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1
Chapter 2/3
  • This Power Point contains the following
  • Middle Passage Review
  • Reasons for immigration Review
  • Laws established/English Laws Review
  • Great Awakening/Enlightenment Review
  • 7 Reasons for American Revolution
  • American Revolution battles
  • Federalists/Anti-Federalists

2
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Points to remember
  • African slaves used in the Americas because
  • Native American slaves die from exhaustion or
    disease. There still remained a desperate need
    for labor.
  • African Slaves were used to agricultural work,
    resisted many diseases and were not as likely to
    run away as Native Americans.

3
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • African slaves were trade in Africa for guns,
    supplies and Rum.
  • The Triangular Trade existed between Africa, The
    Americas and Europe.
  • 1st leg from Europe to Africa
  • 2nd leg Africa to Americans
  • 3rd leg Americas to Europe

4
The Middle Passage
  • The 2nd leg of the trip-sailing across the
    Atlantic Ocean.
  • Captive Africans chained together, forced into
    dark, cramped quarters below ships decks.
  • Journey lasted three to six weeks, ten to twenty
    percent did not survive

5
The English Colonies-Virginia
  • Who came and why?
  • English Catholics came because they were
    persecuted by those practicing under King Henrys
    Church of England. (or Anglican Church)
  • The Puritans A Protestant group that wanted to
    purify or reform(improve) the Anglican Church.
  • The Pilgrims (a separatist group) left England
    to escape persecution.
  • The Pilgrims were immigrants or people who
    leave the country of their birth to live in
    another country.

6
New Colony Laws
  • The Toleration Act of 1649 Catholics and
    Protestants started to fight over religion.
    Maryland passed a law making it a crime to
    restrict religious rights of Christians.
  • Slave Codes Most southern colonies passed laws
    to control slaves. ex. Slaves could hold no
    meetings or own weapons. Some states refused to
    free slaves.

7
New Colony Laws
  • Mayflower Compact Nov. 21, 1620. 41 pilgrims of
    the Mayflower created a legal document in which
    they agreed to have fair laws to protect the
    general good.
  • This was one of the first attempts to a
    self-government (no king!) in the English
    settlement.
  • In late 1620 the Mayflower landed in Plymouth,
    Massachusetts.

8
Life in the English Colonies
  • The English Colonies each has their own
    government, but the English Monarch (king) had
    ultimate authority.
  • Some colonies elected representatives to help
    make laws and set policy.
  • In New England the center of politics was the
    town meeting-here people met and decided on local
    issues.

9
Changes in English Laws
  • 1215 The Magna Carta was issued to limit the
    power of the English King John. John was a tyrant
    who abused his power. The Magna Carta ensured no
    unfair imprisonment/ trial by jury.
  • 1689 English Bill of Rights-Again, reduced the
    power of the King. (King James wanted more power
    over colonists)

10
New Ideas-The Great Awakening
  • Population growth in the colonies led religious
    leaders to try and spread religious feelings
    throughout the colonies.
  • Many colonists experienced a great awakening in
    their religious lives.
  • The Great Awakening was a religious movement
    throughout the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
    Preachers promoted spiritual equality which
    began people to think about political equality.

Everyone is equal in the eyes of the Lord
11
George Whitefield
Everyone is Equal in the Eyes of the Lord!
First true Evangelist!
Whitefield was an educated man and believed
everyone needed to experience a re-birth in Jesus
Christ. Spoke to crowds of 10,000 plus with no
microphone!
12
Enlightenment
  • 1600s Europeans began to re-examine the their
    world. Scientist began to understand natural
    laws. It changed the way people thought of the
    world.
  • Colonists were also influenced by the
    Enlightenment. This movement spread the idea that
    reason and logic could improve society. (And how
    government could work!)
  • Enlightened thinker John Locke believed people
    should have natural rights such as equality and
    liberty. (freedom)

13
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14
EVENTS LEADING TO WAR
  • Events that led to the beginning of our Nation
    (1750s- 1791)

15
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1753-1760)
(a.k.a. 7 YEAR WAR the First World War)
  • France and their Indian allies vs. Britain and
    their Indian allies
  • Fought for the Ohio Valley territory.
  • France fur trade, Britain Farming
  • Britain wins ending with the Treaty of Paris
  • Bloody battle

16
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Results
  • France no longer a threat to Britain.
  • Colonists gained military confidence.
  • England warned colonists not to expand land.
  • England now had a HUGE WAR DEBT!

17
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18
Sugar Act
  • Raise Money by tax!
  • Prime Minister George Granville asked Parliament
    to tax sugar and molasses imported to the colony.
  • Smugglers were also searched for!

