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IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION

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Title: IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION


1
IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
2
New Immigrants
  • New Immigrants Southern and Eastern Europeans
    during 1870s until WWI.
  • Came from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Greece,
    Poland, Hungary and Russia.
  • Often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish, and
    planning to save some money to take back home.
  • Old Immigrants- Came before the Irish and German
    immigrants.
  • After 1900, New Immigrants made up 70 of all
    immigrants.
  • American natives felt threatened by the new
    immigrants

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Old v. New
RELIGION BIRTHPLACE REASONS DESTINATION OCCUP
ATION
Protestant Catholic and Jewish North/Western
Southern/Eastern Europe Europe Both escaping
poverty, religious and political
persecution Moved to farms Moved to cities in
the in the Midwest Northeast Became
farmers Unskilled workers
6
Push Factors
  • Push Factors Things that force/push people out
    of a place or land.
  • Drought or famine
  • Political revolutions or wars
  • Religious persecution
  • Economic struggles

7
Push Factors
  • 1880s- Farmers had a difficult time in Mexico,
    Poland, and China.
  • 1840s- many wars and political revolutions in
    China and Eastern Europe which caused economic
    troubles.
  • Russian and Eastern European Jews faced religious
    persecution and fled to the U.S. for safety.

8
Pull Factors
  • Pull Factors Things that attract people to a
    place or land.
  • Plentiful Land
  • Employment
  • Religious Freedom
  • Political Freedom
  • New Life

9
Pull Factors
  • 1862 Homestead Act and aid from railroad
    companies made western farmland inexpensive.
  • Workers were recruited from homelands to build
    railroads, dig mines, or work in factories.
  • Many wanted to find gold.
  • Chain immigrants come to be with family or
    friends who had gone before to start new lives.

10
Journey to America
  • Many immigrants could barely afford a ticket to
    come to the U.S.
  • They could only pack what they could carry.
    (Clothes, photograph, tools for their trade)
  • Many would wait in line for hours to try to get
    on a ship and in many cases it was very dangerous
    to do this.

11
Journey to America
  • Steerage Where most immigrants traveled on the
    ship.
  • Steerage was located on the lowest decks of the
    ship with no private cabins, and was dirty and
    crowded.
  • Seasickness was an issue in rough weather and
    illnesses spread quickly in the lower decks.

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Immigrants Arrive in America
  • 2 ports of entry into the U.S.
  • Ellis Island- New York City
  • Angel Island- San Francisco Bay
  • To enter the ports immigrants had to be healthy
    and show they had money, a skill, or a sponsor to
    provide for them.
  • They had to go through a series of health tests
    and evaluations and could possibly be sent back
    to their homeland if they did not meet proper
    guidelines..

15
Ellis Island was built in 1892 as the 1st
Immigration Center Later, closed in the
1940s Today it is a museum.
  • The goal was to screen immigrants coming from
    Europe.
  • Immigrants took physical examinations and were
    held at Ellis Island before they were released to
    the US mainland.

16
Ellis Island
  • Most European immigrants came through here. (NYC)
  • 1st and 2nd class passengers were inspected on
    the ship then released.
  • 3rd class had to go in to be inspected.
  • A series of medical and legal inspections would
    take place before you were allowed to take a
    ferry in to the city.
  • Ellis Island was the more welcoming of the two
    ports.

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Angel Island
  • Most Chinese and Asian immigrants came through
    here (San Francisco Bay)
  • Opened in 1910.
  • Made it very hard for Chinese immigrants to come
    into the U.S.
  • Most had to prove they were American citizens to
    be let in.
  • Immigrants were sometimes left here for days or
    weeks in poor conditions.

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Immigrants Change America
  • Immigrants changed America in many ways.
  • Fueled industrial growth
  • Acquired citizenship
  • Elected politicians
  • Made their traditions a part of American culture.
  • Mexican Americans developed ranching techniques.
  • Chinese, Irish, and Mexican workers built
    railroads.
  • Immigrants worked in coal mines, steel and
    textile mills, and factories.
  • Women immigrants worked in factories,
    seamstresses, laundresses, made piecework, and
    worked as servants.
  • Immigrants helped the U.S. become a world power.

25
But how were immigrants treated?
26
Immigrants Assimilate Into Society
  • Assimilate
  • to fit in, cause to resemble.
  • Most immigrants stayed in cities and lived in
    ethnic neighborhoods called ghettos.
  • These neighborhoods would share the same
    language, religion, and culture.
  • By 1890 many cities had a huge immigrant
    population. 4/5 people in NYC were immigrants.

27
Explore the life of an immigrant and their living
conditions
  • http//www.tenement.org/

28
Assimilation
  • Americanization helping newcomers learn
    American ways. (Language, customs, dress, and
    diet)
  • In many cities Americanization institutions arose
    to help immigrants fit in.
  • America became known as the Melting Pot.
  • Immigrants usually stuck with their native
    cultures but children of immigrants were more
    likely to adopt American ways.

29
Immigrants Face Hostility
  • Nativism belief that native born white
    Americans were superior to immigrants.
  • Competition for jobs and homes often fueled
    resentment and religious and cultural differences
    caused tensions as well.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Prohibited
    immigration by Chinese laborers, limited civil
    rights of immigrants in America, and forbade
    naturalization of Chinese residents.
  • A later ruling said the Chinese who were already
    in America were considered U.S. citizens.

30
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Resentment and discrimination against the
    Chinese.
  • First law to restrict immigration.
  • Taking away jobs from Nativists

31
  • Congress also passed another act that prohibited
    the entry of anyone who was a criminal, immoral,
    or someone who handicapped.
  • These were the beginnings of immigration
    restriction in America.
  • A quota act is later going to be placed on how
    many immigrants can come to the U.S. from a given
    country.
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