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Animal Rights

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Helena Pereira de Melo Helena.melo_at_fd.unl.pt November 2014 * All animals are equal = all animals deserve to have their interests considered equally with the interests ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Rights


1
Animal Rights
  • Helena Pereira de Melo
  • Helena.melo_at_fd.unl.pt
  • November 2014

2
What do you see?
3
  1. A laboratory rabbit
  2. A pet rabbit
  3. A meat rabbit
  4. A wild rabbit

4
Oran
  • Easter - bunny

5
Why? XX Centuries
  • Regeneration remarkable fertility indispensable
    for a prey animal
  • Their paws are removed as part of fertility charms

6
Animal roles in human society
  • Food
  • Companion
  • Entertainment (circus, sports)
  • Medical experiments
  • Clothing
  • Symbolic

7
ANIMAL EXPLOITATION
  • PAIN
  • DISTRESS
  • SUFFERING
  • CONFINEMENT
  • LONELINESS
  • TRADE
  • LOST OF HABITATS

8
ANIMAL LIBERATION
  1. Right to life
  2. Right to liberty
  3. Respect of animal dignity

9
Philosophy
  1. Human beings are superior to nonhuman animals and
    occupy a privileged place in the moral order
  2. All species deserve equal moral consideration

10
Anthropocentrism
  1. Only human beings deserve moral consideration
  2. All human beings deserve equal moral
    consideration
  3. All nonhuman animals lack moral standing
  4. There is nothing we can do to them that will
    wrong them

11
- rationality- linguistic ability- autonomy-
capacity for reciprocity
  • Criterion of moral consideration

12
Ex.
  1. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225 1274)
  2. Immanuel Kant (1724 1804)
  3. René Descartes (1596 1650)

13
St. Thomas Aquinas
  • Divine providence makes provision for the
    intellectual creature for its own sake, but for
    other creatures for the sake of the intellectual
    creature
  • (Differences between Rational and Other Creatures)

14
Immanuel Kant
  • Only rational moral agents are members of the
    kingdom of ends and so animals have no moral
    standing
  • Animals are not ends in themselves but means
    to an end, and that end is man
  • We have no duties regarding them

15
Indirect duty to animals
  • We should be kind to animals and abstain from
    cruelty to them because he who is cruel to
    animals becomes hard also in his dealing with
    men while tender feelings towards dumb animals
    develop human feelings towards mankind
  • (Duties in Regard to Animals)

16
Descartes
  • All non-human animals are incapable of using
    language they are mindless machines, mere
    automata devoid of thought and reason
  • (Animals are Machines)

17
Carl Cohen
  • In order to have rights a being has to be an
    autonomous moral agent with the capacity to
    fulfill reciprocal obligations.
  • Animals do not have rights.
  • (The Animal Rights Debate, 2001)

18
DO THEY HAVE RIGHTS?
19
Do animals lack autonomy, the capacity for
reciprocity?
  • Do animals really lack rationality?

20
Voltaire (1694 1778)
  • Answer me, machinist, has nature arranged all
    the means of feeling in this animal, so that it
    may not feel? Has it nerves in order to be
    impassible? Do not suppose this impertinent
    contradiction in nature
  • (A Reply to Descartes)

21
Charles Darwin (1809 1882)
  • there is no fundamental difference between man
    and the higher animals in their mental faculties
  • There is a continuum of mental capacities among
    animal species
  • (Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the
    Lower Animals)

22
Eric Eckholm
  • The impressive linguistic accomplishments of
    various gorillas, chimpanzees, and parrots
  • (Language Acquisition in Nonhuman Primates)

23
Science Daily, 2006
  • The chimpanzee and human genomes are more than
    98 identical, but there are a few short DNA
    sequences that have changed significantly in
    humans since the 2 species diverged about 5
    million years ago

24
The same moral and legal status?
25
Human Animal Studies
26
PYTHAGORAS (570 490 BCE)
  • the soul is immortal and after death it
    transmigrates into other animated bodies
  • all animated beings are kindred, and belong to
    one great family
  • men shall not eat animals

27
Plutarch (65-120 CE)
  • The eating of flesh makes us spiritually coarse
    and gross by reason of satiety and surfeit
  • Animals deserve moral consideration because they
    are sentient, intelligent creatures

28
Porphyry (232-304 CE)
  • justice lies in restraint and harmlessness
    towards everything that does not harm
  • since justice consists in not injuring any
    thing, it must be extended as far as to every
    animated nature
  • (On Abstinence from Killing Animals)

29
Jeremy Bentham (1788 1832)
  • The relevant question is not, Can they reason?
    Nor Can they talk? But, Can they suffer?
  • (A Utilitarian View)

30
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 1860)
  • There is no morally relevant difference between
    humans and animals
  • Universal compassion for every living thing is
    the only genuine moral motive
  • (On the Basis of Morality)

31
J. Howard More (1862- 1916)
  • SPECISM RACISM

32
  • The complete denial by human animals of ethical
    relations to the rest of the animal world is a
    phenomenon not differing either in character or
    cause from the denial of ethical relations by a
    tribe, people or race of human beings to the rest
    of the human world The human being who extends
    his moral sentiments to all the members of his
    own species, but denies to all other species the
    justice he accords to his own, is making the same
    ethical mess of it as the savage
  • (Universal Kinship)

