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TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving

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Title: TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving


1
TIPS Team Initiated Problem Solving
2
  • The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support
    Network 
  • The mission of the Pennsylvania Positive Behavior
    Support Network (PA PBS Network), through
    training and technical assistance, is to support
    schools and their family and community partners
    to create and sustain comprehensive, school-based
    behavioral health support systems in order to
    promote the academic, social and emotional
    well-being of all Pennsylvanias students. The
    networks goal is to ensure that all schools have
    the necessary technical assistance, collaborative
    opportunities, and evaluative tools needed to
    overcome non-academic barriers to learning and
    achieve competence and confidence in advancing
    academic, social, and emotional success for all
    students.

3
Objectives
  • Provide an overview of the TIPS System
  • Review effective meeting practices through the
    use of the TIPS Meeting Foundations
  • Change primary statements into precision
    statements and identify a problem that includes
    precision elements critical for problem solving
  • Review the use of data based decision making

4
Sharing Time
5
Why TIPS?
  • Every school has teams
  • Teams are being expected to do problem solving
  • Get training and implement new ideas/programs
  • Provide efficient leadership
  • Teams need to report data to administration,
    district, state
  • Teams NEED data to do good problem solving.
  • Most teams are not skilled at running problem
    solving meetings and using data for
    decision-making

6
What do Teams Need?
  • A clear model with steps for problem solving
  • Access to the right information at the right time
    in the right format
  • A formal process that a group of people can use
    to build and implement solutions.

7
TIPS Model
  • Provides tools to define a system for effective
    meetings, roles, responsibilities, materials,
    accountability and procedures
  • Steps for effective problem solving including a
    strategy for assessing, monitoring, and
    evaluating the implementation and results of
    solutions
  • Can be used with other data sets

8
Review Status and Identify Problems
Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model
Develop and Refine Hypotheses
Evaluate and Revise Action Plan
Collect and Use Data
Discuss and Select Solutions
Develop and Implement Action Plan
Problem Solving Meeting Foundations
9
TIPS Model
  • Team Meeting
  • Use of electronic meeting minute system
  • Formal roles
  • Specific expectations
  • Access and use of data
  • Projected meeting minutes

10
Building Capacity and Sustainability
For Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and
Safety
OUTCOMES
SWIS or other data collection and reporting system
Meeting time Support Report to Faculty
SYSTEMS
DATA
Electronic Meeting Minutes Form
PRACTICES
Supporting Staff Student Behavior and Decision
Making
11
Improving Decision-Making via Problem Solving
Action Planning Evaluation
Problem Solving
Problem
Solution
Information/ Data
12
Problem-Solving Meeting Foundations
  • Structure for efficiency effectiveness

13
Meeting Minutes
  • Documentation of
  • Logistics of meeting
  • Agenda items for todays meeting and the next
    meeting
  • Discussion items, decisions made, tasks and
    timelines assigned
  • Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks,
    people assigned to implement with timelines
    assigned, and an evaluation plan to determine
    effect on student behavior

14
Meeting Minutes
  • Review of Meeting Minutes
  • Effective strategy for getting a snapshot of what
    happened at the previous meeting and what needs
    to be reviewed during the upcoming meeting
  • What was the issue/problem?
  • What were we going to do?
  • Who was going to do it and by when?
  • How are we measuring progress toward the goal?

15
Meeting Minutes
  • Visual tracking of focus topics during/after the
    meeting
  • Prevents side conversations
  • Prevents repetition
  • Encourages completion of tasks

16
Organizing for an effective problem solving
conversation
A key to collective problem solving is to provide
a visual context that allows everyone to follow
and contribute
Problem
Use Data
Out of Time
Solution
17
Meeting Minutes Goal
  • Utilize a system that is NOT person dependent
  • Allow participation without previous history
  • Fit into any role needed
  • Facilitator
  • Minute taker
  • Data analyst
  • Active team member

18
PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving
Action Plan Form
Todays Meeting Date, time, location
Facilitator Minute Taker Data Analyst
Next Meeting Date, time, location
Facilitator Minute Taker Data Analyst
Team Members (bold are present today)
Todays Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items Todays Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items Todays Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items
01. 02. 03.
Administrative/General Information and Issues
Information for Team, or Issue for Team to Address Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) Who? By When?



