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FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS

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FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS PRE-CIVILIZATION Stability due to need to control water Small groups could not regulate waters Small groups could not defend area ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS


1
CHAPTER 1
  • FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS

2
PRE-CIVILIZATION
  • Stability due to need to control water
  • Small groups could not regulate waters
  • Small groups could not defend area
  • Predecessors to civilizations
  • Small farming villages
  • First appeared in S.W. Asia
  • Catal Huyuk as example
  • Self-sufficient agricultural village in Turkey
  • Evidence of trade, tool making, artisans
  • Evidence of complex religion
  • Specialization of occupations politics, military
  • Evidence of metal working (Copper Age)

3
CIVILIZATION
  • Civilization as Advanced Culture
  • Population dependent on cities
  • From Latin civitas
  • Permanent institutions
  • Politics, Religion ability to make war
  • Social, labor, gender divisions, inequality
  • Clearly defined sense of other barbarian, nomad
  • Artisan, intellectual classes favoring technology
  • Form of record keeping, specifically writing
  • Do not confuse with good or superior

4
THE MAP OF 1ST CIVILIZATIONS
5
ANCIENT HUMOR
6
ENVIRONMENT AS CATALYST
  • Mesopotamia (land between rivers)
  • Harsh heat, drought unpredictable floods
  • Few natural resources short of mud no wood
  • No natural defensive areas such as hills
  • Area open to invasion by migrating nomads
  • People in area must
  • Provide permanent food supply
  • Regulate, provide permanent water supply
  • Provide defense against invaders
  • Acquire materials such as timber, minerals

7
TIGRIS-EUPHRATES
  • Necessity is the mother of invention
  • Sumer in S. Iraq was first civilization
  • Cuneiform, sciences, math aided farming
  • Polytheistic religion
  • Religion was to appease gods, control nature
  • Art, architecture dedicated to gods, religion
  • Priests, later kings rule city-states
  • Land owning aristocracy dominate
  • Warlike society with slavery
  • Trade for needed materials

8
LATER MESOPOTAMIANS
  • Cycle of Civilization
  • Nomads come in and conquer sedentary people
  • Conquerors assimilate local sedentary culture
  • New civilization blends cultures, thrives for a
    while
  • New civilization grows old, invaded by nomads
  • Akkad First
  • First Empire
  • Sargon conquered all of Sumer
  • Babylonian First
  • City at junction of Tigris-Euphrates
  • Hammurabis Law Code
  • Laws included in Jewish Torah

9
MESOPOTAMIA AS A CHART
10
THE NILE RIVER
  • Society very different from Sumer
  • Nile flooded regularly, predictably
  • Provided rich soil, Easy soil to farm
  • Civilization regulated flooding, surveying
  • Location isolated
  • Pharaoh was considered god-king
  • Theocracy, almost absolute
  • Built pyramid tombs for dead
  • Egypt unified for most of history
  • Achievements
  • Mathematics especially geometry architecture
  • Sciences, Medicine
  • Art was both secular and sacred
  • Religion was positive, egalitarian in many ways

11
INDUS VALLEY
  • Arose around 2,500 BCE
  • Mohenjo Daro, Harappa main cities
  • Independent city-states, strong government
  • Extremely well-planned, coordinated cities
  • Elaborate writing system (undeciphered)
  • Religion worshipped mother goddess
  • Little evidence of warfare until end
  • Devastated by environmental upheavals
  • Destroyed by Indo-European (Aryan) nomads

12
HUANG-HE (YELLOW) RIVER
  • Developed in isolation
  • Compare with ancient Egypt
  • Xia Dynasty (Mythical?)
  • God-like kings
  • Taught irrigation, sericulture
  • Shang Dynasty
  • Warlike kings, landed aristocracy few priests
  • Most people worked land as peasants
  • Elaborate bronze workings naturalistic art

13
CHINESE WRITING
  • Ideographic
  • Writing denotes ideas
  • First used on Oracle Bones
  • Priests asked gods questions
  • Wrote questions on bones
  • Tossed into fire cracks read by priests
    (divination)
  • Elitist technique scholar-bureaucrats
  • Extremely difficult to read
  • Required well-educated class to use
  • Only elite had time to learn
  • Cuneiform, hieroglyphs had similar effects

14
DYNASTIC CYCLE
  • One ruling family replaces another
  • The Dynasty Changes
  • Due to the loss of the Mandate of Heaven
  • Stages in Cycle
  • New dynasty arises, takes control of China
  • Strengthens rule, reestablishes prosperity, peace
  • Weakens, becomes lazy, problems arise
  • Invasions, revolts toss out reigning dynasty
  • Shang replaces Xia, Zhou replaces Shang

15
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
  • Chinese political idea
  • Rulers exercise power given by heaven
  • Rulers continue to rule if heaven pleased
  • Heaven will take back mandate to rule
  • Heaven will replace ruling dynasty
  • Indicators of a Lost Mandate
  • Wars, invasions, military disasters
  • Over-taxation, disgruntled peasants
  • Social, moral decline of elite classes
  • Increased crime, banditry

16
HOWTHECYCLE AND MANDATEWORKTOGETHER
17
HERITAGES
  • First heritages passed on
  • Writing systems inherited
  • Intellectual systems, art copied
  • Religious, philosophical systems copied
  • Useful inventions rarely forgotten, easily spread
  • River valley civilizations decline by 1000BCE
  • All subject to nomadic invasions
  • Indo-Europeans and Semites were strongest
  • Geographical centers shifted (all except China)
  • Political Structures often not continued

18
CIVILIZATION SPREADS
  • Phoenician Sailors in Lebanon
  • City-states traded across Mediterranean
  • Invented alphabet
  • Lydians, Hittites in Asia Minor
  • Introduced Iron, coinage to area
  • Hebrews in Palestine
  • Large Semitic migration in area
  • Ethical monotheism
  • Conduct determines salvation
  • There is only one God speaking through prophets,
    priests
  • God made a covenant with the Jews, his Chosen
    people

19
NOMADS BARBARIANS?
  • Pastoral herding on fringes
  • Seen as savages
  • Interaction vs. conflict
  • Nomads traded, coexisted with settled areas
  • Nomads warred on, conquered settled areas
  • Often protected merchants, allowed trade
  • Prior to 1500 BCE little major threat
  • Chariot Peoples (Central Asian Indo-Europeans)
  • Domesticated horse, invented chariot, iron
    weapons
  • Pushed into SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asia, Europe
  • Responsible for spread of ideas, trade
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