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Spanish American War 1898

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Title: Spanish American War 1898


1
Spanish American War 1898
  • America Becomes an Empire

2
The Spanish-American War (April-July 1898) was a
brief, intense conflict that effectively ended
Spain's worldwide empire and gained the United
States several new possessions in the Caribbean
and the Pacific. Preceded by a naval tragedy, the
destruction of USS Maine at Havana, Cuba, the
Spanish-American War featured two major naval
battles, one in the Philippines and the other off
Cuba, plus several smaller naval clashes. The
Navy also provided essential support for U.S.
Army and Marine Corps forces ashore. The war made
public heroes of a number of U.S. Navy officers,
and marked the beginning of an extremely dynamic
period in the Navy's history.
3
Spanish Background
  • For several centuries Spains position as a world
    power had been slipping away. By the late 19th
    century the nation was left only a few scattered
    possessions in the Pacific, Africa, and the West
    Indies. Guerilla forces were operating in the
    Philippines, and had been present in Cuba for
    decades. The Spanish government did not have the
    financial resources or the manpower to deal with
    these revolts and thus turned to expedients of
    building concentration camps to separate the
    rebels from their rural base of support.

4
Yellow Dog Journalism
  • William Randolph Hearst was the founder of the
    Hearst Corporation.  During his career in
    newspapers, magazines, radio and film
    broadcasting, he changed the face of the way mass
    media would be seen throughout the world.

5
Joseph Pulitzer
  • In 1883, he purchased the New York World, a not
    too successful daily owned by the financier Jay
    Gould. Within a year, Pulitzer had turned the
    paper around, building its success on a steady
    diet of titillation and crusading, catching the
    readers attention with large headlines and flashy
    illustrations

6
Yellow Dog Journalism
  • The outbreak of the second Cuban Revolution in
    1895 was seen as a major news story, and many
    papers, conservative, yellow and middle of the
    road, were soon scrambling to get reporters on
    the scene. Most of these "journalists" go no
    closer to the fighting than Key West or the bar
    of the Hotel Inglaterra in Havana.

7
Yellow Dog Journalism
  • From these comfortable positions, they concocted
    stories of wild fantasy, based upon slanted press
    releases coming from the "Cuban Junta", the
    Revolution's propaganda agency in the US, or from
    their own fertile imaginations. Readers were
    treated to a steady diet of battles that never
    happened, Cuban victories which never occurred,
    exaggerated stories of Spanish brutality and such
    flights of fancy as repeated stories of
    beautiful, savage Cuban "Amazon" warriors,
    serving the Revolution as Cavalry and showing no
    mercy to the hated Spaniard

8
Stephen Crane (standing)
  • Crane's greatest novel, The Red Badge of Courage
    (1895),
  • was a correspondent for Pulitzers World  during
    the Spanish American war.

9
At 940 on the evening of 15 February, a terrible
explosion on board Maine shattered the stillness
in Havana Harbor. Later investigations revealed
that more than five tons of powder charges for
the vessel's six and ten-inch guns ignited,
virtually obliterating the forward third of the
ship. The remaining wreckage rapidly settled to
the bottom of the harbor. Most of Maine's crew
were sleeping or resting in the enlisted quarters
in the forward part of the ship when the
explosion occurred. Two hundred and sixty-six men
lost their lives as a result of the disaster 260
died in the explosion or shortly thereafter, and
six more died later from injuries. Captain
Sigsbee and most of the officers survived because
their quarters were in the aft portion of the
ship.
10
USS Maine Entering Havana
11
Sinking of USS Maine
  • USS Maine, a second-class battleship built
    between 1888 and 1895, was sent to Havana in
    January 1898 to protect American interests during
    the long-standing revolt of the Cubans against
    the Spanish government. In the evening of 15
    February 1898, Maine sank when her forward
    gunpowder magazines exploded. Nearly
    three-quarters of the battleship's crew died as a
    result of the explosion

12
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13
Funeral In Cuba
  • Funeral procession for crewmen killed when the
    ship exploded, in the streets of Havana, Cuba,
    shortly after the disaster.

