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Title: INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTS: Conflicts between Security and Science in the Issuing of Visas


1
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTSConflicts
between Security and Science in the Issuing of
Visas
  • Dr. John V. Richardson Jr.
  • Associate Dean, UCLA Graduate Division
  • Winter 2005

2
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ENROLLMENT DECLINES
Comparison of Fall 2004 and Fall 2003 Graduate
Enrollment International Students by
School/Division
SOURCE UCLA Graduate Division, IRIS (Dr. Pamela
Taylor, 310.825.6453)
3
GRADUATE APPLICATIONS DECLINE
March 1, 2004 March 1, 2005
Total Applications 19,215 17,463
Domestic 13,086 11,869
International  6,129 5,594
  • Total Applications are down by 9.1
  • Domestic Applications are down by 9.3
  • International Applications are down by 8.7
  •  
  • Applications from
  • the PRC are down by 19 (1694 to 1371)
  • Taiwan are down by 3 (789 to 763)
  • India are down by 15 (826 to 702)
  • Korea are down by 6.7 (984 to 918)
  • Japan are down by18 (357 to 292)
  • SOURCE Dan Bennett (Graduate Admissions) and
    Mats Granlund (IRIS)

4
A SERIOUS PROBLEM NATIONALLY
  • Decline in applications
  • Decline in offers
  • Decline in acceptances
  • This is a serious problem
    for our country
  • according to Dr. Peter D. Spear, Provost at the
    University of Wisconsin (New York Times, 10
    November 2004)

5
MULTIPLE REASONS
  • Increase in Non-Resident Tuition (NRT)
  • EUs Higher Education Zone (2010)
  • English instruction in Hong Kong, Singapore,
    Australia and New Zealand
  • Growing educational infrastructure in China,
    India, and elsewhere
  • GRE suspensions
  • Attitudes and perceptions of visa process
  • Visa denials

6
INCREASE IN NRT AT UCLA
UCLA Graduate Student Total Annual Mandatory Fees
1995-present
7
EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
8
EU HEADS OF STATE (LISBON, 2000)
  • Meeting in Lisbon in March 2000, heads of state
    set an ambitious ten-year goal for a united
    Europe, to have
  • The most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based
    economy in the world by 2010 (European
    Commission)

9
EUS AREA OF HIGHER EDUCATION
  • Aka the Bologna Process, Sorbonne Declaration,
    Prague Communiqué, and Berlin Communiqué
  • The Bologna Process articulated multiple
    objectives of increased mobility, improved
    employability, and a more attractive and
    competitive area with
  • Harmonization by 2010 on the following
  • English language instruction, joint degrees, a
    common transcript, and internships
  • SOURCE http//www.eng.unibo.it/PortaleEn/Universi
    ty/BolognaProcess/default.htm
    (accessed 30 November 2004)

10
HONG KONG
  • HKs University Grants Committee makes awards to
    8 universities based on 3 exercises
  • Research Assessment Exercise,
  • Teaching and Learning Quality Program Review, and
  • Management Review
  • 5 B Technology and Innovation Fund established
    in November 1997
  • SOURCE http//www.ugc.edu.hk/english/documents/tl
    qpr.html and http//www.chamber.org.hk/memberarea/
    chamber_view/policy_statement_template.asp?id440

11
SINGAPORE
  • Singapore has 3 universities (National University
    Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, and
    Singapore Management University) plus
  • 4 polytechnics (Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Republic
    Polytechnic, Singapore Polytechnic, and Temasek
    Polytechnic), and
  • One institute (Institute of Technical Education)
  • SOURCE http//www.moe.gov.sg/corporate/post_secon
    dary.htm

12
SOUTH KOREA
  • Its Education Ministry wishes to nearly triple
    the number of its international students
  • Growth from17,000 to 50,000 in the next five
    years
  • Korean website (www.studyinkorea.go.kr)
  • Increases number of scholarships by 25 percent
    next year
  • Promises to streamline student visa process
  • 85 of its foreign students are from Asian
    countries
  • SOURCE Alan Brender, South Korean Seeks Huge
    Increaser in Number of Foreign Students,
    Chronicle of Higher Education 51 (4 March 2005)
    A36.

