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Supervision and academic writing

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Supervision and academic writing Professor Kirsti Lonka University of Helsinki, Finland/ Foreign Adjunct Professor, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Supervision and academic writing


1
Supervision and academic writing
  • Professor Kirsti Lonka
  • University of Helsinki, Finland/
  • Foreign Adjunct Professor, Karolinska Institutet,
    Sweden

2
Our mental models guide our actions
  • Guide our attention, perception and memory
  • Not copies of reality, but emphasize things that
    are important for us
  • Motivation and emotions play a role
  • Expertise requires well-developed mental models

3
Literate expertise
  • Expertise in general relies on a body of
    well-organized and useful domain-specific
    knowledge structures
  • Developing expertise in any domain usually takes
  • 10 000 hours
  • Literate expertise
  • - the readiness to go beyond the text, and to
    differentiate between what is intended and what
    is actually written
  • - taking into account the point of view of both
    the potential reader and the scientific
    conventions, which often remain tacit

4
A free-writing exercise
  • Think about your own writing activities
  • What do you enjoy?
  • What do you dislike?
  • Write about this for 2-3 minutes. Do not think
    about grammar, punctuation, or style.

5
A FEEDBACK EXCERCISE
  • Start with careful reading and listening
  • what does the author want to say?
  • present strong and positive aspects about the
    text
  • present specific questions about the text, e.g.
    what do you mean by saying x on page 5?
  • do not comment on the writer or writers
    abilities
  • the author is not supposed to answer orally but
    to underline the strong points of the text and to
    write down the questions it is her/his task to
    think through the comments and decide what to
    take into account.

6
Liking/Disliking writing?
  • Positive thoughts
  • Negative thoughts

7
Constructive feedback
  • Start with careful listening or reading
  • Focus on strengths
  • Be as specific as possible
  • Pose questions
  • Comment on the task, not on the person

8
Two modes of thinking about writing
  • KNOWLEDGE TELLING
  • Writing is simply listing what you already know
    - minimizing the cognitive load
  • KNOWLEDGE TRANSFORMING
  • Writing is an effortful and reflective
    problem-solving process
  • (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1987)

9
Creative process and writing
  • PREWRITING
  • DRAFTING, FEEDBACK, PRELIMINARY WORK
  • PRODUCING THE TEXT, REVISING, REFLECTION,
    TRANSFORMING THE PROBLEM
  • EDITING, CHECKING THE LANGUAGE, RUNNING MORE
    TESTS, PUBLISHING
  • PREPARING
  • INCUBATION
  • INSIGHT
  • TESTING THE SOLUTIONS

10
Writing shapes thinking
  • The act of writing is an aid to students
    learning, a tool to be used in acquiring mastery
    over new information, and a means of revealing
    present understanding of a given subject
  • P.Tynjälä, L. Mason, K. Lonka (2001, Eds.)
    Writing as a Learning Tool Integrating theory
    and practice. Studies in Writing, Vol. 7.
    Dordrecth, The Netherlands Kluwer Academic
    Publishers.

11
Writing as a social activity
  • Learning is a process of growing up to be a
    member of a community
  • Intelligent activity takes place within a culture
    rather than merely within the human mind
  • Teachers and tutors are also role models
  • The skill of writing is acquired by taking part
    in social practices and building identities
  • Motivation and engagement are of importance
  • (Pyhältö, Stubb Lonka, 2009 Stubb, Lonka
    Pyhältö, in press in preparation)

12
An optimal experience - FLOW Csikszentmihalyi
(1988), Delle Fave Massimi, (2005)
  • High challenge combined with feeling of
    competence
  • Engagement
  • Absorption, loosing sense of time
  • Promotes intellectual evolution
  • Part of normal daily experience

13
The four channel model of flow (Csikszentmihalyi,
1993)
-
FLOW
ANXIETY
CHALLENGE
RELAXATION/BOREDOM
APATHY
-
COMPETENCE
14
Flow and writing (Reed Larson, 1988)
  • Enjoyment was a great predictor of the grades
    students received in a major writing project
  • Irrespective of ability levels, the experience of
    flow made a substantial difference in the quality
    of each students final paper
  • Students who experienced flow did not put more
    time to their work they appeared to get more out
    of each hour they worked
  • Novice writers often put themselves in situations
    they could not handle
  • Emotional problems in writing may end up in
    overarousal (stress and anxiety) or underarousal
    (boredom), which are cognitively maladaptive
    states of mind

15
Adaptive Thoughts of Writing
  • Productivity - the feeling that I am able to
    produce (Boice, 1993)
  • Knowledge Transforming - I see writing as an act
    of creating or transforming knowledge

16
Maladaptive Thoughts of Writing
  • Blocks - the feeling that I am not able to write
  • Procrastination - I cannot get started!
  • Perfectionism - I cannot stop revising!
  • Innate ability writing is a talent that cannot
    be learned
  • These maladaptive thoughts are related to
    experienced stress (Lonka et al., 2010, in
    preparation)

17
How to cure blocks?
  • Automatization - getting rid of the internal
    critics, setting the threshold lower for writing
  • Regimen - constant writing regardless of mood,
    time, space
  • Adaptive cognitions about writing - useful
    beliefs about oneself and writing
  • Social support - peer groups, feedback, cultural
    practices

18
Discussion
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