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Political Geography

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Title: Political Geography


1
Chapter 8
An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural
Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein
  • Political Geography

PPT by Abe Goldman
2
United Nations Members (list p. 250)
UN began with 51 members in 1945. As of Sept.
2011, there are 193 members, including South
Sudan, the newest. Kosovo could be the next new
member state.
3
  • K-1 Problems in Defining States Develop. of
    State Concept
  • A State (country)
  • area w/ organized polit. unit
  • ruled by establ. govt.
  • has defined territory
  • handles internal foreign affairs/issues
  • defined population
  • has sovereignty (independ. from other states
    self-rule)
  • -NOT state like USAs states (are really more
    like provinces)
  • -only large land mass on world that is NOT part
    of a state is Antarctica.but parts are claimed
    (some over-lapping) (S-4)

4
Antarctica National Claims
Antarctica is the only large landmass that is
not part of a state, but several countries
claim portions of it.
5
  • Defining states
  • --Korea 1 or 2 states? controlled by Japan
    till 1945 (WWII) then split by US Soviets (38th
    N. parallel) (1nat./2 states)
  • --50 N. invaded S. Korean Warboth want
    unification
  • China/Taiwan 1 or 2? 1940s Comm. Rebel
    drive
  • Nationalists to Taiwanwho said were still
    real govt of Chinacomm. said they were, but
    both said all 1 China
  • -1999 Taiwan said is separate stateCom-Chi
    still no
  • -US had supported Nationalists, but in 71 said
  • recogn. Com-Chi as real govt in the UN (R.
    Nixon)
  • --Western Sahara is same type situation
  • 5) REVIEW list on p. 250 of 189 sovereign
    states of UN
  • Use atlas Relative location OR absolute? Tell
    which it is

6
  • Varying Sizes Russia lrgst, 17.1 mill. Sq
    km/6.6 mil sq mi
  • Microstates smallest Monaco 1.5 sq km/.6 sq
    mi list 251
  • Development of State Concept ancient vs. modern
    idea
  • Ancient idea of states began in Mid-East in
    Fertile Cresc.
  • -1st states city-states town surrounding
    countryside for govt defense (like GWD
    city GWD county)
  • -Then 1 gains power, takes over anotherthen
    empire
  • EX Succession of emp. in Mesopotamia.
    Sumarians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians
  • -then Egyptian Empire in S. area (3000 BCE- 4th
    cent. BCE) at far W. end of Fertile Crescent,
    along the Nile River (for almost 2500 yrs!)
    5000 yrs ago
  • Early European states height of political unity
    (in ancient world) Roman Empire
  • Included Europe from Spain to Iran Egypt to
    England
  • -38 provinces, all used Rom. law, giving concept
    of govt.
  • -fell in 5th (400s) CE from attacks from
    barbarians also from internal
    problems/disputes

7
Fertile Crescent Site of early city-states a
succession of ancient empires (Mesopotamia,
Assyria, Babylonia, etc.) .
8
  • In Europe former Rome-controlled areas began to
    form under dukes, earls, barons, etc. gained
    strength about 1100, began to form larger areas
    that became Fr., Engl., Spain
  • -later led to idea of nation-states, (like
    Denmark)
  • --Germ. Ital. stayed in pieces did not form
    unified country until 19th century
  • Colonies area legally tied to another sov.
    state not independence
  • Colonialism technically is taking over
    uninhabited or
  • sparsely inhabited lands

9
European colonialism
  • Was based on 3 main reasons (God, gold, glory)
  • 1) Missionaries were used to promote Christianity
    give justification for taking over (p. 252)
    (God)
  • 2) Gain resources to help European mother
    country (gold)
  • 3) colonies related to how powerful you were
    (glory)
  • -began in 1400s in W. Hemisphere then later in
    Afr. Asia
  • Imperialism, or empire building taking
    over widely inhabited land by another country

10
  • After 1500s UK put together largest empire
  • QUOTE Sun never sets on British Empire.
    What does this mean?
  • With breakaway of USA, began to lose places
    though they took others in Africa Asia after
    USA formed
  • -Eur. had large areas of colonies there, but
    also islands
  • Difference betwn. Fr. Brit. Way of controlling
    colonies
  • -Fr. tried to make colonials French, but
    Brits allowed them to keep more diversitytheir
    old ways