13
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
  • In 2003, Australia enrolled 539 international
    students in the natural sciences, engineering,
    and information technology 108 are from China
    about 45 in science and 30 in engineering from
    India
  • Online visa application for study in Australia
  • Higher education is a 5B industry for Australia
  • SOURCE Mervis, Science, May 2004 and
    http//www.immi.gov.au/e_visa

14
FIRST US DECLINE SINCE 1971
  • Uninterrupted enrollment growth in international
    students for three decades
  • 2.4 percent decline in fall 2003
  • SOURCE Institute of International Education,
    Open Doors 2004
  • http//opendoors.iienetwork.org

15
GRE SUSPENSIONS
  • In 2002, ETS suspended GRE General Test in China,
    South Korea, and Taiwan due to widespread
    cheating as evidenced by monthly scalloping of
    scores
  • From Fall 2002 to Spring 2003, ETS suspended GRE
    Computer Science in China and India due to
    sharing of questions
  • In April 2003, ETS suspended GMAT, GRE, TOEFL,
    and other tests in China for two months due to
    SARS
  • SOURCE Mervis, Science May 2004 citing David
    Payne at ETS (Princeton, NJ) and
    http//www.ets.org/news/archive.html

16
FEWER GRE EXAM TAKERS
  • Percentage change from 2002/03 to 2003/2004
  • India, down 56
  • China, down 51
  • South Korea, down 28
  • Re-start of GRE on paper takers still down
  • SOURCE ETS U.S. Slips in Status as Global Hub
    of Higher Education, New York Times, 21 December
    2004, p. A1 and A19.

17
ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS
  • Response to 9/11
  • America is for Americans
  • America is less safe (crime and popular culture)
  • New languages and cultures are a threat
  • No one will speak my language
  • Long visa delays (of the past)
  • Its not worth queuing up for two days outside
    the U.S. consulate
  • High likelihood of (type of) visa denial
  • Visas are hard to get

18
PERCEPTUAL CHANGES,1999 TO 2003
  • SOURCE Office of Research, State Department
    Pew Center for the People and the Press at
    http//people-press.org/reports/display.php3?Repor
    tID175  (2003)

19
A TYPICAL GRADUATE STUDENT
  • Top recruit
  • Admit offer
  • Returns SIR
  • Financial Documentation
  • Issue I-20
  • Next

20
UCLA INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS, 2001
Fall 2001 Total Campus Registrants of
International Graduate Students by Country of
Citizenship or Region (Students with temporary
visas only)
21
UCLA INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS, 2001
Fall 2001 Total Campus Registrants of
International Graduate Students by Field and
School (Students with temporary visas only)
22
BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS (STATE)
  • CA administers laws, writes regulations and
    implements policies relating to a broad range of
    consular services including issuing visas and
    travel advisories.
  • Funded predominately by fee collections
  • Processed 8M visa applications with a staff of
    400 in 1990 up to 10M with 600 staff in 2001
  • Mexico City and Seoul process the majority of
    non-immigrant visas (NIV)
  • SOURCE GAO State OIG ISP I 03 26 (December 2002)

23
WHAT IS A VISA?
  • If youre a citizen of a foreign country, in
    most cases youll need a visa to enter the United
    States.
  • A visa doesnt permit entry to the U.S.,
    however. A visa simply indicates that your
    application has been reviewed by a U.S. consular
    officer at an American embassy or consulate, and
    that the officer has determined youre eligible
    to enter the country for a specific purpose.
    Consular affairs are the responsibility of the
    U.S. Department of State.
  • A visa allows you to travel to the United States
    as far as the port of entry (airport or land
    border crossing) and ask the immigration officer
    to allow you to enter the country. Only the
    immigration officer has the authority to permit
    you to enter the United States. He or she decides
    how long you can stay for any particular visit.
    Immigration matters are the responsibility of the
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
  • SOURCE http//www.unitedstatesvisas.gov/whatis/in
    dex.html