33
ANIMAL LIBERATION
  • PETER SINGER
  • TOM REGAN

34
PETER SINGER (1946)
  • All animals are equal all animals deserve to
    have their interests considered equally with the
    interests of other animals, regardless of their
    race, gender or species
  • (Animal Liberation, 2002)

35
Which animals are equal?
36
Sentience the capacity to feel pain or
experience pleasure
  • Only sentient beings are worthy of moral
    consideration

37
Utilitarianism requires that
  1. We give equal consideration to the interests of
    all beings
  2. We act in ways that maximize the satisfaction of
    interests of all affected by our conduct

38
Interest in avoiding pain?
  • Rabbits do not have tear ducts and cannot flush
    out substances that are put in their eyes

39
Whose interests should prevail?
40
  • Giving animals equal consideration requires that
    we give their pleasures and pain equal weight
    with humans pleasures and pains when carrying out
    utilitarian considerations

41
  • Since eating plant-based foods can satisfy our
    interest in nutritious meals without requiring
    animals to suffer in factory farms,
    utilitarianism requires us to eat plants instead
    of animals

42
TOM REGAN (1938)
  • Non-human animals who have an individual
    experimental welfare may have moral rights
  • (Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 1989)

43
NEGATIVE MORAL RIGHTS
  • Source fundamental moral values
  • Rights to non-interference
  • Right not to be killed, not to be tortured, to
    bodily integrity

44
Do Aunt Bee or the turtle have intrinsic value?
  • Rejects the utility-maximization principle
    because it sanctions sacrificing individuals for
    the greater good

45
The best action is the action that results in the
best consequences for all affected
46
  • Aunt Bea has inherent value, i.e., value in
    herself, which is independent of her usefulness
    to us. Even if killing Aunt Bea and using her
    wealth to build a childrens hospital would
    maximize utility, it would be wrong to kill her,
    because it would fail to respect her inherent
    right as an individual.

47
  • Many animals are also experiencing subjects of a
    life, have inherent value and moral rights in the
    same sense and with the same strength that humans
    do.
  • All who have inherent value have it equally,
    regardless of their sex, race, religion, species,
    intellectual capacity, sexual preference
  • (Defending Animal Rights, 2001)

48
Peter Singer and Tom Regan
  • A new liberation movement is needed to combat
    speciesism this arbitrary prejudice in favor of
    our kind and the forms of animal exploitation
    that flow from it.

49
Do animals have legal rights?
  • Which animals deserve legal consideration?
  • How much legal consideration do they deserve?

50
Universal Declaration of Animal Rights (1989-
1990)
  • All animals have equal rights to exist within
    the context of biological equilibrium. This
    equality of rights does not overshadow the
    diversity of species and of individuals.
  • (art. 1)

51
Animals have the right to
  1. Life (crime against life)
  2. Not to be subjected to bad treatments or cruel
    acts
  3. To live and to reproduce in freedom (wild
    animals)
  4. To proper sustenance and care (pets)

52
Amsterdam Treaty amending the Treaty on European
Union (1997)
  • Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals

53
THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES
DESIRING to ensure improved protection and
respect for the welfare of animals as sentient
beings, HAVE AGREED UPON the following
provision, In formulating and implementing the
Community's agriculture, transport, internal
market and research policies, the Community and
the Member States shall pay full regard to the
welfare requirements of animals, while respecting
the legislative or administrative provisions and
customs of the Member States relating in
particular to religious rites, cultural
traditions and regional heritage.
54
  • There are 1000 bullfighting events in Spain each
    year, in which 5000 bulls die.

55
Harmonized EU framework
  1. Intra-community trade
  2. Imports
  3. Animal disease control
  4. Animal nutrition
  5. Animal welfare

56
Council of Europe
  1. European Convention for the Protection of Animals
    Kept for Farming Purposes (1976)
  2. European Convention for the Protection of Animals
    for Slaughter (1979)
  3. Convention on the Conservation of European
    Wildlife and Natural Habitats (1979)
  4. European Convention for the Protection of
    Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and
    Other Scientific Purposes (1986)
  5. European Convention for the Protection of Pet
    Animals (1987)

57
Ex.
  • 1 Nobody shall cause a pet animal unnecessary
    pain, suffering or distress.
  • 2. Nobody shall abandon a pet animal.
  • (art. 3)

58
Article 528
  • Sont meubles par leur nature les animaux et les
    corps qui peuvent se transporter d'un lieu à un
    autre, soit qu'ils se meuvent par eux-mêmes, soit
    qu'ils ne puissent changer de place que par
    l'effet d'une force étrangère.

59
Portuguese Civil Code - Article 1046
  • Tratando-se de aluguer de animais,
  • as despesas de alimentação destes correm sempre,
    na falta de estipulação em contrário, por conta
    do locatário.

60
Maneka Gandhi (1956)
  • It is only when nations recognize animals and
    provide them certain constitutional guarantees
    that we can expect a more enlightened and
    equitable code of conduct towards other living
    beings.

61
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