11
  • End of Euro. Imperialism
  • African Asian colonies broke away after
    WWIIbegan in late 1940s, lots during 1950s
    thru 60s
  • When U.N. established in 1948, then were only 15
    African/Asian countriesnow 105 (2000)
  • Most colonies today islands in Pacific or
    Caribbean
  • Most populous colony today Puerto Rico (USA)
  • Least populous Pitcairn Isl., S. Pacific. The
    pop. there came from British ship The Bountys
    mutineers who settled (Mutiny on the Bounty)

12
Colonial Possessions 1914 By the outbreak of
WWI, European states held colonies thru the
world, espec. in Africa in much of Asia.
13
Colonial Possessions, 2003 (p. 254-5 2000)
Most remaining colonies are small islands in
Pacific or Caribbean
14
  • K-2 Why boundaries Cause problems
  • Boundaries invisible line marking extent of
    state territory
  • Used to be that almost all boundaries were
    frontiers, with few if any inhabitants, but now
    most all land is claimed defined.
  • Only Antarctica parts of the Arabian
    Peninsula are now true frontiers
  • 2 ways to define (determine) boundaries
  • 1) types of Physical features (3 of these)
  • water (rivers seas) deserts
    mountains
  • 2) Cultural features (4 types) to determine
  • language religion ethnicities
  • geometric (often latitude longitude
    lines)
  • Both physical cultural can conflict w/
    neighbors

15
  • After WWI (1919), Treaty of Versailles used
    language as the 1 way to determine boundaries
    of new states to adjust borders of existing
    states
  • US/Mex
  • Uses
  • which
  • aspects
  • to
  • determine border?

16
  • 5 basic SHAPES of states
  • Compact prorupted elongated
    fragmented perforated
  • 1. Compact efficient ideal shaped like
    circleor close
  • -good for small 1s b/c communication, esp. if
    capital in center
  • 2. Prorupted most compact large projecting
    extens. (often for water)
  • --also can do to avoid borders (Afgh. w/
    Russia?)
  • 3. Elongated isolation? EX Chile problems
    w/ communic.
  • --cap. usually at center, so end, not easily
    accessible to it
  • 4. Fragmented broken up by water, other states,
    etc
  • --EX Indonesia E/W Pakistan?
  • -problems communication, integration of
    pop. also
  • sometimes "pieces" didn't come in
    voluntarily
  • -EX E. Timorgot indep.('75) Indon.
    invades still fight
  • 5. Perforated EX S. Afr. Lesotho in middle,
    surrounded by
  • S. Afr.depends on SA for imports/exports by
    ship
  • Next slide ID each of the shapes for the
    states shown ?

17
Chile, Poland, Indonesia, S. Africa Can it be
2?
18
Italy, France, Thailand, Japan (See the dominant
shape)
19
  • Landlocked again, Lesotho (also Uruguay)
    Africa has most of any continent w/ 14/54
    landlocked
  • These have no seaports
  • -Comes from colonial erahad others on coast
    could ship to by rail
  • Now its problem for the local econ.
  • ...When landlocked AND have hostile ethnic
    group(s) in betw. sea borders Major problem
    for international trade

20
African States
Southern, central, eastern Africa include
states that are compact, elongated,
prorupted, fragmented perforated.
21
India The Tin Bigha Corridor fragmented 2
sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it
was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was
fragmented.
22
Frontiers in the Arabian PeninsulaSeveral
states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by
frontiers rather than precise boundaries.
23
Aozou Strip A Geometric Boundary
The straight boundary between Libya Chad was
drawn by European powers, the Aozou Strip
is the subject of controversy between the 2
countries.
24
  • WHY BOUNDARIES CAUSE PROBLEMS (p. 261)
  • State w/ many nationalities (262) Cyprus 2
    nationalities
  • After WWI, divided by lang. into Greek/Turk areas
    more Gks. there, but closer to Turkey then
    Britain gained it
  • Gave indep. In 1960 Gks/Tur shared govttil 74
    some Gks tried to take it for Greece, then Turkey
    invaded to protect from Turks
  • Groups used to associate w/ each other mingle,
    but now isolated at ends, w/ buffer in middle w/
    UN soldiers (Gk. Cypriots Turkish
    Cypriots)
  • Turks declared indep., but no one recognizes
    this except them