24
VISAS ISSUED, 1995 TO PRESENT
  • All Non Immigrant Visas F1, J1, and M1
  • 1995, 6.18M TBS
  • 1996, 6.23M TBS
  • 1997, TBS TBS
  • 1998, TBS TBS
  • 1999, TBS 480,131
  • 2000, TBS 526,997
  • 2001, 7.58M 560,499
  • 2002, 5.76M 492,279
  • 2003, 4.81M 473,716
  • 2004, 5.05M 478,219
  • SOURCE TBSTO BE SUPPLIED US State Department,
    Visa Office, February 2005

25
STUDENT EXCHANGE VISITOR INFORMATION SYSTEM
(DHS/ICE)
  • Aka SEVIS, required by Congress in 2002 under the
    Enhanced Border SecurityAct
  • 1 August 2003 deadline for entering all
    international students into this system
  • ATLAS, Newfront enterprise software, version 6.1
    for managing student data

26
APPLICANT CALLS POST FOR
  • An appointment in the proper consular district
    and then
  • Waits (wait was generally 2 weeks or more)
    since FY2003 students, however, are given
    priority appointments
  • Their student data must be in SEVIS first
  • Interviewed in person by the postand may
    require
  • Form I-20 AB Certificate of Eligibility for
    Nonimmigrant (i.e., F-1) Student Status or
  • Form DS-2019 Certificate of Eligibility for
    Nonimmigrant Visitor (i.e., J-1) Status
  • Form DS-156 Non-immigrant Visa Application and,
    if male, then a
  • Form DS-157 Supplemental Non-immigrant Visa
    Application (both are electronic)
  • Form I-901 Fee Remittance for Certain F, J, and
    M Nonimmigrants
  • Includes a photograph and a quick fingerprint
    scan
  • Payment of fees (for example, 100 application
    fee, 100 SEVIS fee, plus any reciprocal fee)
  • SOURCE US GAO 04371 and http//www.ice.gov/graph
    ics/sevis/pdf/I-901.pdf and State

27
JURIDICAL PERSONS (PASSPORTS)
  • Identification (who you say that you are)
  • Validation (who you really are)
  • Since the 18th Century, nation states have tried
    to control the internal as well as external
    movement of citizens and foreigners
  • SOURCE Torpey, Invention of Passports (2004)

28
SEVERAL PROBLEMATIC PASSPORTS
  • SOURCE Google Images

29
STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM (STATE)
  • 6 nation states which sponsor terrorism, as of
    2005
  • Cuba
  • Iran
  • Libya
  • North Korea
  • Sudan
  • Syria
  • SOURCE http//www.state.gov/s/ct and 9 FAM
    40.31, Exhibit II http//www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/p
    gtrpt/2000/2441.htm and http//foia.state.gov/mast
    erdocs/09FAM/0940031X2.PDF
  • (Iraq was removed in 2004)

30
CONSULAR POST
  • Each embassy or consulate abroad offers its own
    free advice, guidelines, how-to, and other tips
    on their own Websites at
  • http//www.unitedstatesvisas.gov and
  • Links to U.S. Embassies and Consulates
    Worldwide at http//travel.state.gov/travel/abroa
    d_embassies.html

31
CONSULAR OFFICER
  • What does a consular officer do?
  • acquire expertise in local laws, economic
    conditions, political situation and culture to
    make informed and rapid decisions affecting US
    citizens abroad
  • help American citizens obtain emergency medical
    assistance
  • evacuate American citizens as disasters or armed
    conflicts require
  • visit arrested Americans and ensure they have
    access to legal counsel
  • Re-issue passports to US citizens
  • screen foreign visa applicants and decide whether
    to issue or deny visa to travel to the U.S. port
    of entry
  • SOURCE http//www.careers.state.gov/officer/co.ht
    ml

