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Gaining a Competitive Edge


With Performance Testing * * CPAI = Canvas Products Association International (Industrial Fabrics Association International) Applicable flammability regulations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gaining a Competitive Edge

Gaining a Competitive Edge
  • With Performance Testing

Testing isnt Cheap
But the RIGHT Testing is a Good Investment
Start at the Beginning
  • Before addressing performance features, make sure
    your fabrics and products meet mandatory
    standards and customer expectations for quality.

Health Safety
  • Flammability
  • Restricted substances
  • Special childrens issues

  • 16 CFR 1610 Standard for the Flammability of
    Clothing Textiles
  • ASTM D1230-10 Standard Test Method for
    Flammability of Apparel Textiles
  • CPAI-75 A Rate of Burn Standard for Sleeping
  • ASTM F1955-99 (2005) Standard Test Method for
    Flammability of Sleeping Bags
  • CPAI-84 A Specification for Flame-resistant
    Materials Used in Camping Tentage
  • 16 CFR 1615/1616 Standard for the Flammability
    of Children's Sleepwear
  • ASTM D6545-10 Standard Test Method for
    Flammability of Textiles Used in Children's
  • Other national, state, and local regulations
  • Industry standards

  • Test method lists in this presentation are NOT
  • For every AATCC method listed, there are similar,
    identicalor totally differentISO, JIS, BS, etc.
    methods for measuring the same property.

Restricted Substances
  • Lead (childrens product 300 ppm paint 90
  • Phthalates (toys and child-care items)
  • Cal Prop 65 Safe Drinking Water and Toxic
    Enforcement Act of 1986
  • American Apparel Footwear Association RSL
  • Öko-Tex Standard 100
  • Other government and industry RSLs

Childrens Safety
  • Tougher flammability and toxicity requirements
  • ASTM F963-07e1 Standard Consumer Safety
    Specification on Toy Safety
  • Use and abuse
  • Small parts (16 CFR 1500.50-53 and 1501)
  • Sharp points (16 CFR 1500.48)
  • Sharp edges (16 CFR 1500.49)
  • Non-textile standards and regulations

50 Cotton 50 Polyester Hand or machine Wash in
cold water No bleach Tumble dry low Made in
U.S.A. M
  • Care instructions
  • Fiber content
  • Safety
  • Identification

Basic Quality Control
  • Dimensional Stability
  • Colorfastness
  • Strength
  • Durability

Make Claims that Make Sense
  • Know which features are important
  • in your product category
  • at your price point
  • to your customers
  • Know how to measure performance
  • Know how you compare with competitors

Support Your Claims with Testing
Moisture Management
  • Water resistance
  • Absorbency
  • Drying time
  • Moisture transport

Water Resistance
  • AATCC TM22 Water Repellency-Spray Test
  • Water is sprayed against the taut surface of a
    test specimen under controlled conditions. The
    specimen is evaluated by comparing the wetted
    pattern with pictures on a standard chart. This
    method is especially suitable for measuring the
    water-repellent efficacy of finishes applied to
  • AATCC TM35 Water Resistance Rain Test
  • A test specimen, backed by a weighed blotter, is
    sprayed with water for five minutes under
    controlled conditions. The blotter is reweighed
    to determine the amount of water passing through
    the specimen. Tests at different intensities give
    a complete picture of the penetration resistance
    of a single fabric or combination of fabrics.
  • AATCC TM42 Water Resistance Impact Penetration
  • Measures the resistance of fabrics to the
    penetration of water by impact, and thus can be
    used to predict the probable resistance of
    fabrics to rain penetration resistance of garment
  • AATCC TM70 Water Repellency-Tumble Jar Dynamic
    Absorption Test
  • Subjects specimens to dynamic conditions similar
    to those encountered during actual use. Not
    intended for determining probable rain
    penetration resistance of fabrics, since it
    measures absorption of water into, but not
    through, the fabric. Results depend primarily on
    the resistance to wetting or water repellency of
    the fibers and yarns in the fabric, and not upon
    the construction of the fabric.
  • AATCC TM127 Water Resistance Hydrostatic
    Pressure Test
  • Measures the resistance of a fabric to the
    penetration of water under hydrostatic pressure.

