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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM We have already seen that Haemoglobin carries oxygen and at this point in the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM it attracts the oxygen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
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THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ARE-
  • TRACHEA
  • EPIGLOTTIS
  • LARYNX
  • BRONCHUS
  • BRONCHIOLES
  • ALVEOLI
  • DIAPHRAGM

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The air passes into the lungs down a tube called
the TRACHEA. This is made up of rings of
cartilage.
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There are plates of cartilage at the top of the
TRACHEA which widen at the point commonly called
the Adams Apple.
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This is actually the LARYNX or Voice Box.
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This is protected by a flap of skin called the
EPIGLOTTIS which closes when we swallow in order
to prevent food from going down the TRACHEA.
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Occasionally this doesnt happen and we have all
experienced feeling choking when food goes down
the wrong way.
At the bottom of the TRACHEA are 2 branches
called the BRONCHI, through which air passes into
either lung.
Smaller and smaller branches, called BRONCHIOLES,
extend out from the BRONCHI and at the very ends
of these they form tiny sacs called ALVEOLI.
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ALVEOLI
It is these that give the lungs their spongy
texture.
The linings of the ALVEOLI are very thin and only
work well when they are moist and clean.
When air is breathed in through the nose, it is
  1. FILTERED by the hairs at the entrance to the nose
    and by mucus.
  2. WARMED by blood vessels passing close to the
    lining of the nose.
  3. MOISTENED by water vapour.

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Summary of the various parts of the RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM.
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BREATHING IN
When we breathe in, the cycle starts with the
ribs lifting upwards and outwards.
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This is caused by the contraction of the
intercostal muscles which are situated between
the ribs.
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There is also movement in the body as the
DIAPHRAGM contracts, changing from a dome shape
to a flatter sheet.
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BREATHING OUT
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It relaxes when we breathe out, moving upwards
back to a dome shape.
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SUMMARY
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GASEOUS EXCHANGE
The ALVEOLI are in very close contact with the
blood capillaries, which contain red blood cells
and Haemoglobin
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We have already seen that Haemoglobin carries
oxygen and at this point in the CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM it attracts the oxygen in the ALVEOLI.
Whilst the oxygen is taken in, carbon dioxide is
given out, into the Alveoli and is then breathed
out.
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  • So the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM has 2 main jobs
  • To get oxygen into the body
  • To get carbon dioxide out of the body.

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WHAT WE BREATHE
As well as breathing in oxygen, we also breathe
out a lot of oxygen.
This is most important when we give mouth to
mouth resuscitation.
  1. The air we INHALE contains 20 oxygen and 0.4
    carbon dioxide.

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2. The air we EXHALE contains 16 oxygen and 4
carbon dioxide.
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This is why we can give the kiss of life
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BREATHING DEFINITIONS
  1. TIDAL VOLUME- The amount of air inspired and
    expired with each normal breath at rest or during
    exercise.
  2. VITAL CAPACITY- The largest amount of air that
    can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by
    the most forceful inspiration and expiration.

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3. OXYGEN DEBT- You will develop oxygen debt
after about 5 minutes or more of constant
exercise. This is the point when the exercise
becomes ANAEROBIC (without the use of oxygen) and
which has to be paid back later- hence OXYGEN
DEBT. If the exercise is just AEROBIC (with
oxygen) there will be no oxygen debt.
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REVISION
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