32
A CONSULAR INTERVIEW
  • INTERVIEWER Why do you want to go and study in
    our country?
  • INTERVIEWEE Well, sirI thinkhm, eh, I mean
    going abroad will allow me to be more
    knowledgeable, and hm, it will provide me with
    necessary tools that can help me with my future
    career. Also, by going abroad to studyI think I
    can learn more about other people.
  • INTERVIEWER Are you saying you cant learn all
    those things in this country?
  • INTERVIEWEE No sir.
  • INTERVIEWER OK, why do you want to go and study
    in our country?
  • INTERVIEWEE I would like to go there to further
    my study and because I have some friends who are
    studying there right now.
  • SOURCE Olaniran and Williams (1995) 230-231

33
CLASS (State)
  • Consular Lookout And Support System (CLASS), a
    watch list and every visa applicant must be name
    checked prior to adjudication and issuance
  • A name check database consisting of 20 million
    records of visa refusals, immigration
    violations, and terrorism concerns
  • Reviews name, DOB, and nationality in the
    database
  • A fuzzy logic query returns either of two
    results
  • Negative record (i.e., high likelihood of visa
    without further investigation)
  • Positive (i.e., a derogatory means potential
    ineligibility)
  • A negative record means the visa can be printed
  • However, a positive hit may invoke an Security
    Advisory Opinion (SAO)
  • SOURCE 9 FAM Appendix D and Tony Edson, Head of
    VISA Office State, 10 January 2005

34
CONSULAR CONSOLIDATED DATABASE
  • Consular Consolidated Database (CCD), a database
    of visa applications, non-immigrant visas, US
    passports, service to American citizens abroad
  • Which interacts with uploaded SEVIS information
    (i.e., Forms I-20 or DS-2019)
  • I-20, application form for F-1 visa, identifying
    the field of study, length of study, and
    reporting date
  • DS-2019, application form for J-1 visa
  • 80 M records, 40M of which have biometric facial
    photos and can be run against face matching
    software

35
SECURITY ADVISORY OPINION
  • Aka SAO simply, a written opinion from
    Washington on students clearance
  • Only 2.5 of all visas require SAOs (Maura
    Harty, Assistant Secretary of State for Consular
    Affairs)
  • Approval comes as a cable for example, "Donkey
    Mantis 99 State 99999".

36
SAO (State)
  • Security Advisory Opinion may involve
  • Central Intelligence Agency
  • Commerce Department
  • Department of Defense
  • Department of Homeland Security
  • Drug Enforcement Agency
  • Federal Bureau of Investigations Investigative
    Division (response database as well as its
    National Criminal Information Center (NCIC))
  • Interpol
  • State Departments Bureau of Non-proliferation
  • Treasurys Office of Foreign Asset Control and
    Secret Service
  • And any other agencies which report back to the
    State Department within 15 days, and which then
    prepares and forwards it to the post
  • SOURCE http//travel.state.gov/visa/testimony10.
    html GAO 04-371 (February 2004)

37
(State)
  • Now classified official use only aka critical
    fields list covers 200 scientific and technical
    fields
  • In August 2002, TALs last public iteration
    included 16 areas advanced ceramics, advanced
    computer/microelectronic technology aircraft and
    missile propulsion and vehicular systems
    chemical and biotechnology engineering
    conventional munitions high-performance metals
    and alloys information security laser and
    directed energy systems marine technology
    materials technology navigation and guidance
    control nuclear technology remote imaging and
    reconnaissance robotics and sensors.
  • As recently as November 2000, the list included
    conventional munitions, nuclear technology,
    rocket systems and unmanned vehicles, navigation,
    avionics and flight control chemical,
    biotechnical and biomedical engineering remote
    sensing advanced computer and microelectronic
    technology materials technology information
    security laser and directed energy systems
    sensors and sensor technology marine technology
    robotics and urban planning.
  • SOURCE 9 FAM 40.31, Appendix 1 August 2002
    http//foia.state.gov/masterdocs/09fam/0940031X1.p
    df

