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TACC Training Module 3


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Title: TACC Training Module 3

International Climate Change Policy Framework
  • TACC Training Module 3

Objectives of the Module
  • Introduce background, objectives and key
    provisions of the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol
  • Highlight international policy issues of
    relevance for sub-national authorities
  • Examine the role of sub-national authorities in
    international climate change policy

  • Section 1 Introduction to the International
    Climate Change Policy Framework
  • Section 2 Key Provisions of the UNFCCC
  • Section 3 The Kyoto Protocol
  • Section 4 Towards a Post 2012 Agreement

The Need for a Global Approach to Address Climate
  • Climate change is a global problem that requires
    global solutions
  • GHG emission contribute to climate change
    irrespective of their origin
  • Majority of countries will be negatively affected
    if no action is taken
  • Need for a global regime to
  • Regulate global reduction of GHG emissions
  • Provide support to developing countries to adapt
    to climate change
  • Create a sustainable development path in all

What is the UNFCCC?
  • United Nations Framework
  • Convention on Climate Change
  • Framework agreement governing
  • global efforts to combat climate change
  • Complemented by a protocol specifying details
  • (Kyoto Protocol)
  • Entered into force in 1994
  • Currently has 194 Parties
  • 193 States
  • 1 regional economic integration organization
  • Legally binding treaty

Important Events
  • 1979 First World Climate Conference (WCC)
  • 1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • 1990 IPCC and 2nd WCC call for global treaty on
    climate change
  • 1992 Convention adopted at the UN Headquarters,
  • 1994 Convention enters into force
  • 1997 Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol
  • 2005 Kyoto Protocol enters into force
  • 2009 COP 15/ CMP 5 in Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 2010 COP 16/ CMP 6 in Cancun, Mexico
  • 2011 COP 17/ CMP 7 in Durban, South Africa
  • 2012 COP 18/ CMP 8 in Doha, Qatar

Why is the UNFCCC Important from a Sub-national
  • Decisions taken by Member States within UNFCCC
    affect all levels of governance
  • Engagement in UNFCCC process creates sub-national
    opportunities to
  • Participate in capacity development projects
    (e.g. TACC)
  • Access multi-lateral and bi-lateral funding
  • Benefit from carbon financing schemes
  • Opportunities exist to share sub-national
    perspectives via
  • National delegations
  • Observing associations (e.g. NRG4SD, ICLEI)

The Role of Sub-national Authorities in the
UNFCCC Process
  • UNFCCC is an international agreement with
    autonomous states being members/parties
  • Sub-national authorities do not participate
    directly in the negotiations
  • Opportunities for indirect participation of
    sub-national authorities include
  • Participation as members of national delegations
  • Participation through an observer association
  • Participation in official side events
  • Informal discussions/lobbying

Observer Associations Promoting Sub-national
Issues in the UNFCCC
  • Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable
    Development (NRG4SD)
  • Represents regional governments at the global
  • Promotes the contribution regions make to
    sustainable development
  • ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainable
  • Focal point for Local Governments and Municipal
    Authorities (LGMA)
  • Coordinates local government observers during
    UNFCCC negotiations
  • World Mayors Council on Climate Change (WMCCC)
  • Alliance of committed local government leaders
  • Advocates involvement of mayors in multilateral
    climate and sustainable development issues

Green Economy Report (2011)
  • Demonstrates that greening of economies is a new
    engine of growth - generator of decent jobs, a
    vital strategy to eliminate persistent poverty
  • Motivates policy makers to create enabling
    conditions for increased investments in green
  • Compiled by UNEPs Green Economy Initiative in
    collaboration with economists and experts

Rio20 The Future We Want
  • Renewed political pledge to implement Sustainable
    Development (SD)
  • Ushered Green Economy into mainstream of policy
    discourse and Sustainable Development
  • Started process for Sustainable Development Goals
  • Reaffirmed climate change as one of the greatest
    challenges in the SD agenda (e.g. rising global
    GHG emissions, persistent drought and extreme
    weather events, sea level rise, coastal erosion
    and ocean acidification, further threatening food

Rio20 on Green Economy
  • Confirmed green economy as one of the important
    tools available for achieving sustainable
  • Resolved to strengthen international cooperation,
    provision of financial resources, capacity
    building and technology transfer to developing
  • Called for social inclusion as part of Green

UCLG-ORU/FOGAR Rio20 statement
  • Celebrated recognition of all the spheres of
    governments as key actors for the different
    dimensions of development
  • Welcomed the acknowledgement to reinvigorate the
    urban agenda with innovative practices and far
    reaching commitments
  • Regret that outcome document does not i) reach
    greater global commitments to ensure the
    sustainability of the planet ii) recognize
    culture as the 4th pillar of SD
  • Call for a multi-level governance for SD and
    strategies to achieve the MDGs and SDGs that
    should include culture, heritage, creativity and
    diversity in the post-2015 Agenda.