19
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20
STAMP ACT 1765
  • King George ordered high tariffs on newspapers,
    legal documents, playing cards.
  • Colonist rebelled created the Sons of Liberty.
  • Protests, riots, and boycotts broke out amongst
    the colonies.
  • No taxation without representation became the
    rally cry.
  • Repelled in 1766

21
Response to the Stamp Act
  • England
  • English Parliament was angry their authority was
    questioned!
  • They issued the Declaratory Act, stating they had
    all the power to make laws in the colonies!
  • Colonies
  • Members of the Massachusetts legislature met with
    9 other colonies and issued a declaration that
    the Stamp Act was a violation of rights and
    liberties!

22
Townsend Acts
  • 1761 Parliament passed Townsend Acts to tax
    glass, lead, paints, paper and tea.
  • British Officials could also search for smuggled
    goods
  • Samuel Adams ship The Liberty was seized for
    smuggling Rum. Angered Colonists!
  • Colonist Response?
  • Boycotting English goods
  • Women (daughters of liberty) drove the boycotts!
  • Colonists attacked the houses of custom officials
    and British soldiers were summoned!

23
BOSTON MASSACRE 1770
  • The British sent in troops (4000) into Boston.
    Troops were not welcomed as they competed for
    jobs and represented the Kings interests. There
    were many angry encounters between soldiers and
    colonists.
  • March 5th 1770 Ice, snow and rocks thrown at
    soldiers, someone yelled fire and soldiers
    killed 5 protesters.

24
BOSTON MASSACRE
  • Samuel Adams called the event The Boston
    Massacre. to fuel anger.
  • Soldiers were put on trial and most were
    acquitted, 2 convicted of manslaughter. Most
    agreed they were probably provoked into the
    attack.
  • Townshend Acts were repealed, British troops
    withdrew from the city.

25
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26
BOSTON TEA PARTY (1773)
  • A period of calm followed the massacre.
  • Sons of Liberty were looking for issues to keep
    the fire going.
  • 1773 British only let the East India Tea Co. sell
    tea to America.
  • 150 colonist dressed as Native American Indians
    boarded the tea ships and dumped the goods
    overboard. Other parties took place in other
    colonies.
  • Unfair pricing!

27
BOSTON TEA PARTY
  • British Parliament stiffened their rule and
    passed the Coercive acts (a.k.a. Intolerable
    acts)
  • ?shut down Boston harbor.
  • ? Quartering acts
  • ? No Town Meetings allowed!

28
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29
1st Continental Conference 1774
  • In September 1774The Continental Congress met
    with 56 delegates from 12 colonies (Georgia
    stayed home)
  • 56 men meant 56 different opinions and very long
    debates!
  • They prepared a list of grievances to be taken to
    the King and British Parliament.
  • The delegates 1. stopped trade with England and
    2.alerted the colonial militia to prepare for
    war!
  • A 2nd meeting would be called if the king did not
    hear their complaints or if any attack took
    place.

Patrick Henry, The distinctions between
Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers and New
Englanders are no more, I am not a Virginian, I
am an American!
30
SHOWDOWN!!!
  • Neither side really wanted war, but neither side
    was willing to back down.
  • King George thought a show of force would improve
    his standing stating, The New England Colonies
    are in a state of rebellion Blows must decide
    whether they are to be subject to this country or
    independent!
  • The Kings General Thomas Gage was told to
    prepare for war! Frightened because he knew
    fighting would be fierce, Gage asked for
    additional militia.

31
Conflict at Lexington and Concord
One if by land, two if by sea!
32
The Shot Heard Around the World Lexington,
Massachusetts
  • The Redcoats were coming! April 19, 1775 The
    British neared Lexington and prepared for war.
  • About 80 minutemen saw the large number of
    British and were about to retreat when a shot
    rang out!
  • A short battle began with the
    British killing 8 men and destroying weapons they
    found.
  • Only one Redcoat was injured in this battle.

33
  • BATTLE OF LEXINGTON CLIP

34
Battle at Concord, Massachusetts
  • Angered by British actions, Minutemen (men ready
    at a minutes notice) were in place to attack as
    British Redcoats returned to Boston.
  • As the British retreated from Concord Minutemen
    shot at troops from behind trees, fences, and
    buildings, killing over 250 Redcoats.
  • War had officially begun!

