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Diabetes 101

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Title: Diabetes 101


1
Diabetes 101
  • What Everyone Needs To Know
  • Before Its Too Late

2
What You Can Expect
  • Who has diabetes
  • What is diabetes
  • Types of diabetes what they are
  • Pre-diabetes
  • Symptoms complications
  • Tests
  • What to do if you are pre-diabetic
  • Pets get diabetes too
  • Wrap up

3
EVERY 20 SECONDS SOMEONE IS DIAGNOSED WITH
DIABETES
Are you next?
4
Who Has Diabetes?
  • 23.6 MILLION children adults have diabetes
  • Thats 7.8 of the population
  • 5.7 Million are walking around undiagnosed
  • 57 Million have pre-diabetes

5
What is Diabetes?
  • Diabetes is a disorder that affects the way
    your body uses food for energy. Normally, food
    is digested and broken down into a simple sugar,
    known as glucose. The glucose then circulates in
    your blood where it waits to enter cells to be
    used as fuel.
  • Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas,
    helps move the glucose into cells. A healthy
    pancreas adjusts the amount of insulin based on
    the level of glucose. But, if you have diabetes,
    this process breaks down, and blood sugar levels
    become too high.

Source About.com
6
If Americans continue to get diabetes at current
rates 1 in 3 babies born in the year 2000, will
develop diabetes!
Source Diabetes Forecast, Nov. 2009
7
Different Types of Diabetes
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Pre-Diabetes

8
Type 1 Diabetes
  • A person with type 1 diabetes cannot produce
    insulin.
  • Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children
    and young adults and used to be called juvenile
    diabetes, but can be diagnosed at any age.
  • Only 5-10 of people with diabetes have this form
    of the disease. 
  • By managing their insulin with frequent shots
    and other treatments, even young children with
    type 1 diabetes can learn to manage their
    condition and live long, healthy lives.

9
Type 2 Diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of
    diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in African
    Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian
    Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as older
    people.
  • In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not
    produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the
    insulin.
  • When insulin isnt removing glucose from the
    blood, it can lead to diabetes complications.

10
Gestational Diabetes
  • Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before
    but who have high blood sugar (glucose) levels
    during pregnancy are said to have gestational
    diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes affects about 4 of all
    pregnant women - about 135,000 cases of
    gestational diabetes in the United States each
    year.
  • We don't know what causes gestational diabetes
    but it usually disappears after the birth of the
    baby.
  • Gestational diabetes starts when your body is not
    able to make and use all the insulin it needs for
    pregnancy.
  • Having Gestational diabetes increases your risk
    of developing diabetes later in life and in other
    pregnancies.

11
Pre-Diabetes
  • Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they
    almost always have "pre-diabetes" -- blood
    glucose levels that are higher than normal but
    not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes.
  • There are 57 million people in the United States
    who have pre-diabetes.
  • Recent research has shown that some long-term
    damage to the body, especially the heart and
    circulatory system, may already be occurring
    during pre-diabetes.
  • A diagnosis of pre-diabetes is a warning that you
    are developing diabetes, however at this stage
    you can still prevent it from developing.

12
Symptoms
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Frequent urination
  • Unusual thirst
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Any of the Type 1 Symptoms
  • Frequent infections
  • Blurred vision
  • Cuts or bruises that heal slowly
  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
  • Recurring skin, gum or bladder infections

Often people with Type 2 diabetes have no
symptoms
13
Complications From Diabetes Are No Joke
  • Heart Disease Diabetes carries an increased
    risk for heart attack, stroke, and complications
    related to poor circulation.
  • Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)/Kidney
    Transplantation Diabetes can damage the
    kidneys, which not only can cause them to fail,
    but can also make them lose their ability to
    filter out waste products. This is called
    nephropathy.
  • Eye Complications Diabetes can cause eye
    problems and may lead to blindness.
  • Diabetes, Oral Health and Hygiene Diabetics are
    more at risk for the millions of germs in your
    mouth settling into your gums and causing
    infections.
  • Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Damage Diabetic
    Neuropathy means damage to the nerves that run
    throughout the body, connecting the spinal cord
    to muscles, skin, blood vessels, and other
    organs.
  • Foot Complications People with diabetes can
    develop foot problems most often caused by nerve
    damage in the feet or when blood flow is poor.
  • Skin Complications As many as one-third of
    people with diabetes will have a skin disorder
    caused or affected by diabetes at some time in
    their lives. In fact, such problems are sometimes
    the first sign that a person has diabetes.
  • Gastro paresis Gastro paresis is a disorder
    that affects peoples ability to empty their
    stomachs even though there is no blockage.
  • Depression Some people with diabetes report
    feeling a sadness that just won't go away. Life
    seems hopeless.