Problem-Solving Action Plan
Implementation and Evaluation Implementation and Evaluation Implementation and Evaluation
Precise Problem Statement, based on review of data (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety) Who? By When? Goal, Timeline, Decision Rule, Updates



Our Rating Our Rating Our Rating
Yes So-So No
1. Was todays meeting a good use of our time?
2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether were completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?
3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?
4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior?
Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings
with an X)
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22
Review Status and Identify Problems
Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model
Develop and Refine Hypotheses
Evaluate and Revise Action Plan
Collect and Use Data
Discuss and Select Solutions
Develop and Implement Action Plan
Problem Solving Meeting Foundations
23
Meeting Foundations
24
Meeting Foundations
  • Define purpose of team meeting
  • Decisions to be made cycle of decision making
    data sources to use
  • Define roles and responsibilities
  • Define team agreements about meeting processes
  • Inform facilitator of absence/tardy prior to
    meeting
  • Be prepared by completing assigned tasks
  • Avoid side bars and stay focused
  • Start and end on time
  • Be an active participant
  • Use electronic minutes

25
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26
Activity
  • Complete the Foundations Checklist
  • Use the PBIS team you know best
  • How would you use the Foundations Checklist to
    help a school team that was preparing to adopt
    TIPS procedures?

27
Data Collection
  • You will need
  • SWIS or another information system for gathering,
    entering, summarizing, reporting and using office
    discipline referral information
  • A progress monitoring tool for improving the
    ability of school personnel to develop safe and
    effective learning environments

28
Using office discipline referrals as a metric for
universal screening of student social behavior
6 office discipline referrals 2-5 office
discipline referrals
5
15
0-1 office discipline referral
80 of Students
29
Using ODRs to Identify Problems
  • Build a picture for the pattern of office
    referrals in your school.
  • Compare the picture with a national average
  • Compare the picture with previous years
  • Compare the picture with social standards of
    faculty, families, students.

30
Goal
  • Identify problems empirically
  • Identify problems early
  • Identify problems in a manner that leads to
    problem solving not just whining

31
2009-10 SWIS SummaryNational
32
New SWIS Graph Average Referrals Per Day Per
Month (National data lines)
33
SWIS summary 2009-10 (Majors Only)4,019 schools
2,063,408 students 1,622,229 ODRs
Grade Range Number of Schools Mean Enrollment per school ODRs per 100 per school day
K-6 2565 452 (Mean) .32 (sd .43) (Median) .22
6-9 713 648 (Mean) .69 (sd .85) (Median) .50
9-12 266 897 (Mean) .95 (sd 1.12) (Median) .68
K-(8-12) 474 423 (Mean) .72 (sd 1.63) (Median) .42
34
N 2565
713 266
474
35
Using Data to Problem Solve
  • Do we have a problem?
  • Refine the description of the problem?
  • What behavior, Who, Where, When, Why
  • Test hypotheses
  • I think the problem on the playground is due to
    Eric
  • We think the lunch period is too long
  • We believe the end of block schedule is used
    poorly
  • Define how to monitor if solution is effective

36
Using DataDo We Have a Problem?
  • What data to monitor
  • ODR per day per month
  • OSS, ISS, Attendance, Teacher report
  • Team Implementation Checklist
  • Benchmarks of Quality
  • What questions to ask of Level, Trend, Peaks
  • How do our data compare with last year?
  • How do our data compare with national/regional
    norms?
  • How do our data compare with our expectations?
  • If a problem is identified, then ask
  • What are the data we need to make a good
    decision?

37
Using DataRefine the Problem Statement
  • The statement of a problem is important for
    team-based problem solving.
  • Everyone must be working on the same problem with
    the same assumptions.
  • Problems often are framed in a Primary form,
    that creates concern, but that is not useful for
    problem-solving.
  • Frame primary problems based on initial review of
    data
  • Use more detailed review of data to build
    Solvable Problem Statements.

38
Solvable Problem StatementsWhat are the data we
need for a decision?
  • Five core W questions.
  • What is problem, and how often is it happening
  • Where is it happening
  • Who is engaged in the behavior
  • When the problem is most likely
  • Why the problem is sustaining

39
What are the data you are most likely to need to
move from a Primary to a Precise statement?
  • What problem behaviors are most common?
  • ODR per Problem Behavior
  • Where are problem behaviors most likely?
  • ODR per Location
  • When are problem behaviors most likely?
  • ODR per time of day
  • Who is engaged in problem behavior?
  • ODR per student
  • Why are problem behaviors sustaining?
  • Motivation Graph

40
Primary versus Precise Statements
  • Primary Statements
  • Too many referrals
  • September has more suspensions than last year
  • Gang behavior is increasing
  • The cafeteria is out of control
  • Student disrespect is out of control
  • Precise Statements
  • There are more ODRs for aggression on the
    playground than last year. These are most likely
    to occur during first recess, with a large number
    of students, and the aggression is related to
    getting access to the new playground equipment.

41
Precise Statements
  • 5 Core W Questions
  • What
  • Where
  • When
  • Who
  • Why
  • Precise Statements
  • There are more ODRs for aggression on the
    playground than last year. These are most likely
    to occur during first recess, with a large number
    of students, and the aggression is related to
    getting access to the new playground equipment.

42
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • ODRs during December are higher than in any other
    month.
  • Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing
    over time, and are most likely during the last 15
    minutes of our block periods when students are
    engaged in independent seat work. This pattern
    is most common in 7th and 8th grades, involves
    many students, and appears to be maintained by
    escape from work (but may also be maintained by
    peer attention we are not sure).