Water Resistance
AATCC/ASTM Moisture Management Technical
Supplement (MM TS) procedures (are not standard
test methods. They have not been reviewed,
balloted, or approved by the processes stated in
the Rules of Procedure for AATCC Test Method and
Technology Committees or ASTM International. Some
of the techniques may be considered for
development as new standards or incorporated into
existing standards in the future.
  • AATCC TM 79 Absorbency of Textiles
  • The completeness and uniformity of textile
    processing as well as the suitability of a fabric
    for a particular use is dependent upon its
    ability and propensity to take up water. The test
    is based on the amount of time it takes for a
    drop of water to disappear from the surface of a
    specimen (by being absorbed into the material).
  • MM TS-01 Quick Water Absorbency
  • Designed to measure the water absorbency of
    textiles by measuring the time it takes for a
    drop of water placed on the fabric surface to be
    completely absorbed into the fabric. May be used
    to indicate comfort during wear, but most useful
    in measuring the affects of moisture control
    treatments used on textiles.
  • MM TS-04 Absorbent Capacity Absorbency Testing
    System (ATS)
  • Measures water absorbency, rate, and direction
    with an infrared sensor to determine the maximum
    absorbent capacity of a fabric.

Drying Time
  • MM TS-05 Gravimetric Drying Test
  • Determines the time for a fabric to dry when wet
    with a specified amount of water. Indicates
    drying time during wear or hang drying, but
    results may not be applicable in different
    temperatures and humidities.
  • MM TS-07 Drying Time
  • Determines drying time by wetting fabric and
    recording weight at set intervals until dry.
  • MM TS-08 Drying Time of Wet
  • Textile Fabrics
  • A test specimen saturated in distilled water is
  • inside a controlled atmosphere. Periodic
  • determine the rate of water loss. Garment
  • is not considered.

Moisture Transport
  • AATCC TM 195 Liquid Moisture Management
    Properties of
  • Textile Fabrics
  • The test method produces objective measurements
    of liquid moisture management properties of
    knitted, woven and nonwoven textile fabrics.
    Results are based on water resistance, water
    repellency, and water absorption characteristics
    of the fabric structure, including the fabrics
    geometric and internal structure and the wicking
    characteristics of its fibers and yarns.
  • MM TS-03 Horizontal Wicking
  • Determines the horizontal spread or area of
    wicking of 0.5 mL of
  • deionized water.
  • MM TS-06 Vertical Wicking
  • Measures the time for water to wick up six inches
    from a cut edge or the
  • distance wicked vertically in one hour.

  • Air permeability
  • Vapor transport

UV Resistance
  • UPF
  • Colorfastness to light
  • Weather resistance

  • ASTM D6544 (preparation)
  • AATCC TM183 (testing)
  • ASTM D6603 (labeling)

UPF Range Protection Category Effective UV Transmission UPF Rating
15-24 Good 6.7 - 4.2 15, 20
25-39 Very Good 4.1 - 2.6 25, 30, 35
40-50, 50 Excellent 2.5 40, 45, 50, 50
Weather Resistance
  • AATCC TM 16 Colorfastness to Light
  • Accelerated exposure for color change evaluation
  • AATCC TM 111 Weather Resistance of Textiles
  • to Daylight and Weather
  • Test specimens and standard are exposed
    simultaneously to natural weathering. End point
    is a specified degree of degradation (color
    change, strength loss, etc.) or a specific amount
    of radiant energy. Exposures by calendar days,
    months, or years can result in more variation.
  • AATCC TM 169 Weather Resistance of Textiles
    Xenon Lamp Exposure
  • Sample and standard are exposed to a xenon lamp
    source. Strength and/or color is compared.
  • AATCC TM186 Weather Resistance UV Light and
    Moisture Exposure
  • Specimens are exposed to a fluorescent UV light
    source and periodic wetting. Resistance to
    degradation is rated in percent loss in strength,
    or percent residual strength (breaking or
    bursting) and/or color change.
  • AATCC TM 192 Weather Resistance of Textiles
    Sunshine-Arc Lamp Exposure with and without
  • Test specimens and standard are exposed under
    specified conditions of relative humidity or
    wetting. Weather resistance is evaluated by
    comparison to unexposed original material.

Stain Resistance
  • Soil prevention
  • Soil removal
  • Oily
  • Protein
  • Mineral

Stain Resistance
  • AATCC TM118 Oil Repellency Hydrocarbon
    Resistance Test
  • Evaluates resistance to wetting by a selected
    series of liquid hydrocarbons of different
    surface tensions. Drops are placed on the fabric
    surface and observed for wetting, wicking, and
    contact angle. The oil repellency grade is the
    highest numbered test liquid which does not wet
    the fabric surface.
  • AATCC TM130 Soil Release Oily Stain Release
  • Measures ability of fabrics to release oily
    stains during home laundering. Primarily to
    evaluate the likely performance of soil release
    finishes in actual use.
  • AATCC TM193 Aqueous Liquid Repellency
    Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test
  • Determines the efficacy of a protective finish
    for imparting a low energy surface on all types
    of fabrics by evaluating resistance to wetting by
    a series of water/alcohol solutions of different
    surface tensions. Drops are placed on the fabric
    surface and observed for wetting, wicking, and
    contact angle.