38
VISAS MANTIS (codeword1)
  • Dating from the cold war, involves illegal
    technology transfer
  • Cablegrams are urgent telegrams
  • According to 9 FAM 300, App. E
  • Mantis criteria, illegal transfer of sensitive
    technology
  • Codeword1 according to 9 FAM 300, App. E
  • Bear, foreign government officials
  • Condor, special target demographic male
    national between the ages of 16 and 45 from a
    classified list of countries (Section 306)
  • Donkey, derogatory watch list information (CLASS
    hit)
  • Eagle, name check for certain nationalities (such
    as Peoples Republic of China nationals applying
    in China or Russian nationals applying in Russia)
  • SOURCE State OIG, Memo Report ISP-I-03-26 Tony
    Edson, 10 December 2004

39
VISAS MANTIS (State)
  • Started in January 1998 in its current form
  • See Maura Harty, Assistant Secretary of States
    Op Ed Piece in Chronicle of Higher Education, 8
    October 2004
  • Concern is Illegal transfer of sensitive
    technology
  • Five full-time from BCA, State employees help
    ensure the process moves smoothly, with more in
    other agencies which actually do the clearance
  • Backlogs of 2K cases in the summer of 2002 peaks
    in late December 2003 (see next slide)
  • Wait times are now posted for individual
    consulates
  • China is the largest source of MANTIS cases
  • Expedited clearing is possible
  • SOURCE http//usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2004/Fe
    b/27-585249.html http//travel.state.gov/visa/tes
    timony10.html

40
MANTIS SAO BACKLOGS DECLINE
Average Time to Clear Mantis SAOs by Month as of
1/3/2005 VISTA Data
41
IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT
  • P.L. 82-414 8 USC 1101 et seq.
  • This 1952 Act has been amended numerous times
    including
  • Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
    Responsibility Act of 1996
  • The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (FBI access)
  • Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act of
    2002 and
  • Homeland Security Act of 2002.
  • SOURCE www.uscis.gov

42
INA 214 (b) VISA DENIALS
  • Every alien shall be presumed to be an immigrant
    until he establishes to the satisfaction of the
    consular officer, at the time of application for
    admission, that he is entitled to a nonimmigrant
    status...
  • WHAT CONSTITUTES "STRONG TIES"?
  • Strong ties differ from country to country, city
    to city, individual to individual. Some examples
    of ties can be a job, a house, a family, a bank
    account. Ties are the various aspects of your
    life that bind you to your country of residence
    your possessions, employment, social and family
    relationships.
  • SOURCE http//travel.state.gov/visa/frvi_denials
    .html

43
P.L. 107-173
  • Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform
    Act of 2002
  • America is not a fortress no, we never want to
    be a fortress. We're a free country we're an
    open society. And we must always protect the
    rights of our law--of law-abiding citizens from
    around the world who come here to conduct
    business or to study or to spend time with their
    family, according to President Bush on 14 May
    2002.
  • Title 3 (Visa Issuance), Section 306 State
    Sponsored Terrorism
  • State met the 26 October 2004 deadline for
    biometric finger scans of all visa applicants
    also done at port of entry (POE)
  • SOURCE http//frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/g
    etdoc.cgi?dbname107_cong_public_lawsdocidfpubl
    173.107

44
SUCCESSVISA IS ISSUED
  • Waiting for an approved
  • I-129 Petition for a Non-immigrant Worker
  • I-797 Notice of Action
  • from the DHS, Bureau of Citizenship and
    Immigration Services