43
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • Children are using inappropriate language with a
    high frequency in the presence of both adults and
    other children. This is creating a sense of
    disrespect and incivility in the school
  • James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria
    during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by
    peer attention.

44
Precise Statements
  • Using your data, develop a precision statement
    that describes a problem behavior your data shows

45
Solutions Generic Strategies
  • Prevent
  • Remove or alter trigger for problem behavior
  • Define Teach
  • Define behavioral expectations provide
    demonstration/instruction in expected behavior
    (alternative to problem behavior
  • Reward/reinforce
  • The expected/alternative behavior when it occurs
    prompt for it, as necessary
  • Withhold reward/reinforcement
  • For the problem behavior, if possible
    (Extinction)
  • Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective
    consequences When problem behavior
    occursAlthough not a solution strategy,
    Safety may need to be considered (i.e.,
    procedures that may be required to decrease
    likelihood of injuries or property damage)

46
Trevor Test Middle School Hypothesis
Prevent Trigger
Define Teach
Reward/Reinforce
Withhold Reward
Corrective consequence
Other
Safety
47
Implementing Solutions
  • Who is going to do it?
  • When will they do it?
  • Minute Taker writes this information down,
    facilitator follows up at next meeting on status
    of implementation

48
Evaluating Solutions
  • Define the goal for solving the problem
  • What will it look like when you say it is not a
    problem
  • Define how you will know that the solutions were
    implemented as planned (with fidelity)?
  • How often will you conduct a status review?
  • Define how you will know that the solutions had a
    positive effect on student achievement, social
    competence, and/or safety?
  • How often will you monitor student progress?

49
Achieving a Precise Problem Statementfor
Fictional Trevor Test School
  • Middle School Grades 6, 7, 8
  • 565 students

50
Trevor Test Middle Schooln 565 grades 6-8Is
there a problem? Compare to national average,
compare to last year, examine trend, examine
peaks?
51
Trevor Test Middle SchoolIdentified Problem
  • Identified problem
  • for last 4 months, Major ODRs per day higher than
    national average
  • increasing trend across all 5 months

52
Trevor Test Middle School 11/01/2007 through
01/31/2008 (last 3 mos.)
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54
What information do we need?
  • Who is involved in problem behavior in the
    cafeteria?

ODRs in the Cafeteria
55
Main problem
  • The sixth graders are disruptive use
    inappropriate language in the cafeteria between
    1130 AM and 1200 PM to get peer attention.

56
Trevor Test
  • The sixth graders are disruptive use
    inappropriate language in the cafeteria between
    1130 AM and 1200 PM to get peer attention.

57
Trevor Test Middle School Hypothesis - cafeteria
overcrowded 6th graders with insufficient
instruction in cafeteria expectations attention
from adults and peers rewarding disruption
Prevent Trigger Change lunch schedule so fewer students are eating between 1130 AM 1200 PM?
Define Teach Focus on 6th graders define cafeteria expectations develop and post expectation signage in cafeteria demonstrate/teach expectations in class periods occurring just prior to lunch
Reward/Reinforce Set up Friday 5 (extra 5 mins. of lunch time on Friday, if no ODRs occur in cafeteria during lunch time)
Withhold Reward Ensure staff dont argue back and forth with student if instance of disruption occurs (may be an inadvertent reward) remind students that paying attention to a disruptive student can mess up Friday 5
Corrective consequence Ensure active supervision during lunch (add one supervisor between 1130 AM and 1200 PM?) ensure quick corrective consequence, per our handbook
Other Determine whether Behavior Support Program has been initiated for Student 10 if it has, make sure it includes focus on disruption in cafeteria
Safety
58
Trevor TestSolution Actions
  • Choose the solutions that will create an
    environment that makes the problem irrelevant,
    inefficient, and ineffective.
  • Choose least amount of work that will have the
    biggest impact on decreasing the problem.
  • Implementing the solution requires action and
    time lines
  • Problems need goals so that we can measure
    progress and know when to move on.
  • Use weekly 1-5 survey of cafeteria monitors to
    assess implementation of plan

Are we doing the plan? 1 .. 2 ..3 .. 4 ..
5 No Yes
59
Trevor TestSolution Actions
  • Choose the solutions that will create an
    environment that makes the problem irrelevant,
    inefficient, and ineffective.
  • Choose least amount of work that will have the
    biggest impact on decreasing the problem.
  • Implementing the solution requires action and
    time lines
  • Problems need goals so that we can measure
    progress and know when to move on.
  • Use weekly 1-5 survey of cafeteria monitors to
    assess implementation of plan

60
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61
TIPS Team Initiated Problem Solving
  • For additional information
  • Name____________
  • Email Address__________
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