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World War I on the Home Front


World War I on the Home Front – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I on the Home Front

World War I on the Home Front
  • Start of the war, America ranked 17th in the
    world in terms of Army size
  • how do we quickly mobilize to mount a competitive
    fighting force?
  • Some believed in asking for volunteers
  • Others proposed a national draft

The Draft
  • Pres. Wilson felt that this was the most
    objective way to deal with raising an army
  • Public relations campaign (propaganda) got most
    Americans to favor the draft eventually

Selective Service
  • Name was supposed to sound better than the
  • Propaganda focused on how noble it was to be
    selectively requested to serve your country
  • 24 million registered for the draft
  • 2 million sent to fight
  • 65,000 conscientious objectors

World War Ones Army
  • Highly segregated
  • Marines refused to accept blacks
  • Navy assigned them to kitchen duty
  • Segregated units

Women in the War
  • Moved into jobs that had been exclusively held by
  • Womens support of the war effort helped bolster
    public support for womens suffrage

African Americans
  • The expansion of war industries created job for
  • World War I effectively put a halt to the flow of
    European immigrants to the cities, causing
    shortages of workers in the factories

Great Migration
  • movement of approximately seven million
    African-Americans out of the South to the North,
    Midwest and West
  • Why? To escape racism, seek employment
    opportunities in industrial cities, and to get
    better education for their children
  • Effect? urban tensions rose as African Americans
    and new European immigrants competed for jobs and
    housing with the white ethnic working class. ?

  • The controlled distribution of resources and
    scarce goods or services.
  • For example, each person may be given "ration
    coupons" allowing him or her to purchase a
    certain amount of a product each month.
  • Rationing often includes food and other
    necessities for which there is a shortage,
    including materials needed for the war effort
    such as rubber tires and gasoline.

War Industries Board
  • A United States government agency during World
    War I to coordinate the purchase of war supplies.
  • use mass-production techniques to increase
  • The WIB dealt with labor-management disputes
  • Stopped strikes to prevent a shortage of supplies
    going to the war in Europe.

National War Labor Board
  • an agency composed of representatives from
    business and labor
  • Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between
    workers and employers
  • preventing work stoppages which might hinder the
    war effort

Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • America's involvement in World War I provoked
    serious and widespread abuses of civil liberties.
  • There were those who remained opposed to
    intervention in the war, and a few, including
    many pacifists, who resisted the call to arms

  • It made it a crime to
  • convey information with intent to interfere with
    the operation or success of the armed forces of
    the United States or to promote the success of
    its enemies.
  • to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny,
    refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces
    of the United States, or to obstruct the
    recruiting or enlistment service of the United

Schenck v. United States
  • Supreme Court decision concerning the question of
    whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment
    right to free speech against the draft during
    World War I.
  • The court held that the circumstances of wartime
    permit greater restrictions on free speech than
    would be allowable during peacetime.

  • Justice Holmes sets out the "clear and present
    danger" test
  • "The question in every case is whether the words
    used are used in such circumstances and are of
    such a nature as to create a clear and present
    danger that they will bring about the substantive
    evils that Congress has a right to prevent."
  • This case is also the source of the phrase
    "shouting fire in a crowded theater," paraphrased
    from Holmes' assertion that "the most stringent
    protection of free speech would not protect a man
    in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing
    a panic."

Committee on Public Information
  • known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was an
    agency of the US government intended to influence
    U.S. public opinion regarding American
    intervention in World War I
  • propaganda present an upbeat picture of the
    American war effort
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