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Looking more closely at Development?

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Title: Looking more closely at Development?


1
Looking more closely at Development?
2
What is development???
Many perspectives difficult to
define Progression? Becoming more advanced or
complex? Improving by expanding? Resulting in
more and better? How our societies develop,
how our nations develop What makes a country
developed?
3
What is development to you?
Services
Education
Enterprise Trade
Energy
Justice
Food Security
Infrastructure
Medicine
Peace
Democracy
Freedom
Technology
Choice
4
The Development Compass Rose A framework for
raising questions
http//www.tidec.org/sites/default/files/uploads/2
c.5020Compass20rose.pdf
5
What is development???
Natural (Env) green energy, freshwater
ecosystems damages
Economic Energy to homes businesses,
increased shipping capacity
Who decides? gov, people, international
policy?
Social forced relocation, destruction of
ancestral homes, flooding behind dam.
6
What is development???
Natural (Env) energy efficient, convenience,
materials used?
Who decides? consumer, builder, banks, planning
authorities?
Economic jobs, taxes?
Social identity, urbanisation, Service
provision, personal debt?
7
Perspectives on Development development V
preservation
  • Consider social, economic, environmental,
    political
  • But also culture/tradition
  • What values do we uphold? What compromises do we
    make?

8
Perspectives on Development development and
underdevelopment
  • "we must embark on a bold new program for making
    the benefits of our scientific advances and
    industrial progress available for the improvement
    and growth of underdeveloped areas.
  • More than half the people of the world are
    living in conditions approaching misery. Their
    food is inadequate. They are victims of disease.
    Their economic life is primitive and stagnant.
    Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to
    them and to more prosperous areas. For the first
    time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge
    and skill to relieve suffering of these people.
  • President Harry Truman, 1949

Harry S. Truman, Inaugural Address, 20 January
1949, in Documents on American Foreign Relations,
Connecticut Princeton University Press, 1967
9
Perspectives on Development the creation of
underdevelopment
  • on that day 2 billion people became
    underdeveloped
  • from that time on, they ceased being what they
    were, in all their diversity, and were
    transmogrified into an inverted mirror of others
    reality
  • a mirror that belittles them and send them off
    to the end of the queue,
  • a mirror that defines their identity, which is
    really that of a heterogenous and diverse
    majority, simply in the terms of a homogenizing
    narrow minority.
  • Gustavo Esteva (in Sachs, W. 2010, p.2)
  • W. Sachs, 2010, (ed.) The Development
    Dictionary a Guide to Knowledge as Power, 2nd
    Edition, London Zed Books.

10
Perspectives on Development Modernisation theory
  • Modernisation ideas
  • Economic view

11
Perspectives on Development Dependency
550500 Give and take, mostly
take http//www.developmenteducation.ie/5-50-500/

12
Perspectives on Development grassroots development
  • e.g. Grameen Bank (GB)
  • removed the need for collateral,
  • bank is based on mutual trust, accountability,
    participation and creativity.
  • provides credit to the poorest of the poor in
    rural Bangladesh.
  • October, 2011
  • 2,565 branches covering 97 of total villages
  • 8.349 million borrowers,
  • 97 are women

Weaving is one of the industries supported by the
bank. Image from http//www.grameen.com
13
Perspectives on Development The origins and
impact of Debt
  • Debt IMF World Bank - issuing of loans to
    developing countries,
  • Loans to developing countries from OPEC countries
    and private banks in 1960s
  • Drop in prices of commodities (e.g. coffee,
    cotton, copper), increased in tariffs, increases
    in interest rates difficult to service loans
  • 1982 Mexico unable to pay
  • Debt crisis, Structural Adjustment Programmes

Available to download at http//www.ubuntu.ie/tea
ching-resources.html
14
Perspectives on Development Sustainable
Development
  • Sustainable Development is that which meets the
    needs of the present without compromising the
    ability of future generations to meet their own
    needs. (Brundtland Report, 1987)
  • It identified 3 components to sustainable
    development economic growth, environmental
    protection, and social equity, and suggested that
    all three could be achieved by gradually changing
    the ways in which we develop and use technologies
    (Environmental Literacy Council, 2006).
  • Bruntland, G (ed) (1987) Our Common Future The
    World Commission on Environment and Development,
    Oxford Oxford University Press.
  • Environmental Literacy Council, 2006, Available
    at http//www.enviroliteracy.org/, accessed
    22-01-07.

