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Cell respiration

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Cell respiration Definition: The series of chemical reactions in cells which oxidize food energy (Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) into cell energy (ATP) and heat ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cell respiration


1
Cell respiration
  • Definition
  • The series of chemical reactions in cells which
    oxidize food energy (Carbohydrates, proteins,
    lipids) into cell energy (ATP) and heat may
    occur with or without O2 being used as the
    terminal electron acceptor (aerobically or
    anaerobically)
  • General equation
  • Glucose O2 ? CO2 H2O ATP Heat

2
The bottom line of cell respiration is the
production of ATP (cell energy)
  • ATP can be produced in 1 of 3 ways
  • Substrate-level phosphorylation
  • Essentially, Food-P ADP ? food ATP
  • 2) Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Occurs as NADH2 and FADH2 relay e-s to an
    ETC, setting up an electrochemical gradient of
    Hs which is relieved by ATPase which uses
    kinetic energy of proton flow to form ATP from
    ADP Pi
  • 3) Photophosphorylation during photosynthesis

3
Substrate-level phosphorylation -occurs during
the rxns of Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
4
Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs during the rxns
of the Electron Transport Chain along inner
membrane (cristae) of the mitochondrion
5
The complete oxidation of foodAerobic respiration
  • Equation Glucose O2 ? CO2 H2O energy
  • The above set of reactions occur in 4 distinct
    steps
  • Glycolysis splits 6-C glucose into 2 X 3-C
    pyruvic acids (pyruvates)
  • Pyruvate oxidation removes 1 C from each
    pyruvate to form 2 X 2-C acetyl groups which may
    enter the rxns of the Krebs Cycle
  • Krebs Cycle cyclical series of rxns which break
    down each of the 2-C acetyl groups into 2 CO2
  • Electron Transport Chain electron carrying
    coenzymes relay their e-s to a series of
    electron carrying proteins to O2 setting up an
    electrochemical gradient which is relieved
    through ATPase which transforms the kinetic
    energy of proton flow into ATP formation

6
During each step of the process, energy is
released!!
  • In Glycolysis 4 total ATPs are formed (yet,
    there is only a net gain of 2 ATPs) and 2 NAD
    coenzymes are reduced to NADH2
  • In Pyruvate oxidation 2 NADH2s are produced
  • In the Krebs Cycle 2 ATPs are formed, 6 NADH2s
    are produced, and 2 FADH2s
  • In Electron Transport 32 ATPs are formed as 10
    NADH2s and 2 FADH2s are oxidized back to NAD
    and FAD and recycled back to the system and
    re-used

7
4
1
ETC
2
3
8
The reactions of cell respirationGlycolysis
9
The reactions of cell respirationPyruvate
oxidation
10
The reactions of cell respirationthe Krebs Cycle
11
the Electron Transport Chain
12
Overview of aerobic respiration
  • General equation glucose O2 ? CO2 H2O
    energy
  • Glucose is oxidized (broken down) to form 6 CO2
  • E-s stripped away from glucose are relayed to
    ETC by NAD and FAD coenzymes and accepted by O2
  • O2 is the terminal electron acceptor
  • ETC relays e-s and pumps Hs (protons)
  • H outside of ETC membrane is relieved by
    ATPase
  • Hs flow through ATPase
  • ATPase transforms kinetic flow of Hs into bond
    between ADP and P
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