25
Division of Cyprus
Fig. 8-10 Cyprus has been divided into Green
Turkish portions since 1974.
26
  • Former USSR (262) Largest multi-national
    state former members now 15 new indep.
    states, in 5 groups
  • 1- Baltic States (3-on Baltic Sea) Estonia,
    Latvia, Lithuania
  • 2-European (3) Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine (in
    Ukr. some problems w/ Crimean Peninsulas pop.)
  • 3-Central Asian (5) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
    Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
  • 4-Caucasus (Cauc. Mtns., Eurasian border--3)
    Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia
  • -Azeris pop. 90 of Azerb.but 6 mill.
    live in Iran
  • -Armenia Christian enclave historically
    slaughtered by Muslim Turks after USSR, became
    Armenia again
  • --90 of country Armenians fight w/
    Azeris over border
  • lands in which both nationalities
    exist--Georgia more diverse than Azer. Arme.
    problems
  • 5-Russia now largest multi-natl. state
    recognize 39 natls.
  • -1 of these is Chechnya these Sunni
    Muslims w/
  • distinct culture Russ. says if it goes,
    others will also

27
  • Notes on enclave exclave (see next slide)
    These are not in your bookbut have appeared on
    APs
  • 1) enclave an area surrounded by an area that
    does not rule (control, ID w/ ) it.
  • EXs Vatican City Lesotho Gambia
    (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small
    outlet to the sea)
  • 2) exclaves parts of a national territory
    separated from the main body of the country
  • EXs Alaska Kaliningrad (part of Russia but
    on Baltic Sea) former E. Pakistan, separated
    from W. Pakistan
  • --is a kind of fragmentation

28
  • Exclaves
  • Russias Kalingrad on Baltic
  • Old E W Pakistan

29
Enclaves (Gambia penne quill
feather enclave elongated
open to sea) Lesotho in S. Afr.

30
Eastern Europe satellites (controlled by USSR)
Former USSR (another needed term!!!)
31
KNOW these!! Stateless Nations
  • Nation Part of which state?
    Region/Location
  • Scotland
  • Tibet
  • Kurdistan
  • Basque
  • Catalonia
  • Kashmir
  • N. Ireland
  • (aka Ulster)
  • Palestine
  • Western Sahara
  • Taiwan
  • Greenland
  • Sicily
  • Maori
  • Puerto Rico
  • Hawaii

32
  • Some have 1 nationality in more than 1 state 266
    Kurds Sunni Muslims in 1920s became
    nation-state
  • -now 25 mill. split among 6 countries Turkey
    (15), Iran (5), Iraq (4), less in Azerbai.
    Armenia, Syria
  • --Kurds are a stateless nation
  • --Turks dont allow their lang. or culture
    other prob. also
  • Pan-Arab Nation 1 nation, many states lang.
    relig. same for about 24 countries Islam
    Arabic
  • -main reason split up is Euro. colonialism
    Ottoman rule
  • --except for Israel, are well-united, but wealth
    not
  • equal b/c some have oil (petroleum), others
    dont
  • -p. 267 What happened from 1980-1991 that
  • ended unity?

33
Kurdish nation the Pan-Arab
nation
34
Kurdish distribution Label ALL indicate
areas by color
35
  • Unitary vs. Federal Internal organization of
    states
  • Unitary state power in hands of 1 central
    govt.
  • -unitary usually best for country w/ single
    nationality, like Europeans
  • -but many w/ multi-national use unitary to
    force 1 nations culture, lang., etc., onto
    another
  • EX USSR Chinese Comm., to promote communist
    ideas
  • Also--several African nations w/ many divided
    ethnicities 1 dominates
  • Characteristics that work for Unitary system
  • --smaller size, good central or accessible
    location for capital (for good communication)
  • --nation-states w/ few cultural differences,
    strong national unity (like many of European
    states)