Questions and Challenges from a Sub-national
  • Do sub-national authorities have sufficient
  • information about international climate
  • change processes and initiatives?
  • Are the implications of the UNFCCC for
  • sub-national action on climate change clear?
  • Are sub-national perspective sufficiently
    considered within the international policy
  • How can sub-national authorities best contribute
    to international climate change processes?
  • Any other questions?

  • Section 1 Introduction to the International
    Climate Change Policy Framework
  • Section 2 Key Provisions of the UNFCCC
  • Section 3 The Kyoto Protocol
  • Section 4 Towards a Post 2012 Agreement

Objectives of the Convention (Article 2)
  • ..to achieve..stabilization of greenhouse gas
    concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that
    would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
    interference with the climate system..
  • .within a time frame sufficient to
  • Allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate
  • Ensure that food production is not threatened and
  • Enable economic development to proceed in a
    sustainable manner.

Two-Prong Approach under the Convention
  • Mitigation
  • Actions taken to cut net emissions of greenhouse
    gases to reduce climate change
  • Adaptation
  • Actions taken to help cope with
  • changing climate conditions and impacts

Source UNEP
Principles Guiding the Convention (Article 3)
  • Common but differentiated responsibilities
  • Precautionary principle
  • Full consideration for developing country needs
    and circumstances
  • Right to sustainable development
  • Supportive and open economic system

Source Fotoila
Commitments of All Parties (Article 4)
  • Develop national inventories of greenhouse gas
  • Formulate mitigation and adaptation measures
  • Cooperate in technology transfer
  • Promote sustainable development
  • Take into account climate change considerations
    into development planning
  • Promote and cooperate in research
  • Cooperate in information exchange
  • Promote and cooperate in education, training and
    public awareness

Groups of Parties with Different Responsibilities
  • Annex I Parties
  • Group of 40 industrialized countries and
    countries with economies in transition
  • Expected to reduce GHG emissions
  • Annex II Parties
  • Group of 23 developed countries (subset of Annex
    1 countries)
  • Expected to pay for costs in developing
  • Non-Annex I Parties
  • Least Developed Countries (Article 4.9)
  • Developing countries particularly vulnerable to
  • Adverse effects of climate change (Article 4.8)
  • Response measures (Article 4.10)

Obligation of Annex 1 Parties (Industrialized and
EIT Parties)
  • Annex 1 Parties include
  • Industrialized countries members of the OECD in
  • Countries with economies in transition (EIT
  • Expected to take the lead in modifying trends in
    GHG emissions (Article 4.2(a))
  • Adopt policies and measures to return national
    GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2000 (Article
  • Submit regular national communications on
    policies and measures (Article 4.2(b))
  • Submit an annual inventory of GHG emissions

Obligations of Annex 2 Parties (OECD Countries
Providing Financing)
  • Annex 2 Parties include OECD members within the
    Annex I group
  • Responsibility to provide additional financial
    resources to developing countries (Article 4.3)
  • Assist particularly vulnerable developing
    countries to meet costs of adaptation (Article
  • Facilitate the transfer of climate-friendly
    technologies (Article 4.5)

Obligations of Non Annex 1 Countries (Developing
  • Non Annex 1 countries include mainly developing
  • Sub-groups includes
  • Countries especially vulnerable to climate change
  • Least developed countries (LDCs)
  • General commitment specified in Article 4,
    taking into account
  • Common but differentiated responsibilities
  • Development priorities
  • Non quantitative emission reduction requirements
  • Must report in general terms on action to
  • Address climate change
  • Adapt to the effects of climate change

Important Bodies under the Convention
  • The Conference of the Parties (COP)
  • Subsidiary Bodies
  • Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological
    Advice (SBTSA)
  • Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)
  • Expert Groups
  • Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) on National
  • Least Developed Country Expert Group
  • Expert Group on Technology Transfer 
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
    Action under the Convention (AWG LCA) established
    in 2007

Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological
Advice (SBTSA)
  • Provides advice on scientific and technological
  • Comprised of government representatives competent
    in the relevant field of expertise
  • Develops guidelines for national communications
    and emission inventories
  • Meets at least twice a year with last sessions of
    the year held in conjunction with COP

Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)
  • Assists in assessing and reviewing implementation
    of the UNCCC
  • Deals with financial and administrative matters
  • SBI sessions held at the same time as SBSTA

Partner Agencies of the UNFCCC
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  • Jointly hosted by WMO and UNEP
  • First IPCC report served as the basis for
    negotiating the Convention
  • Provides important scientific, technical and
    socio-economic analysis
  • Relationship considered model for interaction
    between science and decision makers
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Entrusted by COP as the financial mechanism under
    the Convention
  • MOA developed between COP and GEF
  • COP provides regular guidance policies, programme
    priorities and eligibility criteria for funding
  • GEF reports annually to the Conference of Parties

National Focal Points under the UNFCCC
  • UNFCCC National Focal Point
  • First point of contact within the government for
    communications regarding the UNFCCC
  • http//maindb.unfccc.int/public/nfp.pl
  • Focal Points for Article 6 (Education, Training,
    Awareness Raising)
  • Responsibilities include
  • Identification of areas for international
  • Strengthening synergies with other conventions
  • Coordinating reporting on Article 6 chapter in
    national communications
  • http//unfccc.int/cc_inet/information_pool/items/3
  • Designated National Authorities for Clean
    Development Mechanism (Kyoto Protocol)

National Communications
  • National communications document implementation
    status in individual countries
  • Annex 1 and Annex 2 Parties must submit regular
    reports to COP
  • Non-Annex 2 countries have reporting flexibility
  • Support for Non-Annex 2 countries available to
    prepare National Communications
  • National communication often coordinated by
    national UNFCCC Focal Point
  • National communications available at

UNFCCC Capacity Development Framework
  • Adopted in 2001 in Marrakech to foster a
    strategic approach to capacity development
  • Desired features of capacity building
  • Country-driven
  • Address the needs and conditions of developing
  • Reflect national sustainable development
    strategies, priorities and initiatives
  • Continuous, progressive and iterative process
  • Undertaken in a programmatic manner
  • 2nd comprehensive review initiated in 2009
    distinguishes between
  • Enabling capacity
  • Organizational capacity
  • Individual capacity

  • Section 1 Introduction to the International
    Climate Change Policy Framework
  • Section 2 Key Provisions of the UNFCCC
  • Section 3 The Kyoto Protocol
  • Section 4 Towards a Post 2012 Agreement

What is the Kyoto Protocol?
  • Supplements and strengthens the Convention
  • Provides detailed targets and timelines for GHG
    emission reductions
  • Adopted at the COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997
  • 84 countries had signed the protocol by March
  • Entered into force in February 2005
  • Currently, 190 Parties
  • 189 States
  • 1 regional economic integration organization
  • First commitment period will expire in 2012

Relevance of the Kyoto Protocol at the
Sub-national Level
  • Focuses on reduction of GHG emissions in
    developed countries
  • Also provides opportunities for sub-national
    authorities in developing countries
  • Clean Development Mechanism can support
    mitigation projects
  • Kyoto Adaptation Funds can support adaptation
  • Emission trading may be of interest for
    sub-national territories with high GHG emissions

Annex A Regulated Greenhouse Gases
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Source Flickr
Limitation/Reduction of Emissions in Six Key
Categories (Annex A )
  • Energy
  • Industrial processes
  • Solvent and other product use
  • Agriculture
  • Land use change and forestry
  • Waste

Annex B Mitigation Commitments of UNFCCC Annex 1
  • Parties included in UNFCCC Annex I shall
    individually or jointly
  • Reduce their emissions by at least 5 below 1990
    levels by the 2008 to 2012 period
  • Ensure their amount of CO2 equivalent emissions
    do not exceed assigned amounts (Annex B)
  • Each Annex B Party has Assigned Amount Units
    (AAUs) for the 2008-2012 commitment period

Creating Flexibility for Implementation The
Kyoto Mechanisms
  • Three Kyoto Mechanisms create flexibility for
    emission reductions
  • Joint Implementation (Article 6)
  • Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12)
  • Emission Trading (Article 17)
  • Basic concept and rationale
  • Emission reduction can be more cost-effective in
    some countries/facilities than others
  • Creates potential for market exchange and win-win
  • Designed to boost the cost-effectiveness of
  • Facilitates compliance of Annex I Parties

The Kyoto Protocol Accounting System
  • Requirements to estimate emissions by Parties at
    the national level
  • Strict reporting requirements and review
  • Compliance Committee determine cases of

