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Immigrants & Urbanization Chapter 7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigrants

Immigrants Urbanization
  • Chapter 7

Chapter Overview
  • The population rises as immigrants supply a
    willing workforce for urban industrialization and
    political base for many urban politicians.
    Abuses in local and national government prompt
    calls for reform.

Section One The New Immigrants
  • Europeansflooded East coast
  • Chinese and JapaneseWest coast
  • Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and
  • Why Immigrate?
  • Lured by promise of better life
  • Escape conditions
  • Some immigrated temporarily to take money back
    home to their families

Section One The New Immigrants
  • A Difficult Journey
  • Trip across AtlanticOne Week
  • Trip across PacificThree Weeks
  • Poor conditions, many deaths
  • Ellis Island
  • Immigration Station in New York
  • Detained up to several days
  • Pass physical exam
  • Government Inspectiondocuments, state purpose

Ellis Island, 1892-1954.
Section One The New Immigrants
  • Angel IslandSan Francisco Bay
  • Harsh questioning, long detentions
  • Poor conditions
  • Cooperation for Survival
  • Finding a place to live
  • Getting a job
  • Language Culture
  • Many immigrants formed ethnic communities

Angel Island
Section One The New Immigrants
  • Melting Potmixture of people of different
    cultures and races who blended together by
    abandoning their native languages and customs
  • Nativismextreme favoritism toward native-born
  • Anti-Immigrant groups
  • Restrictionsonly wanted people that would
    improve America

Section One The New Immigrants
  • Immigration Restriction League
  • Literacy test, 40 words in English
  • Anti-Asian Sentiment
  • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Banned all except students, teachers, merchants,
    tourists, government officials
  • The Gentlemans Agreement
  • Limit unskilled workers from Japan, repeal San
    Francisco segregation order

Questions to ponder
  • What are some push and pull factors influence
    immigration to America?
  • What was the journey like?
  • What was the experience of Ellis Angel Island
  • What was life like once immigrants were admitted?
  • How is the phrase melting pot positive and
  • Why did people have anti-immigrant feelings?

Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Urbanizationgrowth of cities due to
    technological boom
  • mostly in Midwest Northeast
  • Immigrants lived in cities because of cheap
    living and available jobs
  • Rural population moving to cities because farming
    not needed as much
  • 1890twice as many Irish in NYC than Dublin,

Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Americanization Movement
  • Assimilation
  • Teach immigrants skills needed for citizenship
  • English Literacy
  • American History Government
  • Cooking
  • Social Etiquette
  • Most wanted to stay in ethnic groups
  • Overcrowded

Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Housing Problems
  • Live on outskirts with transportation problem or
    rent a cramped, unclean room?
  • Row Housessingle family homes shared walls
  • TenementsOvercrowded, unsanitary, multifamily
  • Regulations
  • NYC set minimum standards for plumbing and
    ventilations in apartments

New York City, 1900
Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Transportationmass transits move large number of
    people along fixed routes
  • Helped people get to work easily
  • Street cars, electric subways
  • Public Water Works
  • Indoor plumbing was seldom
  • Cholera Typhoid fever
  • 1870filtration, 1908--chlorination

Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Sanitation
  • Horse manure in the streets
  • Sewage in open gutters
  • Garbage in streets
  • Crime
  • Pickpockets and thieves common
  • 1844NYC, 1st full-time police force
  • Cincinnati, OH1st paid Fire Department

Section Two The Challenges of Urbanization
  • Reformers
  • Social Gospel Movementpreached salvation through
    service of the poor
  • Settlement housescommunity centers in slum
    neighborhoods that provided assistance to people
    in area, especially immigrants
  • Provided educational, cultural, social services
  • Jane Addamsfounded Chicagos Hull House
  • Locust Street Social Settlement
  • Settlement house for African-Americans

Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Time for new power structures
  • Political Machines group that controlled the
    activities of a political party in a city
    offered services in exchange for political or
    financial support
  • Solved urban problems to reinforce voter loyalty
  • Helped immigrants with citizenship, housing and

Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Increase in Election Frauduse of fake names to
  • Graftillegal use of political influence for
    personal gain
  • Political machine helps person find job at
    construction company
  • Person charges city more for supplies
  • Money is kicked back to political machine

Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Boss Tweed(William M. Tweed)
  • Head of Tammany Hall (NYC Democratic political

Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Election of 1880, Republican nomination up for
  • Stalwartswho supported the spoils system
  • Patronagegiving of government jobs to people who
    helped candidates get elected
  • Reformerswanted change
  • Independent, James A. Garfield, won election
  • Stalwart, Chester A. Arthur, nominated VP

Section Three Politics in the Gilded Age
  • July 2, 1881, because of his support of civil
    service reform, Garfield was shot
  • Died September 19
  • Arthur became president (shooter was stalwart)
  • Once in office, became a reformer
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • make appointments to federal jobs through merit
    system based on examination