36
  • Federal system
  • Govt in which a written constitution divides
    the powers of govt between a central (national)
    govt several regional governments, usually
    called states or provinces.
  • --local units of govt. are stronger than in
    unitary system
  • works well for larger countries that may have
    long distance for some to capital (US, Can.,
    India)
  • Also when have several nationalities, local
    control helps keep peace with the less
    influential grps.
  • EX Even though small, Belgium is Fed. b/c of
    its 2 nationalities (??)
  • --many now moving toward federal from
    unitary, like France Poland
  • -Frances change is going fine, but E.
    Europeans, like Poland, tend to have more
    trouble w/ changes

37
Unitary vs. Federal states (countries)Blue
Unitary Green Federal
38
  • Heartland vs. Rimland Theory of Geopolitics
    ?
  • Basically stated - Whoever rules Eastern Europe
    commands the heartland. - Whoever rules the
    heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia and
    Africa) - Whoever rules the World Island
    commands the World.

39
Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman)
Theory of Geopolitics
  • 1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE
    political strength in Eurasiaanalyzed the
    strengths weaknesses of the regions
  • Concluded the Russian Core areas east of the
    core had potential to become a world power.
  • 1919 revised his theory to include E. Europe
    the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland
    Theory.
  • Basically stated - Who rules East Europe
    commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland
    commands the World Island (Eurasia Africa) -
    Who rules the World Island commands the World.
  • 1942, Nicholas Spykman countered Mackinder's
    Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's
    Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the
    key to controlling the World Island, not the
    heartland.
  • Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World
    Politics" was published during World War II dealt
    w/ political military strength of the USA at
    that time.
  • Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its
    economic strength potential, but the book dealt
    w/ primarily military intervention, control
    conquest of the Old World.

40
ODD shapesGerrymandering FL GA
Gerrymandering designing borders to maximize
political influence
State legislature boundaries were drawn to
maximize the number of legislators for
Republicans in Florida Democrats in
Georgia.
41
  • K-3 Why States Cooperate w/ each other States
  • The UN (p. 274) began '45 w/ 49now has 192
    (191) job peace
  • -- Taiwan only populous w/o membershipTaiwan
    pulled out when China in in 1971
  • -recently tried to join as Taiwan or Repub. of
    Ch., but
  • Commun. China (Peoples Rep. of Ch.)
  • --Switzerland finally joined 2002
  • --all countries supposed to contribute military
    support
  • UN had rapid growth 3 times
  • 1) '55 (16) many former German controlled Euro.
    nations
  • 2) '60 (17) most former Euro. colonies
  • 3) -'90-93 (26) most former Comm. controlled
    countries
  • US tried to start League of Nations (Wilson,
    1919) after WWI, but US would not join
  • --then Germany, Italy, Sov. Union, Japan
    pulled out in '30's, League fell apart

42
  • UN Security Council 5 permanent members
  • USA USSR (now Russia) France China
    UK
  • These 5 have veto power often used to keep UN
    out of situations they were in
  • EX South North Korea in 50's
  • Soviets (USSR) walked out
  • Often UN tries to keep control over warring
    ethnic groups in places like Somalia, Bosnia
  • Tried to be neutral in Bosnia, but couldn't b/c
    of Serbs (Christian stronger) treatment of
    Muslims weaker group
  • 15 total 5 permanent members
  • 2 other sets of 5, in 2 yr. terms
    ?

43
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44
  • Regional military organ. (p. 270)
  • B4 Cold War in '40's-70's, were always more
    than 2 Superpowers but after WW II, US USSR
    came out as only 2 b/c others were hit hard
    economically
  • These 2 superpowers joined military alliances to
    keep balance of power
  • so you were
  • either "for" US or
  • for USSR (p. 270)
  • Others became
  • allies or satellites,

  • could cause

  • trouble

45
  • Military cooperation in Euro
  • Most of Europe joined NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization) after WWII
  • --military coop betwn. 16 democratic states
    US, Canada, 14 Europ (Fr. Sp. members but
    contrib. no troops)

