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Rise of Civilization

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Title: Rise of Civilization


1
Rise of Civilization
  • Unit 1

2
Prehistory
  • The period before people developed writing.

3
3 types of early man
  • Homo-habilis man had ability
  • Homo-erectus man could walk upright
  • Homo-sapiens man could think

4
Civilizations
  • A highly organized society marked by knowledge of
    a written language, the arts, sciences, and
    government.

5
Anthropologists
  • Scientists who study past human civilizations
    they compare bones, looking for changes in size
    and structure.

6
Archaeologists
  • Scientists who study the life and culture of
    ancient peoples by excavating ancient living
    sites.

7
Artifacts
  • An object made by humans, such as a tool,
    ornament, weapon, or pottery, that has historical
    or archaeological importance.

8
Culture
  • The ideas, customs, skills, and arts of a given
    people at a given time.

9
Aspects of culture(ways of life)
  • Language
  • Foods
  • Religion
  • Achievement in art and music
  • Use of tools
  • Technology

10
Technology
  • The skills and knowledge available to a people.

11
Nomads
  • A person without a permanent home who moves about
    canstantly in search of food.

12
Early Man
  • When population was small, had a nomadic
    lifestyle men traveled in small groups (tribes)
    usually following and hunting wild herds of
    animals. They had no permanent home people
    traveled constantly. There emerged a single
    leader. (Usually, the ruler of each tribe was the
    1. Strongest, 2. Eldest, 3. Wisest, and 4. The
    highest religious leader.)

13
Early People
  • Neanderthals
  • Originated in Africa and spread to Europe.
  • Hunters/gatherers.
  • Used fire for warmth and cooking. Use of fire
    and clothing made migration to cooler climates
    possible.

14
  • Neanderthals (Cont.)
  • Lived in caves
  • Some built shelters with skins.

15
  • Cro-Magnons
  • Originated in Asia artifacts in France
  • Either lived at the same time as Neanderthals or
    came to be when Neaderthals disappeared.
  • Develop knife and chisel
  • Chopped down trees and built canoes.

16
  • Cro-Magnons (Cont.)
  • Developed bow and arrow tohunt larger animals and
    have a better food suply.
  • Left behind cave paintings

17
  • Human Race
  • Creation of Adam. Story of Genesis in the Old
    Testament in the Bible. Genesis 3 shows how
    nomadic lifestyle began.

18
The Neolithic Revolution
  • The development of Agriculture changed the
    nomadic lifestyle as farming tied people down to
    the land in one permanent place/spot. Thus,
    villages started to form and grow into cities,
    and civilizations formed.

19
  • People shifted from gathering/hunting food to
    producing food.
  • New innovations allowed this
  • Agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Villages
  • Plow
  • Fertilizer
  • Loom
  • Wheel
  • Metalworking for weapons

20
  • The domestication of plants and animals led to
    the domestication of humankind, meaning hunters
    lived in nature, while farmers tried to control
    nature.

21
4 Earliest Known Civilizations
  • First highly organized societies that developed
    out of river valleys
  • Mesopotamia (Iraq on the Tigris and Euphrates
    Rivers)
  • Ancient Egypt (on the Nile River)
  • India (on the Indus River)
  • China (on the Huang/Yellow River that empties
    into the Yellow Sea)

22
  • The test of civilization is the power of drawing
    the most benefits out of cities-Emerson. What
    do cities provide for people?
  • Jobs, government

23
Civilization
  • A highly, organized society marked by knowledge
    of a written language, the arts, sciences,
    government.

24
Most civilizations developed out of the 4 River
Valleys.
  • Nile
  • Tigris/Euphrates
  • Indus
  • Huang

25
Basic Features of Civilizations
  • 1. Food supply (is stable often, a surplus
    thanks to an Irrigation System rainfall fell to
    ditches, which ran into canals, into
    reservoirs.)

26
  • Why must there be a surplus of food before a city
    can develop and grow?
  • In order to free others to engage in other
    activities.

27
  • 2. Specialized labor
  • Artisan-A skilled craftworker, such as a builder,
    potter, textile worker.
  • -worked one task
  • -very skilled
  • -produced large quantities
  • -improved quality

28
  • Metalworking-introduced the Bronze Age used
    bronze which was easier to pour into a mold and
    shape weapons. Artisans had a major effect on
    the economy.

29
  • Economy-a system of producing, distributing, and
    consuming wealth to meet peoples needs.
  • Trading-the exchange of goods and services thanks
    to the ability to travel.
  • HOW?
  • A.   Overland by animals or caravans
  • B. Water by small canoes and later, ships

30
  • 3. Government
  • Govt. needed a way to supervise and protect
    agriculture and trade.
  • a.  Government officials were created to oversee
    collection, storage, distribution of the food
    surplus.
  • b.   Soldiers guarded the citys territory and
    trade routes.
  • c. The king was the head of government.

31
  • 4. Social levels followed the citys layout.
  • a.  In the center were the government and
    religious buildings
  • b. Then, houses of the ruling class
  • c.  Then, groups of artisans
  • d.  On the outskirts, farmers.
  • Compare to the city of Glasgow.

32
  • 5. System of writing tools of writing were a
    quill pen and berry ink.
  • -Writing originated when priests would record a
    surplus of food and the distribution of food.
  • -Early people used pictograms.
  • -Early people also wrote true stories and myths.

33
  • 6. Organized large-scale projects
  • To control flooding, dams and earthen dikes were
    built
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