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Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure The smallest part of an element is an _____ All atoms consist of subatomic particles: _____ _____ _____ – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Atomic Structure


1
Atomic Structure
  • The smallest part of an element is an
    _____________________
  • All atoms consist of subatomic particles
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________

2
Nucleus
  • The ___________of the atom
  • Contains ______________________of the atom
  • ____________ and ____________ are found ______
    the nucleus of an atom
  • Mass Number ___________________________

3
Protons
  • _________________________________
  • __________________________________
  • 1 proton 1 atomic mass unit (amu)
  • protons ________________________

4
Neutron
  • _______________________________
  • Found in the _______________
  • 1 neutron 1 amu
  • neutrons ____________________________

5
Electrons
  • __________________________________
  • Found in the ____________________
  • Electrons have a very small mass, so we dont
    even count it!
  • Electrons give atoms their _______________________
    ________
  • Atoms are neutral so ____________________________
    ______

6
Shorthand Notation
7
Isotopes
  • Atoms of the _________________with
    ________________________________.
  • Nuclear symbol
  • Hyphen notation ______________

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communic
ationsarts/pages/chem
8
Isotopes
Electrons
Nucleus
Electrons
Neutrons Protons Electrons
Neutrons Protons Electrons
Nucleus
9
6Li 7Li
Electrons
Electrons
Nucleus
Nucleus
Neutrons Protons Electrons
Neutrons Protons Electrons
10
Isotopes
  • Chlorine-37
  • atomic
  • mass
  • of protons
  • of electrons
  • of neutrons

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communic
ationsarts/pages/chem
11
Relative Atomic Mass
  • 12C atom 1.992 10-23 g
  • atomic mass unit (amu)
  • 1 amu 1/12 the mass of a 12C atom

Neutron
  • 1 p 1.007276 amu 1 n 1.008665 amu 1 e-
    0.0005486 amu

Electrons
Nucleus
Proton
Nucleus
Carbon-12
Neutrons 6 Protons 6 Electrons 6
12
Average Atomic Mass
  • weighted _________ of all ________
  • on the Periodic Table
  • round to _________ decimal places

Avg. Atomic Mass
(mass)() (mass)()

100
Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communic
ationsarts/pages/chem
13
Calculating Average Atomic Mass
  • You will be given the ____________and the
    ____________________(how common the isotope is in
    nature) of the isotope

14
Average Atomic Mass
  • EX Calculate the avg. atomic mass of oxygen if
    its abundance in nature is 99.76 16O, 0.04 17O,
    and 0.20 18O.

Avg. Atomic Mass


Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communic
ationsarts/pages/chem
15
Example
  • Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, what is
    Carbons mass number?
  • An isotope of Carbon has 6 protons and 8
    neutrons, what is carbons mass number?
  • Remember the number of __________ NEVER changes
    for an element!

16
Example
  • Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, what is
    Carbons mass number?
  • C-12
  • An isotope of Carbon has 6 protons and 8
    neutrons, what is carbons mass number?
  • C-14
  • Remember the number of protons NEVER changes for
    an element!

17
Isotope Review
  • Same element different number of
  • __________________
  • Different _________________
  • Same _____________, therefore the same number of
    protons and electrons

18
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19
Atomic Structure
  • ATOMS
  • Differ by number of _____________
  • IONS
  • Differ by number of _____________
  • ISOTOPES
  • Differ by number of _____________

20
Electrons
  • Electrons give elements their ____________________
    ______________
  • The arrangement of the electrons will determine
    how it _________ with other substances
  • Gain electron the atom becomes _______
    (_______________)
  • Lose an electron the atom becomes ___________
    (________________)

21
Electrons are found in the ______________
  • The cloud has regions of space called energy
    levels
  • The first energy level holds ____ electrons
  • The second energy level holds _____ electrons.
  • The third energy level holds ____ electrons

22
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23
Valence Electrons
  • Are found _______________________
  • Dictate the _________ and ___________
    ________________ of an element
  • Use the periodic table to determine the number of
    valence electrons.

24
Lewis Dot Diagram
  • A way to illustrate the number of valence
    electrons
  • Use _______for each valence electron
  • Place the dot ______ each side of the symbol
    before pairing the electrons
  • The __________ represents the nucleus plus all
    the inner electrons for the element.

25
Examples
  • H
  • O
  • N
  • F
  • Ne

26
Electrons and Light
  • Electrons are normally in the ____________________
    __________
  • When the atom is given ___________ the electrons
    move to the ___________ state.
  • When the electrons ________ this energy they fall
    back to the ground state and emit
    _______________.
  • Each element has a unique ________________________
    ___

27
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28
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29
Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Electromagnetic Radiation
  • A broad range of energetic emissions
  • made up of photons
  • Photons bundles of energy
  • Travel like waves
  • Move at the speed of light 3.0 x 108 m/s
  • Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium to
    move

30
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31
Parts of the wave
  • Amplitude the height of the wave
  • Wavelength the distance between the two
    successive waves
  • Frequency the number of waves that pass a given
    reference point per second

32
  • Wavelength lamda in units of nm
  • Frequency nu in units of 1/s or s-1

33
What is the difference between these waves?
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