46
  • Warsaw Pact 1955, Communist 7 member co-op
    group
  • -68 Czech. leader wanted reforms Warsaw Pact
    invaded
  • -NATO was to keep USSRs Warsaw P. straight
    vice-versa
  • When USSR busted, less needWarsaw broke up
  • NATO troops
  • were reduced
  • Some former
    Warsaw Pact
  • countries
  • join NATO
  • by 1997

47
  • OAS
  • 35 states in
  • W. Hemisphere
  • Cuba was a
  • member, but
  • was thrown out
  • in 1962 b/c of Castro

48
The European Union NATO
Fig. 8-12 NATO and the European Union have
expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw
Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
49
European Boundary Changes
20th century boundary changes in Europe, 1914
to 2003. Germanys boundaries changed after
each world war the collapse of the USSR.
50
  • Economic Coop (274).
  • EU (?) work toward econ. coop w/ Eur countries
    (1958)
  • At 1st Eur Econ Community, Common Mkt., Eur.
    Commun. began w/ Belgium, Fr., W.Germ., Italy,
    Luxem., Nether. 73 more81 more 86, 95
  • 3 EU capital cities
  • Strasbourg, Fr Brussels, Belg. Luxembourg
  • Now have a European Parlia. at 1st just helped
    w/ problems
  • --Now have more free trade among nations
  • --Use Euro as money in 11 countries
  • COMECON (?) b4 end of USSR, communist
    countries had COMECON which promoted trade among
    those countries

51
  • Shatter belt (extra needed term! Not in yr bk!)
  • Region caught between stronger colliding external
    cultural-political forces, under persistent
    stress, often fragmented by aggressive
    rivals."Area hit often with outside conflicts
    and stressesIt has also played the role of a
    cold war buffer zone.
  • EX Southeast Asia borders the "giants" of
    India and China. One country of the realm,
    Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island
    State of Indonesia controls the western half of
    the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is
    included in the pacific realm.Another EX
    Eastern Europe often invaded, cultural
    differences

52
Germany Europe
  • German domination of W. Eur?
  • --now the most powerful nation in European
    economy
  • --has pushed for a stronger, more united Eur.
  • This has led many in Eur. to fear Ger. may again
    rise as it did before WW I WWII
  • Ger. was not state until 1871
  • -Frederick the Great von Bismarck united
    many of the German speaking people into the
    German Empire (lasted less than 50 yrsend of WWI
    1919)
  • -WWII took German speakingor close
    countries of Austria, Poland, Czech., to make
    true German. nation-state
  • After WWII, split Ger into W E split Berlin to
    4 parts

53
New European Union NationsCzech Republic,
Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta,
Poland, Slovakia Slovenia join the Schengen
area.
54
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55
  • Trading blocs regional groups that give
    preferential treatment to those w/in their bloc.
  • 3 most important
  • 1) Western Hemisphere (NAFTA now CAFTA?)
  • NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
  • -Mexico, USA, Canada was Can.
    US,
  • then added Mex. became NAFTA
  • CAFTA Central Amer. Free Trade Agreement
  • 2) Western Eur. European Union
  • 3) East Asia Japan leads China, S. Korea,
    some
  • w/ N. Korea
  • OPEC ? (not really regional) --economic
    organization to protect oil producers
  • Oil embargo of 1973-74 led to gas rationing
    long lines in USA

56
  • US
  • adjusts to
  • Oil
  • Embargo
  • from
  • OPEC
  • Could
  • take hrs.
  • to get
  • 5 10
  • gallons!

57
  • K-4 Terrorism Individuals Organizations
  • States believed to support terrorism
  • Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran now
    Pakistan
  • Terrorism systematic use of violence by a group
    to intimidate a population or coerce (force) a
    govt. into granting its demands
  • -1st used in French Revolution Reign of Terror
    (1793-4)
  • -most times it refers to groups outside of
    govt.s
  • --differs from assassination
  • -terrorism is aimed at ordinary people
  • --but assn. aimed at leaders, etc.