35
1775 Second Continental Congress
  • Delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia
    following shots at Lexington/Concord
  • Some called for peace, others war! Another try
    with King George III.
  • George Washington was named Commander in Chief of
    the Continental Army
  • Debate begins over independence

36
Battle of Bunker Hill
  • May, 10 1775 Patriots attacked British at Fort
    Ticonderoga on to seize a large supply of
    weapons.
  • Colonial forces fortified Breeds Hill to prevent
    British from escaping Boston.
  • An army of 2,400 Redcoats vs. 1,600 Americans at
    Battle of Bunker of Hill.
  • The British had to fight crossing the Boston
    Harbor in boats exposing them as an easy target.
  • Eventually Americans forced to retreat, but only
    after 1000 British casualties and proof that the
    colonists could take the British!

37
Ethan Allen
66 tall with a temper!
  • May 10, 1775The capture of Fort Ticonderoga by
    Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys was a
    major victory for America during the early part
    of the American Revolution.
  • Allen sent a spy dressed as a a beggar, was
    allowed into the fort and discovered all of the
    British weaknesses.
  • He overtook the fort with 80 men.

38
Battle of Bunker Hill Video
39
COMMON SENSE (1776) by Thomas Paine
No tyranny! No abuse of government power!
  • A 47 page pamphlet.
  • Paine urged a separation from Britain.
  • Argued that citizens not kings should make laws.
  • Argued for economic freedom and the right to
    military self-defense
  • Read across the colonies!!!

40
Declaration of Independence
  • Many colonial leaders agreed with Thomas Paines
    ideas.
  • Congress created a committee in June 1776 to
    write a document declaring independence.
  • Thomas Jefferson was the main author.
  • The Declaration of Independence was sent to
    England and officially approved on July 7, 1776.

41
Declaration of Independence July 4th 1776
  • Stated the grievances against the King of
    England.
  • Gave reasons as to why the colonies should be
    free.
  • Gave people the right to abolish their own
    government.

42
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43
Colonists had different reactions to Declaration
of Independence
  • Patriots Chose to fight for independence. About
    40-50 of Americans were Patriots.
  • Loyalists Sometimes called Tories, remained
    loyal to Britain. About 20-30 of Americans were
    Loyalists.
  • Neutral About 25 of Americans remained neutral.

Once the Declaration was signed, Loyalists and
Patriots became opponents.
44
Patriots Gain New Home
  • During the war 230,000 served in the Continental
    Army. Most young men endured poor living
    conditions, bad food, no .
  • African Americans joined the patriots. At first
    they were denied, but Britain promised freedom to
    slaves for service so Army changed its mind.
  • Native Americans aided Patriots, but also
    assisted British

45
Women
Molly Ludwig Hays brought water to troops, but
when husband injured she loaded cannons.
  • Ran farms and businesses while men gone.
  • They raised money for supplies and clothing.
  • Served as messengers, nurses and spies-some
    fought.

46
Early Defeats
General Thomas Gage-ordered troops into
Lexington/Concord
I took over!
  • Canada Patriots wanted Canada to be 14th colony.
  • US forces under Gen, Montgomery and Benedict
    Arnold attacked Quebec.
  • NYC Became the 1st major battle ground .
  • British Gen. William Howe led 32,000 better
    equipped militia vs. Washingtons 23,000.
  • Months of fighting. British captured Patriots,
    took supplies, and burned NY.

47
Early Defeats
  • Howe pushed Washington across the Hudson River
    and was pleased with his success.
  • Connecticut Nathan Hale went behind the British
    lines to attain secret information.
  • Hale was caught with the documents hidden in his
    shoe and ordered to be hung.
  • Before his execution he stated, I regret I have
    only one life to lose for my country.

48
Battle of Saratoga, New York
  • 2 defeats stun the British.
  • British General John Burgoyne planned to capture
    Hudson River valley and cut off New England from
    other colonies.
  • British Burgoyne planned to invade Canada
    traveling through dense forests.
  • Patriots were ready with obstacles. Militiamen
    outnumbered the Redcoats and scored a major
    victory. General Horatio Gates crushed British
    attempts to advance.

49
Battle of Saratoga, New York
  • Colonial General Benedict Arnold led a charge
    that forced the British to retreat.
  • The British were surrounded and Burgoyne
    surrendered to General Gates.
  • Saratoga was the greatest victory yet for
    American forces! The win convinced foreign
    allies to help.

50
Help for Americans
  • France Signed treaty of support. French
    Nobleman Marquis de Lafayette volunteered to
    serve and gave 200,000 for soldier aid.
  • Prussia Baron Friedrich von Steuben trained
    Continental Army into a tough force!
  • Spain Bitter enemies of Britain! Governor
    Bernardo de Galvez seized British ports.