14
April 11th 1898
  • McKinley asks for war
  • Teller Amendment which tied Americas hands
    after the war by guaranteeing a free Cuba at the
    end of the war. Europe watched for the outcome
    and German aided Spain

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16
Manila Bay
  • Before dawn on 1 May 1898, Commodore George
    Dewey's flagship Olympia led seven U.S. Navy
    cruisers and gunboats into Manila Bay. By 8 AM
    that morning Dewey's Asiatic Squadron had located
    and destroyed virtually the entire Spanish naval
    force in the Philippines. Damage to the American
    ships was negligible, and their crews suffered no
    fatalities and few injuries.
  • The Battle of Manila Bay was a singular
    demonstration of the daring and decisive
    application of sea power. In a few hours, Dewey
    had eliminated any threat that the Spanish Navy
    might pose to U.S. Far Eastern commerce and
    placed Spain's centuries-long rule of the
    Philippines in grave jeopardy. A few days later,
    with the capture of Cavite arsenal, he also
    gained a repair and refueling base, essential for
    maintaining his squadron under wartime conditions
    thousands of miles from home.

17
Commodore George Dewey
  • Commander of the Pacific fleet
  • Flag Ship USS Olympia
  • Destroyed Spanish Fleet at Manila Bay
  • You may fire when ready Greedly

18
Commodore Dewey
  • Dewey was promoted to Commodore in 1896, to Rear
    Admiral in May 1898 and to Admiral of the Navy in
    1899.

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22
USS Olympia in Manila Bay
23
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24
Sunk Spanish Wooden Ship Manila Bay
25
US Navy Span Am War
  • U.S. Navy cruisers came in great variety in 1898,
    all armed with medium caliber or smaller guns.
    Excluding the larger armored cruiser type, these
    warships were "protected cruisers", with a steel
    armored deck covering machinery and ammunition
    magazines. In some smaller cruisers, however,
    this armor was so thin that the ships really
    deserved to be called gunboats. Cruiser missions
    included providing presence throughout the World,
    fleet scouting, commerce protection and raiding,
    all vital missions for a maritime nation.
  • Generally, the Navy's cruisers were fairly fast
    by the standards of their day and had good
    seagoing characteristics. While a few still
    retained sails to enhance operating range, the
    introduction of triple-expansion engines a decade
    earlier had made possible a high standard of
    endurance under steam alone.
  • During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy
    actively employed fifteen ships rated as cruisers

26
USS Olympia
  • USS Olympia (Cruiser 6) was a heavily-armed
    protected cruiser that became the Asiatic
    Squadron flagship in 1895, soon after she first
    commissioned. Under Commodore George Dewey, she
    led U.S. Navy forces in the Battle of Manila Bay
    and during subsequent operations in the
    Philippines area.Olympia's active service
    continued until 1922. The only survivor of
    America's Spanish-American War fleet, she is now
    a museum ship at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

27
USS Brooklyn Armored Cruiser
28
Battleship USS Indiana
29
Battleship USS Iowa
30
USS Texas Cuban Waters
31
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33
Spanish Ship CUBA
34
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39
Rough Riders/Military Governor
  • commander of the First Volunteer Cavalry (The
    Rough Riders)
  • Following the war, he served as Military
    Governor of Cuba until 1902

40
Sec. Navy Teddy Roosvelt
  • As Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt
    played an important role in war preparations. He
    resigned that post a few weeks after hostilities
    commenced and actively participated in combat as
    Lieutenant Colonel of the Army's First Volunteer
    Cavalry Regiment. Under Wood

41
Cuba San Juan and Kettle Hill and Santiago
  • The best-known image of the Spanish-American War
    is that of Teddy Roosevelt on horseback charging
    with his Rough Riders up San Juan Hill in Cuba.
    But not only was the role of the Rough Riders
    exaggerated, it also displaced attention from the
    black soldiers who made up almost 25 percent of
    the U. S. force in Cuba.

42
Make up of the troops
  • Of the approximately 20,000 U.S. troops that
    participated actively in the Cuban campaign, the
    majority were regular soldiers (of whom 7,000
    were African Americans) and only 7,400 were
    volunteers. Most of the 200,000 volunteers
    recruited in the United States at the time of the
    war stayed at home in military camps only a
    third of them saw action in Cuba, the
    Philippines, and Puerto Rico. 

43
Rough Riders
  • The "Rough Riders" was formed from men from the
    western frontier of the United States - men who
    were used to life in the saddle and to the use of
    firearms - and from some eastern high-class young
    men who were athletic and also skilled in
    horsemanship and the use of guns...but for
    entirely different reasons.