45
FY 2003 F-1 VISA DENIALS (GAO)
Nationality F-1 Issued F-1 Refused F Workload Rough Estimate of Refused
South Korea 34,697 8,119 42,816 18.96
China (and Taiwan) 31,322 22,995 54,317 42.33
Japan 25,962 1,387 27,349 5.07
India 20,320 17,973 38,293 46.94
Brazil 7,625 1,761 9,386 18.76
Germany 5,376 1,122 6,498 17.27
Great Britain 3,536 874 4,410 19.82
Russia 1,645 1,325 2,970 44.61
Poland 1,243 906 2,149 42.16
All others 103,853 71,733 175,586 40.85
TOTAL 235,579 128,195 363,774 35.24
46
FY 2003 J-1 VISA APPROVALS (GAO)
Nationality J visas issued J visas refused J workload Rough Estimate of Approved
South Korea 14,218 1,507 15,725 90.4
China (mainland and Taiwan) 10,171 7,003 17,174 59.2
Japan 11,377 305 11,682 97.4
India 5,311 1,718 7,029 75.6
Brazil 8,297 520 8,817 94.1
Germany 22,600 923 23,523 96.1
Great Britain 17,354 1,052 18,406 94.3
Russia 17,185 8,412 25,597 67.1
Poland 20,675 2,637 23,312 88.7
All others 156,472 30,537 187,009 83.4
Total 283,660 54,614 338,274 83
47
COMPUTER ASSISTED PASSENGER PRESCREENING PROGRAM
II (TSA)
  • 15 minutes before departure airline manifest is
    shared with US government
  • Proposed on January 2003, CAPPS II (Passenger and
    Aviation Security Screening Records) would
    compare passenger recordsagainst commercial
    data-bases such as Lexis-Nexis and Acxiom, using
    name, home address and telephone, and DOBand
    then national security information looking for
    criminal and terrorist records.
  • Would score all passengers, but especially non-US
    citizens, with a number and a color
  • Currently, cash customers and one-way ticket
    purchases are subject to secondary screening
    SSS or is marked on the boarding pass
  • SOURCE http//www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?conte
    nt1115

48
PORT OF ENTRY
  • Your passport, valid for at least six months
    beyond the date of your expected stay
  • With the attached envelope When you receive your
    nonimmigrant visa at a U.S. embassy or consulate,
    the consular officer will seal your immigration
    documents in an envelope and attach it to your
    passport. You should not open this envelope! The
    Customs and Border Protection Officer at the U.S.
    Port of Entry will open the envelope and
  • SEVIS Form I-20.
  • In addition, it is strongly recommended that you
    also hand carry the following documentation
  • Evidence of financial resources
  • Evidence of student status, such as recent
    tuition receipts and transcripts
  • Paper receipt for the SEVIS fee, Form I-797, and
  • Name and contact information for your Designated
    School Official, including a 24-hour emergency
    contact number at the school.
  • If Arriving By Air Flight attendants will
    distribute Customs Declaration Forms (CF-6059)
    and Arrival Departure Record Forms (I-94). These
    must be completed prior to landing.
  • SOURCE http//www.ice.gov/graphics/sevis/factshe
    et/100104ent_stdnt_fs.htm

49
PORT OF ENTRY DIGITAL SCREENING
  • US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant
    Status Indicator Technology) involves
  • Inkless, digital finger scanner captures scans
    of left and right index fingers.
  • Officer then takes a digital photograph.
  • Biographic and biometric data are used to match
    identity against State Department data acquired
    when visa was issued.
  • SOURCE DHS More Ports of Entry to Use Digital
    Screening, LA Times, 4 January 2005, p. A14.

50
THINGS TO AVOID
  • Congressional offices cannot expedite visas
  • Embassies and consulates probably should not be
    contacted directly about particular visa
    applications

51
APPLICANT RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Applicants should consistently use their passport
    name on all other official documentation
  • Follow the recommendations and tips at
    http//travel.state.gov for the US consular
    office which has jurisdiction

52
FACULTY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • On international trips, give a talk about getting
    into US graduate schools
  • Make earlier departmental decisions
  • Increase departmental support to international
    students
  • Goal change perception that the US is not
    welcoming and that visas are hard to get

53
DEAN RECOMMENDATIONS
  • NRT waivers and IELTS/TOEFL inter-changeability
  • Propose paying for SEVIS fee
  • Support staff membership in NAFSA
  • Consider visiting US Congress on macro visa
    topics
  • Representative (Boehner, R-OH Lugar, R-IN)
  • Senator (Gregg, R-NH Kennedy, D-MA)
  • Members, Committee on Government Reform

