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Human Biology and health

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All the systems of the body work together to maintain homeostasis, the body s tendency to keep an internal balance. Homeostasis is the process by which an organism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Biology and health


1
Human Biology and health
2
  • The levels of organization in the human body
    consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ
    systems. A cell is the basic unit of structure
    and function in a living thing. Cells perform the
    basic processes that keep organisms alive. Most
    cells are too small to see without a microscope.
    In most animal cells, a cell membrane forms the
    outside boundary of the cell. Inside the cell
    membrane is a large structure called the nucleus.
    The nucleus is the control center that directs
    the cells activities and contains information
    that determines the cells characteristics. The
    area between the cell membrane and the nucleus is
    called the cytoplasm

3
  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform
    the same function. The human body contains four
    basic types of tissue muscle tissue, nerve
    tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.
    Muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. This
    tissue is what makes parts of your body move.
    Nervous tissue carries messages back and forth
    between the brain and every other part of the
    body. It directs and controls the body.
    Connective tissue provides support for your body
    and connects all its parts. Bone, fat, and blood
    ar e all connective tissues. Epithelial tissue
    covers the surfaces of your body. The skin and
    the lining of the digestive system are examples
    of epithelial tissue.

4
  • An organ is a structure that is composed of
    different kinds of tissue. Like a tissue, an
    organ performs a specific job. An organs job is
    usually more complex than that of a tissue. The
    heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the
    body.
  • Each organ in your body is part of an organ
    system. An organ system is a group of organs that
    work together to perform a major function. Your
    heart is part of an organ system called the
    circulatory system. The blood vessels are also
    part of the circulatory system. The different
    organ systems work together and depend on one
    another.

5
  • All the systems of the body work together to
    maintain homeostasis, the bodys tendency to keep
    an internal balance. Homeostasis is the process
    by which an organisms internal environment is
    kept stable in spite of changes in the external
    environment. Sometimes, things can happen to
    throw off homeostasis. As a result, your heart
    may beat more rapidly or your breathing may
    quicken. These are signs of stress, the reaction
    of your body to potentially threatening,
    challenging, or disturbing events. When the
    stress is over, homeostasis is restored, and the
    body returns to its normal state.

6
  • The Skeletal System
  • Guide for Reading
  • What are the functions of the skeleton?
  • What role do joints play in the body?
  •   What are the characteristics of bone, and
    how can you keep your bones strong and healthy?

7
What the Skeletal System Does
- The Skeletal System
  • Your skeleton has five major functions. It
    provides shape and support, enables you to move,
    protects your organs, produces blood cells, and
    stores minerals and other materials until your
    body needs them.

8
  • The Skeletal System
  • The skeleton is made up of all the bones in ones
    body. Your skeleton has five major functions. It
    provides shape and support, enables you to move,
    protects your organs, produces blood cells, and
    stores minerals and other materials until your
    body needs them. The backbone, or vertebral
    column, is the center of the skeleton. The
    backbone is made up of 26 small bones, or
    vertebrae (singular vertebra). If your backbone
    were just one bone, you would not be able to bend
    or twist.

9
Joints of the Skeleton
- The Skeletal System
  • A joint is a place in the body where two bones
    come together. Joints allow bones to move in
    different ways.

10
  • The Skeletal System
  • A joint is a place in the body where two bones
    come together. Joints allow bones to move in
    different ways. Immovable joints connect bones in
    a way that allows little or no movement. Movable
    joints allow the body to make a wide range of
    movements. The bones in movable joints are held
    together by a strong connective tissue called a
    ligament. Cartilage is a connective tissue that
    is more flexible than bone

11
  • The Skeletal System
  • Bones are complex living structures that undergo
    growth and development. A thin, tough membrane
    covers all of a bone except the ends. Blood
    vessels and nerves enter and leave the bone
    through the membrane. Beneath the membrane is a
    layer of compact bone, which is hard and dense,
    but not solid.

12
  • The Skeletal System
  • Small canals run through the compact bone,
    carrying blood vessels and nerves from the bones
    surface to the living cells within the bone. Just
    inside the compact bone is a layer of spongy
    bone, which has many small spaces within it.
    Spongy bone is also found at the ends of the
    bone. The spaces in bone contain a soft
    connective tissue called marrow. There are two
    types of marrowred and yellow. Red bone marrow
    produces blood cells. Yellow marrow stores fat
    that serves as an energy reserve.

13
  • The Skeletal System
  • A combination of a balanced diet and regular
    exercise are important for a lifetime of healthy
    bones. As people become older, their bones begin
    to lose some minerals. Mineral loss can lead to
    osteoporosis, a condition in which the bodys
    bones become weak and break easily. Regular
    exercise and a diet rich in calcium can help
    prevent osteoporosis.

14
BonesStrong and Living
- The Skeletal System
  • Bones are complex living structures that undergo
    growth and development.

15
Asking Questions
- The Skeletal System
  • Before you read, preview the red headings. In a
    graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what
    or how question for each heading. As you read,
    write answers to your questions.

Question
Answer
What does the skeleton do?
The skeleton provides shape and support, helps
you to move, protects organs, produces blood
cells, and stores minerals and other materials.
Joints can move forward or backward, in a circle,
in a rotating motion, and in a gliding motion.
How do joints move?
How strong are bones?
Bones can absorb more force without breaking than
granite or concrete.
What can I do to care for my bones?
Eat a well balanced diet and get plenty of
exercise.
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