Source IPCC
Institutions and Bodies under the Protocol
  • Conference of Parties serving as Meeting of the
    Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP)
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board
  • Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee
  • Compliance Committee
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for
    Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP)
    established in 2005

  • Section 1 Introduction to the International
    Climate Change Policy Framework
  • Section 2 Key Provisions of the UNFCCC
  • Section 3 The Kyoto Protocol
  • Section 4 Towards a Post 2012 Agreement

Bali 2007 Road Map and Action Plan
  • Comprehensive process adopted by COP in 2007 to
    strengthen the Convention
  • Pillars of the Bali Action Plan
  • A shared vision for long-term cooperative action,
    including long-term global goal for emission
  • Enhanced national/international action on
    mitigation of climate change
  • Enhanced action on adaptation
  • Enhanced action on technology development and
  • Enhanced action on the provision of financial
    resources and investment

Bali 2007 Road Map and Action Plan (cont.)
  • Establishment of two subsidiary bodies to support
    the process
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
    Action (AWG-LCA)
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for
    Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP)

Local Government Climate Roadmap
  • Advocacy to enhance recognition of Local
    Government in advance of Copenhagen Conference
  • Partnership of ICLEI, UCLG, Metropolis, WMCCC and
    C40 Climate Leadership Group
  • Process started during COP 13 in December 2007 as
    a two-year advocacy campaign
  • Advocacy efforts continue in the run-up to COP 18
    in Doha in November 2012
  • www.iclei.org/climate-roadmap

Key Elements of 2009 Copenhagen Accord
  • Global commitment to keep temperature increase
    below 2C
  • Principle financial commitments from developed
  • USD 30 billion for period of 2010-2012
  • USD 100 billion a year by 2020
  • Priority funding for adaptation in most
    vulnerable countries (LDC, SIDS, Africa)

Key Elements of 2010 Cancun Agreements
  • Mitigation
  • Industrialized countries will submit detailed
    annual inventories of greenhouse gas emissions
  • Establishment of a registry where developing
    countries will detail their voluntary plans to
    limit greenhouse gas emissions and the support
    they need to achieve them
  • The Kyoto Protocols emissions trading and
    project-based mechanisms continue to be available
    to developed countries
  • Adaptation
  • Establishment of Cancun Adaptation Framework to
    strengthen adaptation action in developing
    countries through international cooperation
  • Establishment of an Adaptation Committee
    providing technical support and guidance to
    countries, strengthening knowledge-sharing and
    promoting synergy between stakeholders

Key Elements of 2010 Cancun Agreements (cont.)
  • Finance
  • Formalization of commitment made by developed
    countries at COP 15 to mobilize USD 100 billion a
    year by 2020
  • Increased transparency regarding fast-start
    finance for developing countries (USD 30 billion
    up to 2012)
  • Establishment of a Green Climate Fund to support
    projects, programmes, policies and other
    activities in developing countries
  • Technology
  • Establishment of a Technology Mechanism,
    including a Technology Executive Committee and a
    Climate Technology Centre and Network
  • Capacity Building
  • Increased capacity-building support
    (strengthening relevant institutions, networks
    and climate change communication, education,
    training and public awareness at all levels)

Key Elements of 2011 Durban Agreements
  • New Durban Platform was launched to negotiate the
    long-term future of the regime
  • Kyoto Protocol was extended into the 2nd
    commitment period from 2013 for 5 or 8 years
  • Green Climate Fund launched for amount rising to
    USD 100 billion per year by 2020 (decided in 2012
    that the fund will be based Songdo, Korea)
  • Process for GHG reduction targets and climate
    treaties to be prepared by 2015 and take effect
    in 2020 was agreed

Key Elements of 2011 Durban Agreements (cont.)
  • Adaptation Committee was operationalized to help
    developing countries adapt to the impacts of
    climate change
  • Technology Mechanism was made fully operational
    with a decision covering the Technology Executive
    Committee, the Climate Technology Centre and
    Network (CTCN)

Key Elements of 2012 COP18/CMP8 Road to Doha,
  • 4 key tasks to be completed by the December 2012
  • Ambition and length of the second commitment
    period under the second commitment period of
    Kyoto Protocol
  • Agree on steps required to start a new treaty
  • Conclude negotiations under the 2007 Bali Action
  • How to successfully conclude the review of the
    global 2 degrees goal (limit temperature increase
    to 2ºC), finance, technology and adaptation
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