14
Once you have diabetes ( type 1 or type 2 ) you
will always have diabetes
Source Diabetes Forcast Nov 2009
15
How To Tell If You Have Pre-Diabetes
  • There are two tests your doctor can use to
    determine whether you have pre-diabetes the
    fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or the oral
    glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
  • The blood glucose levels measured after these
    tests determine whether you have a normal
    metabolism, or whether you have pre-diabetes or
    diabetes.
  • If your blood glucose level is abnormal following
    the FPG, you have impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
    if your blood glucose level is abnormal following
    the OGTT, you have impaired glucose tolerance
    (IGT).
  • Normal fasting blood glucose is below 100 mg/dl.
    A person with pre-diabetes has a fasting blood
    glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dl. If the
    blood glucose level rises to 126 mg/dl or above,
    a person has diabetes.

16
Get Tested if
  • You are 45 years or older
  • Your BMI is over 25
  • Are physically active less than 3 times weekly
  • Have a parent, brother or sister with diabetes
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Have high cholesterol or triglycerides
  • Had gestational diabetes during pregnancy or gave
    birth to a baby weighing more than 9lbs
  • Have polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Have blood vessel problems affecting your heart,
    brain or legs
  • Have dark, thick or velvety skin around your neck
    or in your armpits.

17
Pre-Diabetes is a Serious Illness
  • People with pre-diabetes are at higher risk of
    cardiovascular disease.
  • People with pre-diabetes have a 1.5-fold risk of
    cardiovascular disease compared to people with
    normal blood glucose.
  • People with diabetes have a 2- to 4-fold
    increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Take the diabetes risk test online at
    http//www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention
    /diabetes-risk-test/

18
If you have Pre-Diabetes, you still have time to
make changes to avoid a lifetime with diabetes
19
What To Do If You Are Pre-Diabetic
  • If you have pre-diabetes you can do something
    about it so make a plan now.
  • Studies show that people with pre-diabetes can
    prevent or delay the development of type 2
    diabetes by up to 58 percent through changes to
    their lifestyle that include modest weight loss
    and regular exercise.
  • Experts recommend that pre-diabetics reduce their
    weight by 5-10 and participate in modest
    physical activity for 30 minutes daily.
  • For most people with pre-diabetes, making these
    changes early can actually turn back the clock
    and bring blood glucose levels back to normal.

20
Diabetes Kills More people than AIDS and Breast
Cancer each year!
Source Diabetes Forcast Nov 2009
21
A Call To Act!
  • In a recent survey by the American Diabetes
    Association, most people were surprised to learn
    that 80 of people with Diabetes develop
    cardiovascular disease.
  • Most felt that Diabetes was life-altering, but
    not life-threatening.
  • Diabetes kills 220,000 people yearly
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure
  • Diabetes is the number 1 cause of blindness
  • Diabetes causes 60 of non-traumatic lower limb
    amputations

22
Even Americans not at risk for the disease are
affected by the financial toll of
Diabetes Diabetes costs a whopping 174 BILLION
in 2007.
Source Diabetes Forcast Nov 2009
23
Pets Get Diabetes Too!
  • As with people, diabetes in cats and dogs is
    increasing. Diabetes now affects as many as 1/50
    pets.
  • Veterinarians say that while obesity clearly is
    linked to diabetes in pets, it appears to
    contribute to the disease differently in cats and
    dogs.
  • Fat cats are prone to diabetes because they
    develop insulin resistance, meaning their bodies
    don't effectively use insulin. As a result, the
    pancreas pumps out more insulin than they can use
    thus destroying the cells.
  • With dogs, obesity is associated with an
    increased risk of pancreatitis an inflammation
    of the pancreas which can then lead to diabetes
    because the body doesn't make enough insulin.

24
Symptoms, Complications Treatment
  • Symptoms of Diabetes in Pets
  • The symptoms of diabetes in pets are similar to
    those exhibited by humans and may include one or
    more of the following
  • Loss of vision or the appearance of cataracts (in
    dogs)
  • Weakness in the rear legs (in cats)
  • Noticeable sweet odor in breath
  • The Complications of Diabetes
  • Lethargy, Seizures, Confusion, Loss of bladder
    control, Vomiting, Coma, Confusion, Vomiting,
    Diarrhea, Seizures, Dehydration, Metabolization
  • Treatment of Diabetes in Pets
  • Diabetes in pets is treated much in the same way
    as it is in people, with the primary treatments
    being
  • Glucose monitoring and management
  • Insulin injections
  • Diet therapy
  • Exercise

25
Know Your Risks Adopt A Healthy Lifestyle Now
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Participate in at least 30 minutes of physical
    activity daily
  • Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole
    grains and low fat foods
  • Reduce stress
  • Get blood glucose levels checked regularly
  • Know your families history of diabetes

26
Sources
  • American Diabetes Association
  • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
  • Diabetes Forecast Magazine
  • AltMD.com
  • Diabetes.org
  • About.com
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