51
Valley Forge-winter 1777-1778
  • General Washington and 1200 men wintered at
    Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
  • Soldiers suffered because of low supplies,
    shortage of food, clothing, shelter and disease!
  • 2000 men died from disease malnutrition.

52
War at Sea and in the West
I have just begun to fight!
  • John Paul Jones leads attacks on hundreds of
    British ships.
  • (The tiny fleet was no match for the huge British
    fleet)
  • George Rogers Clark gathered soldiers from small
    towns, captured British villages and convinced
    Indians to remain neutral.

53
War in the South
  • Following Saratoga war was not going well for the
    British so they decided to move war to the south
    where they had many loyalists in Georgia, the
    Carolinas and Virginia.
  • They even offered freedom for slaves who took up
    arms against the Patriots.
  • Brutal fighting began.

54
War in the South
  • Patriots fought the Loyalists but lost Georgia in
    1778 and Charleston, South Carolina in 1780.
  • Some southern Patriots worked to build Bands of
    guerrilla fighters. Partisans fought against the
    British.
  • One Southern Patriot was Francis Marion (a.k.a
    The Swamp Fox)
  • Marion was successful using guerilla warfare
    against the British.

55
The Swamp Fox
  • 48 year old, weak and in poor health. He created
    a phantom army that frustrated British General
    Cornwallis.
  • Surprise attacks from Marion and others disrupted
    communication and supply lines the British
    counted on for success!

56
The Battle of Yorktown
  • 1781 British General Cornwallis moved British
    forces from Charleston to Yorktown, Virginia.
  • Washington saw a chance to trap Cornwallis.
  • He ordered Lafayette to block Cornwalliss escape
    by land.
  • He then combined his 2500 troops with 4000 French
    troops led by Comte de Rochambeau.
  • The Patriots surrounded Cornwallis and French
    Naval Ships stopped British ships from saving
    Cornwallis.

57
The Battle of Yorktown
  • On October 19, 1781 Cornwallis sent a drummer and
    soldier with a white flag to surrender.
  • This was the last major battle of the American
    Revolution.
  • With no more money to spend on war Britain
    entered into peace talks with America led by
    Benjamin Franklin.
  • It took 2 years to come to a Peace Agreement but
    Great Britain finally recognized the United
    States independence at the Treaty of Paris in
    1783.

58
American Revolution 1776-1783
  • 175,000 white males fought in the war.
  • 50,000 as loyalists to the King.
  • Thousands of homes were burned and looted as the
    war raged on, it forced people to take sides.
  • War was won by a bunch of rag-tag farmers using
    guerilla war-fare.

59
Articles of Confederation 1781-1788
  • Could not levy taxes huge war debt
  • Could not regulate trade- Froze trade, paralyzed
    the economy
  • Difficult to pass new laws, 9 of 13 colonies must
    agree
  • Congress could not enforce any laws

60
United States Constitution 1788
  • Constitutional Convention 1787
  • Maybe the greatest document ever written? Because
    of its fluidity! Has withstood civil wars,
    internal abuses, and neglect.

61
Federalist (Alexander Hamilton)
  • Strong federal government
  • Govt should be run by the best people
  • Only property owners should vote
  • Loose interpretation of Constitution
  • Govt favors business
  • Powerful national bank
  • Restrictions of free press and speech

62
Anti-Federalists (Thomas Jefferson)
  • Strong state government
  • Govt should be run by all people
  • All people can vote
  • Strict interpretation of constitution
  • No special favors for business
  • Promotion of state banks
  • Relatively free speech and press

63
Bill of Rights
  • Series of essays (Federalist papers) were
    published trying to gather support for their
    cause.
  • The Bill of rights were a concession between the
    Federalist and the Anti-federalist.
  • Anti- federalist agreed to ratify the
    constitution if they guaranteed peoples basic
    rights.

64
Bill of Rights
  • 1st Amendment- separation of church and state ,
    freedom of worship, speech, press, and assembly.
  • 2nd Amendment- Right to bear arms and establish a
    well regulated militia.
  • 3rd Amendment- Soldiers cannot be housed in
    private homes.
  • 4th Amendment- Right to unlawful search and
    entry.
  • 5th Amendment- do not have to testify against
    yourself.

65
First 10 Amendments
  • 6th guarantees the right to a speedy trial
  • 7th right to trial by jury
  • 8th prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
  • 9th states that because certain right are not
    mentioned does not mean they do not exist
  • 10th any powers no specified to the federal
    government, then it rests with the states
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