15
Perspectives on Development How it is measured
  • Economic Only World Bank measures GNI or GDP ()
  • UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) measures
    Education, Health, Population, Economy (0-1)
  • Gini Factor Measures inequality in a country
    (0-100)
  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), 10
    factors including nutrition and sanitation
  • The Happy Planet an index of human well-being
    and environmental impact

16
Perspectives on Development How it is measured -
HDI
17
Perspectives on Development How it is measured -
HDI
18
Perspectives on Development How it is measured
Gini Index (measures equality)
Norway 25 Australia 30.5 Netherlands
30.9 United States - 45 New Zealand 36.2 Canada
32.1 Ireland - 33.9 Lichtenstein - x Germany -
27 Sweden - 23
0 perfectly equal 100 perfectly unequal
19
Perspectives on Development Multidimensional
Poverty Index (MPI)
  • Years of Schooling deprived if no household
    member has completed 5 yrs of schooling
  • Child School Attendance deprived if any
    school-aged child is not attending school up to
    class 8
  • Child Mortality deprived if any child has died
    in the family
  • Nutrition deprived if any adult or child for
    whom there is nutritional information is
    malnourished
  • Electricity deprived if the household has no
    electricity
  • Sanitation deprived if the households
    sanitation facility is not improved (according to
    MDG guidelines), or it is improved but shared
    with other households
  • Drinking Water deprived if the household does
    not have access to safe drinking water (according
    to MDG guidelines) or safe drinking water is more
    than a 30-minute walk from home roundtrip
  • Floor deprived if the household has a dirt, sand
    or dung floor
  • Cooking Fuel deprived if the household cooks
    with dung, wood or charcoal
  • Assets ownership deprived if the household does
    not own more than one radio, TV, telephone, bike,
    motorbike or refrigerator and does not own a car
    or truck
  • nutrition and sanitation

20
Perspectives on Development Happy Planet Index
78 Ireland 42.6
21
Perspectives on Development one definition
Development is growing social inclusion through
rising living standards, meaningful employment,
active political and social participation and a
satisfying cultural life, extending to all
sectors of society and thus widening life choices
and possibilities for the great majority.
(Kirby, P. 1997)
Kirby, P. (1997) Poverty Amid Plenty World and
Irish Development Considered Dublin Trócaire
22
Development is unequal
321 http//www.developmenteducation.ie/blog/2012
/05/consumption-in-a-world-of-321-E28093-our-ne
w-animation/
23
Combating inequalities of development Millennium
Development Goals
http//www.un.org/millenniumgoals
http//www.endpoverty2015.org
24
Combating inequalities of development Irish Aid
Overseas Development Aid (ODA)
2011 was 659 million - 0.52 GNP 2010 was
671.4 million - 0.52 GNP 2009 was 722 million
- 0.54 GNP 2008 was 920 million - ? GP 2000
was 254 million - 0.3 of GNP EU target is 0.7
of GNP by 2015 Image 2009 Irish Aid
Annual Report
25
Ireland - Overseas Development Aid
Irish Aid has 9 priority countries
Irish Aid, Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland
26
Overseas Development Aid
Taken from Irish Aid Annual Report 2009
27
Overseas Development Aid
Taken from Irish Aid Annual Report 2009
28
Overseas Development Aid
Taken from Irish Aid Annual Report 2009
29
Overseas Development Aid
Taken from Irish Aid Annual Report 2009
30
Combating inequalities of development NGO work
Self Help Africa (Ireland) On a continent where
up to 75 of people rely on small-scale
agriculture for their survival, we believe that
it is only by tackling the challenges faced by
rural farming communities that real and sustained
economic progress can be made across sub-Saharan
Africa. Action for Development (Uganda) Action
for Development is an indigenous, voluntary,
non-governmental women's organization working to
have womens voices heard in the community.
31
Combating inequalities of development Grassroots
development projects
  • e.g. Grameen Bank (GB)
  • removed the need for collateral,
  • bank is based on mutual trust, accountability,
    participation and creativity.
  • provides credit to the poorest of the poor in
    rural Bangladesh.
  • October, 2011
  • 2,565 branches covering 97 of total villages
  • 8.349 million borrowers,
  • 97 are women

Weaving is one of the industries supported by the
bank. Image from http//www.grameen.com
32
Combating inequalities of development Campaigning
and Advocacy
Red nose day, UK raising money for development
projects solution? Or not?
33
Recommended Websites
www.developmenteducation.ie
www.ubuntu.ie
34
Recommended Readings
Book Title Learning to Read the World , Authors
Audrey Bryan, Meliosa Bracken, Published 2011,
Available to download at http//www.ubuntu.ie/res
earch-publications.html Book Title 8020
Development in an Unequal World, (6th Edition)
Colm Regan (ed.) 2011. Purchase from www.8020.ie
Journal Title Policy and Practice A
Development Education Review. Available to
download at http//www.developmenteducationreview
.com Paper Soft versus Critical Global
Citizenship Education, Author Vanessa Andreotti.
Available to download from http//oulu.academia.e
du/VanessaAndreotti/Papers/114660/Soft_versus_Crit
ical_Global_Citizenship_Education_2006_
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