  • Appearance retention
  • Strength retention
  • Abradant
  • Abrasion direction

Durability (abrasion resistance)
  • ASTM D3884 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance
    of Textile Fabrics (Rotary Platform, Double-Head
  • Abradant wheels trace a circular pattern on the
    fabric specimen.
  • ASTM D3886 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance
    of Textile Fabrics (Inflated Diaphragm Apparatus)
  • Determines the resistance to abrasion of woven
    and knitted textile fabrics, both conditioned and
    wet, using the inflated diaphragm tester. Result
    is the number of cycles until the abrasive panel
    breaks through the fabric.
  • ASTM D4157 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance
    of Textile Fabrics (Oscillatory Cylinder Method)
  • Abrasion resistance of woven textile fabrics
    using the oscillatory cylinder tester. Common
    method for evaluating for upholstery.

  • ASTM D4158 Guide for Abrasion Resistance of
    Textile Fabrics (Uniform Abrasion)
  • Every point in the surface of the specimen is
    equally and uniformly abraded in all horizontal
    directions. Evaluation options are fabric
    rupture, mass loss, thickness loss, and breaking
    strength loss.
  • ASTM D4966 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance
    of Textile Fabrics (Martindale Abrasion Tester
  • The Martindale abrasion tester moves specimens in
    a Lissajous pattern against an abradant wool
    fabric. May not be suitable for fabrics with a
    pile depth greater than 2 mm.
  • AATCC TM93 Abrasion Resistance of Fabrics
    Accelerotor Method
  • Specimen is driven along a zigzag course in a
    generally circular orbit within a cylindrical
    chamber, impinging on walls and abradant liner
    while being subjected to rapid, high velocity
    impacts. Evaluation is made on the basis of
    weight loss or grab strength loss of the specimen
    when broken at an abraded fold line.

Thermal Regulation
  • ASTM F1868 Standard Test Method for Thermal and
    Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials
    Using a Sweating Hot Plate
  • Thermal resistance and the evaporative
    resistance, under steady-state conditions, of
    fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers,
    including multi-layer assemblies, for use in
    clothing systems.
  • ASTM D1518 Test Method for Thermal Transmittance
    of Textile Materials
  • Measures the time rate of heat transfer from a
    warm, dry, constant-temperature, horizontal
    flat-plate up through a layer of the test
    material to a relatively calm, cool atmosphere.
  • ASTM F1291 Test Method for Measuring the Thermal
    Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin
  • Insulation value of clothing ensembles. The
    method describes the measurement of the
    resistance to dry heat transfer from a heated
    manikin to a relatively calm, cool environment.
    This is a static test that provides a baseline
    clothing measurement on a standing manikin. The
    effects of body position and movement are not

Thermal Regulation
  • ASTM F2370 Test Method for Measuring the
    Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Using a
    Sweating Manikin
  • Determination of the evaporative resistance of
    clothing ensembles. This static test measures the
    resistance to evaporative heat transfer from a
    heated sweating thermal manikin to a relatively
    calm environment.
  • ASTM F1720 Standard Test Method for Measuring
    Thermal Insulation of Sleeping Bags Using a
    Heated Manikin
  • This test method covers determination of the
    insulation value of a sleeping bag or sleeping
    bag system. It measures the resistance to dry
    heat transfer from a constant skin temperature
    manikin to a relatively cold environment. This is
    a static test that generates reproducible
    results, but the manikin cannot simulate real
    life sleeping conditions relating to some human
    and environmental factors

Antimicrobial Activity
  • Odor control
  • Rot resistance
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

Antimicrobial Activity
  • AATCC TM30 Antifungal Activity, Assessment on
    Textile Materials Mildew and Rot Resistance of
  • The dual-purpose test method determines the
    susceptibility of textile materials to mildew and
    rot AND evaluates the efficacy of fungicides on
    textile materials.
  • AATCC TM100 Antibacterial Finishes on Textile
    Materials Assessment of
  • One of the most commonly used and well-recognized
    tests for antimicrobial-treated textiles, this
    method provides quantitative evaluation of the
    degree of antibacterial activity. Bacteria on
    treated and untreated specimens are counted after
    innoculation and incubation. Percent reduction by
    the treated specimen is calculated.
  • AATCC TM147 Antibacterial Activity of Fabrics,
    Assessment of Textile Materials Parallel Streak
  • This test detects bacteriostatic activity on
    textile materials. The Parallel Streak Method
    provides quick and easy qualitative determination
    of antibacterial activity of diffusable
    antimicrobial agents on treated textile
    materials. This method provides evidence of
    antibacterial activity against both Gram positive
    and Gram negative bacteria.

For more on choosing the right antimicrobial test
  • Diana Wyman
  • 1 919 549 3539