44
Rough Riders
  • The unit included miners, cowboys preachers,
    tradesmen, writers, professors, athletes, and
    clergymen. Remarkably, there were men from each
    of the forty-five states then in existence, the
    four territories and from fourteen countries!
    There were even sixty Native Americans on the
    roster. 

45
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46
Regimental Flag of the Rough Riders
47
10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers
  • At the outbreak of war the army  utilized all
    four of its all black regiments.  Despite the
    prejudice of the time, these units were among the
    very few experienced combat troops in the army. 
    All four of these regiments had fought in the
    Indian wars

48
10th Cavalry
  • Created in 1866
  • 1898 troops of the 10th, under the command of,
    Lt. John J. Pershing played a critical role in
    the war against Spain in Cuba. The future General
    Pershing was nick-named "Black Jack" because of
    his service with the 10th.

49
Regimental Flag of the 10th
50
John Black Jack Pershing
  • He graduated from West Point in 1886 and served
    in the Spanish-American War, the Philippines
    Insurrection, the Mexican Expedition and was the
    overall American Commander in Europe during World
    War I.

51
General Joe Wheeler
  • U.S. Military Academy in 1859.
  • 1861 he resigned from the army joined with the
    Confederate forces.
  • Spanish-American War General Wheeler served as
    the major general of volunteers

52
General Shafter
  • Shafter, at age 63, was a corpulent three hundred
    pounds in weight and suffering from the gout. He
    was in no condition to command troops
  • Overall Command at San Juan

53
CUBA
  • Newspapers Glorified Battles for their readers
  • Unbiased reports depict a much less glorified
    version of events, where Spanish troops often
    more quickly surrendered than fought. The U.S.
    troops had far more problems dealing with heat
    and disease than with the Spanish forces, and
    within a month the island was in U.S. hands.

54
Guantanamo Bay
  • The first action in Cuba was the establishing of
    a base at Guantanamo Bay on 10th June by U.S.
    Marines
  • a brief but violent phase of the Spanish-American
    war.
  • The invasion was instrumental in the Battle of
    Santiago and the invasion of Puerto Rico

55
The Hills Protecting Santiago
  • The Battle of San Juan Hill was the bloodiest and
    most famous battle of the Spanish American War.At
    San Juan Hill, 750 Spanish soldiers were ordered
    to hold the heights against an American offensive
    on June 1, 1898. The struggle lasted for more
    than twelve hours, and cost at least two hundred
    American and an equal number of Spanish lives.

56
Kettle Hill
  • Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero when he led
    a charge up the Kettle Hill at the Battle of San
    Juan Hill outside of Santiago as lieutenant
    colonel of the Rough Riders Regiment on July 1st
  • This attack was at the same time as the 10th went
    up San Juan

57
Puerto Rico
  • On May 10 1898, the first shot which marked
    Puerto Ricos entry into the Spanish American War
    was shot at USS Yale from Fort San Cristobal's
    cannon batteries. Fort San Cristóbal's gunners
    duel with US Navy warships during a day long
    bombardment May 12 1898 Six months later Puerto
    Rico becomes US territory by terms of the Treaty
    of Paris

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59
Guam
  • The Battle of Guam was a bloodless conflict
    between the U.S and Spain during the Spanish
    American War. The capture of Guam gave the United
    States its first possession in the Pacific Ocean.

60
USS Charleston
  • Being that the Spanish had no adequate defenses
    and were without powder for their cannon,
    Governor Marina surrendered, despite his protests
    of being attacked without any knowledge of the

61
Treaty of Paris
  • Hostilities were halted on August 12th 1898. The
    Treaty of P aris was signed in Paris on Dec. 10th
    1898 and was ratified by the U.S. Senate on Feb.
    6th 1899
  • The United States gained almost all of Spain's
    colonies, including the Philippines, Guam, and
    Puerto Rico. Cuba was granted independence, but
    the United States imposed various restrictions on
    the new government, including prohibiting
    alliances with other countries.

62
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64
President William McKinley
  • President of the United States, 1897-1901

65
Alfonzo III King of Spain
  • was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII. The mother
    of Alfonso XIII, another Maria Cristina, acted as
    regent until her son came of age officially in
    1902. Alfonso XIII abdicated in 1931.
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