54
UNIVERSITY STAFF RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Encourage applicants to use name on passport
    consistently on all official documents
  • Campaign for NRT waivers
  • Consider writing US Congress re macro issues
  • Representative
  • Senator
  • Members, Committee on Government Reform

55
FURTHER QUESTIONS
  • What else would you like to know about?
  • What other questions do you have?

56
READINGS
  • Barr, Stephen. At Foreign Service, Road to the
    Top Will Run Through Hardship Posts, The
    Washington Post, 10 December 2004, p. B2.
  • Brender, Alan. South Korean Seeks Huge
    Increaser in Number of Foreign Students,
    Chronicle of Higher Education 51 (4 March 2005)
    A36
  • Brown, Heath A. and Syverson, Peter D.
    International Graduate Admissions Survey Program.
    Washington, DC Council of Graduate Schools,
    Summer 2004.
  • Freedman, Samuel G. Grad Schools International
    Glow Dims, New York Times, 27 October 2004.
  • Gordon, Charles Stanley Mailman and Stephen
    Yale-Loeh. Immigration Law Procedure.
    Matthew Bender, 2004.
  • Hanassab, Shideh and Tidwell, Romeria.
    International Students in Higher Education
    Identification of Needs and Implications for
    Policy and Practice, Journal of Studies in
    International Education 6 (Winter 2002) 305-322.
  • Harty, Maury. US Visa Policy Securing Borders
    and Opening Doors, Washington Quarterly 28
    (Spring 2005) 23-34.
  • Hunt, Gaillard . The American passport its
    history and a digest of laws, rulings and
    regulations governing its issuance Washington,
    DC GPO, 1898.
  • Mervis, Jeffrey. Is the U.S. Brain Gain
    Faltering? Science 304 (no. 5675, 28 May 2004)
    1278-1282.
  • Olaniran, Bolanle A.  and Williams, David
    E. Communication Distortion An Intercultural
    Lesson from the Visa Application Process,
    Communication Quarterly 43 n2 (Spring 1995)
    225-40.

57
EVEN MORE READINGS
  • Reid, T.R. The United States Of Europe The New
    Superpower and the End of American Supremacy .
    New York Penguin, 2004.
  • Selvaratnam, Viswanathan. Innovations in Higher
    Education. Singapore at the Competitive Edge.
    Washington, D.C. The World Bank, 1994.
  • Stimpson, Catharine. Foreign Students Need Not
    Apply, CGS Communicator 39, no. 9 (November
    2003) 1, 4.
  • Torpey, John et al. The Invention of the
    Passport Surveillance, Citizenship and the
    State. Cambridge CUP, 2000.
  • U.S. Department of State, Office of the Inspector
    General. Review of Nonimmigrant Visa Issuance
    Policy and Procedure. Memorandum Report
    ISP-I-03-26. Washington, DC December 2002.
  • U.S. Department of State, Technology Alert
    List, 9 FAM 40.31, Exhibit I.
  • U.S. Department of State, Office of the
    Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Overview of
    State-Sponsored Terrorism (30 April 2001).
  • U.S. Congress. House of Representatives.
    Dealing with Foreign Students and Scholars in an
    Age of Terrorism Visa Backlogs and Tracking
    Systems. Hearing before the Committee on
    Science. House of Representatives, One Hundred
    Eighth Congress, First Session (March 26, 2003).

58
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • In UCLAs Graduate Division Dan Bennett
    (Graduate Admissions/Student Academic Affairs),
    Mats Granlund (IRIS), Ken Hill (GEL), Jacqueline
    Nagatsuka (IRIS), Pamela Taylor (IRIS), Jim
    Turner (former AVC), and Mary Watkins (IRIS)
  • In UCLAs Graduate Student Association Amanda
    Moussa and Michelle Sugi and
  • At US State Department Kelly Shannon and Stephen
    Tony Edson (Head of Visa Services).
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