58
Terror vs. retaliation Which is it? Us vs.
them???
  • Hard to tell at times
  • EX w/ Palestinians Jews gets very
    difficultIs it terrorismor a response to a
    wartime attack?
  • Does it depend on your POV?
  • What other groups do they mention?
  • Attacks on USA Several in 1990s
  • 1 on WTC, 1 on USS Cole, 2 attacks on U.S.
    African embassies, but most Americans ignored
    thesewas hard to get U.S. ppl involved

59
  • Amer. Terrorists OKC bombing, 1995 T. McVeigh
    said was retaliation against US govt. attacks on
    Branch Davidians in Waco, TX, in 93
  • Sept. 11, 2001 WTC destroyed Pentagon hit
    also
  • -Al Qaeda did most of the 1990s US attacks
  • -bin Laden son of Yemen billionaire ( made in
    Saudi Arabia) spent his inheritance building Al
    Qaeda (the base)
  • -1st fought against USSR in Afghanistan b/c of
  • Soviet hostility to religions his 1st jihad
    (holy war)

60
  • 1996 USA supported Saudi Arabia Israel, so
    called for jihad against US
  • -these are outlaw Islamic groups, actions NOT
    condoned by MOST Muslims, even if they disagree
    w/ many USAs policies
  • State sponsored terrorism
  • 3 increasing levels of involvement
  • 1) providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by
    other countries
  • 2) supplying weapons, , intelligence to
    terrorists
  • 3) planning attacks using terrorists
  • US Response to 9/11 US accused Afghanistan,
    Iraq, Iran w/ at least 1 of the 3 levels of
    support for terrorism
  • --attacked Afghan. in 2001 Iraq in 2003
  • Add Pakistan today?

61
  • Libya 1980s al-Qaddafi (Kaddafi) paid for
    executions of opponents exiled in Europe (Muamar
    Quadafi)
  • 1981 Libyan plane shot at US plane b/c said
    was over Libyan airspace US said international
    .. US shot down
  • In Lebanon Libyan bombers blew up Berlin
    nightclub used by US soldiers so US bombed 2
    Libyan cities
  • 1988 Pan-Am Flight 103 , over Lockerbie,
    Scotland, downed by Libyan agents
  • Afghanistan 1973 Afghan king overthrown by
    military
  • 1978replaced by govt friendly to Soviets
  • 1979, USSR sent in troops b/c of holy
    warriorsUSSR out in 1989
  • 1992, Taliban took over Taliban-led Afgh. was
    attacked
  • 09/11/2001 US hit Taliban b/c it sheltered bin
    Laden Al-Qaeda then ethnic grps fought for
    control
  • -Taliban is again growing in power w/ Pakistan
    support

62
SW Asian Ethnic Grps. Ethnic boundaries dont
match country boundaries... especially in Iraq,
Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan.
63
  • Iraq 1st trouble w/ Hussein 1991 Persian Gulf
    War b/c he invaded Kuwait but he stayed til 2003
  • 2003 US attacked in 2003 remove Saddam, saying
    had WMDs --supported by UK a few others
  • Difference 1991 2003 most of UN supported US
    in 91, but not in 2003 US attacked
    unilaterally
  • All knew Saddam was a tyrant, but said this
    didnt justify attacks to them ..most didnt
    think WMDs still in Iraq,
  • Iraq al-Qaeda ties? NO--Baathists a-Q have
    different views on most things, so most UN
    didnt see a close tie there
  • Iran 1979 Irans people forced the pro-US
    Shah out
  • Militants took over US embassy held them
    hostage for 444 daysUS was very hostile toward
    Iran
  • Iraq Iran began fighting each other in 80
    81 over a waterway that flowed into the Persian
    Gulf1.5 mill. died
  • US lately has begun saying Iran is urging
    Shiites in Iraq to take over establish
    poweralso nuclear (WMDs) issue

64
  • Other countries US has accused of terrorism or
    aiding terrorism
  • Yemen base for al-Qaeda cells sheltered
    terrorists who
  • attacked USS Cole
  • Sudan once sheltered bin Laden other
    militants
  • Syria support for Iranian Libyan terrorists
  • North Korea developing nuclear weapons

65
World Trade Center
Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center
June 30, 2000, before the attack.
66
Sept. 11 attacks
67
World Trade Center Site 9/15/2001
Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center
Sept. 15, 2001, after the attack.
68
Look at this mapwhat is the pink area showing?
69
  • Caucasus Region
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