
  • R- a consequence that strengthens any behavior
    that reduces or terminates the consequence - You
    escape or avoid something you dont want

37
Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing em up!
R
One more report like this and youre outa here!!
R-
38
R
Performance
The effects of positive reinforcement
Time
39
Both Punishment Extinction Decrease Behavior
  • P a procedure in which a punisher (consequence
    that decreases the frequency of the behavior it
    follows) is presented - You may get something you
    dont want
  • E withholding or non-delivery of positive
    reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior
    - You dont get what you want

40
You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this
year good-bye.... and take a few days off without
pay!!!
P
Let him cry honey. If we get up every night when
he cries hell never learn to go to sleep
peacefully.
E
41
P
Performance
The effects of punishment
Time
42
Performance
E
The effects of extinction
Time
43
If you see this type of performance curve, you
can bet management by negative reinforcement is
the predominant management style
Performance
Time
44
What Employees Want
  • A Safe Workplace
  • A Positive Workplace
  • To Take Care of One Another
  • To Stop the Hurt!

45
What Management Wants
  • An Accident Free Workplace
  • Empowered Employees
  • Pro-active Rather Than Re-active Work Process
  • To Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs and Threat
    of Liability From Accidents

46
Why is one sign often ignored, the other one
often followed?
47
If you want to know what people find to be
reinforcing.... observe what they do when they
have the freedom to choose.
48
The Behavior Based Safety Challenge
To create conditions that encourage people to
collaborate because they want to not because
they have to
Lets do it!!
49
A Values-Based Process
  • Focus on the process.not resultsthey will
    come later!

50
Avoid The Following Headline
  • Behavior Based Safety Scores Show Significant
    Improvement - while injury rate climbs!

51
Why Do We Need to Change?
  • If you do what youve always done, youll get
    what you always got!
  • W. Edwards Deming
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