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THE OLYMPIC GAMES

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Title: THE OLYMPIC GAMES


1
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • Objectives
  • In the two lessons on the Olympics you should
    learn about-
  • The History of the Ancient Modern Games.
  • The Importance of The Olympics as an
    International event.
  • The controversies surrounding various Games in
    the modern era
  • The advantages and disadvantages of hosting the
    Olympics.

2
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • A N C I E N T O LY M P I C GA M E S
  • The first recorded Ancient Olympic Games were in
    776BC. They lasted for approximately
  • 1000 years. Then in 394AD they were banned
    by the Roman Emperor, Theodosius.
  • He forbade any pagan festivals, which
    included the Olympic Games.
  • The Games were held in Olympia. A village in a
    sacred fertile valley, approximately 500km
  • south west of Mount Olympus, after which
    it is named. Originally, organised as a
    religious, sporting and cultural festival, the
    Ancient Olympic Games were held in honour of
    Zeus, the father of the gods.
  • The Ancient Greeks believed that both the body
    and mind needed discipline. They believed
  • that those who practiced this discipline
    could best honour Zeus. The perfect human would
  • come from a marriage of mind and muscle.
  • The name Olympic is derived from Mount
    Olympus, the home of the Greek gods. The Games of
    Olympia were held in honour of Zeus. They were
    held every four years. This time span has become
    known as an Olympiad. Only Greek citizens were
    allowed to compete. For centuries Greece was
    divided into independent states. These states
    were often at war with one another. However,
    during the Olympic festival there was a
    guaranteed official truce, called the Ekecheiria.
    This allowed athletes to travel safely from their
    cities, across the Greek Empire, to take part in
    the Games. A violation of this truce was
    punishable by death. And yes they
  • had to compete naked!!!!

3
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • THE BIRTH OF THE NEW GAMES
  • It was Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France who
    dreamt up this ambitious project. Drawing
    inspiration from the ancient Olympic Games, plus
    from Much Wenlock! Coubertin decided to create
    the modern Olympics and founded the International
    Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894 in Paris. This
    new committee set itself the objective of
    organising the first modern games.
  • The first modern Olympic Games in 1896 featured
    many references to the original Greek Games
  • They were held in Athens as a reminder that the
    Olympic Games originated in Greece.
  • Most of the sports on the programme of the
    ancient Olympic Games were echoed in the modern
    Games. The organisers even went as far as to
    invent the marathon

4
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • De Coubertin liked the way that sport was
    organised in Britain and visited lots of events
    including the Henley Regatta this combined with
    the discovery of the ruins of the original
    stadium in Olympia gave him the push to start the
    Olympics.
  • He believed that the games would promote world
    peace and harmony as
  • seen in his quote which is still displayed
    on the scoreboards at each games.
  • The most important thing in the Olympic Games is
    not to win but to
  • take part. Just as the most important
    thing in life is not the triumph but the
  • struggle

5
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6
The IOC which was originally chosen by the Baron
is now huge and has representatives from all the
countries who take part. They decide where the
games will take part and chose the city 6 years
before the event. At first not many cities
wanted the honour as the games are extremely
expensive and usually made a loss. This changed
after 1984 when because of marketing and
sponsorship the games resulted in a surplus It
now costs nearly as much to make a bid as host
the games!
7
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • The Motto
  • The Olympic motto is made up of three Latin words
  • Which means
  • FASTER HIGHER STRONGER
  • The Flame
  • Link between the Games of antiquity and the
    modern Games Message of peace and friendship
    Lighting of the flame and organisation of the
    relay.
  • Rings, motto and flame Transmitting the values
    of Olympism through symbols universality,
    excellence, peace and openness to others.
  • The Rings
  • Five interlacing rings to illustrate the
    universality of the Olympic Movement and the
    Olympic Games Rings and flag proposed by Pierre
    de Coubertin in 1914 Presence of the rings and
    flag at the Olympic Games Symbol recognised all
    over the world.
  • Rings represent the five continents and the
    colours are in every flag in the world.

8
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10
THE OLYMPIC GAMES
  • The Olympic games were the first major
    international sporting event and they are still
    the most important and successful of all the
    events that take place.
  • However, things have not always run smoothly and
    nearly all of the recent one have been affected
    by problems of one sort or another.

11
THE BERLIN GAMES 1936
  • This was a games dominated by politics Hitler
    was in power and wanted the games to be a
    propaganda exercise for his ideals and beliefs.
    One of these was that the Aryan master race
    that people who were blond, fair and true Germans
    were superior to all others.
  • However Jesse Owens a black USA athlete won 4
    gold medals and this along with many other black
    athletes winning medals foiled Hitler's plans.
  • The USA team nearly hadnt gone to the games
    because they were concerned about what was
    happening to Jews and Black people in Germany
    under Hitler but this ended up being the best way
    to counteract his ideas to the world at large.
  • It did make the IOC think much more carefully
    about who to let host the games from then on.

12
THE MEXICO GAMES -1968
  • Mexico was a very controversial games for several
    reasons. Firstly it was the first one to be held
    at high altitude helps athletes who train at
    altitude and those in short explosive events.
  • Secondly Mexico was a very poor country and
    people worried that they would not be able to
    afford the games they were still paying the
    money off many years later.
  • There were also several black American athletes
    who gave a black power salute during their medal
    ceremonies. This was to protest at the way black
    people were treated in America. Two athletes were
    sent home by the American team.

13
THE MUNICH GAMES - 1972
  • On the morning of September 5, with six days left
    in the Games, the worst tragedy in Olympic
    history hit. Eight Arab terrorists stormed into
    the Olympic village and raided the apartment
    building that housed the Israeli contingent. Two
    Israeli athletes were killed and nine more were
    seized as hostages. They demanded the release of
    over 200 Palestinians serving time in Israeli
    jails, along with two renowned German terrorists.
  • After a day of unsuccessful negotiations, the
    terrorists collected the hostages and headed for
    the military airport in Munich for a flight back
    to the Middle East. At the airport, German
    sharpshooters opened fire, killing three of the
    Palestinians. A horrifying gun battle ensued,
    claiming the lives of all nine of the hostages,
    along with one policeman and two terrorists.

14
THE MUNICH GAMES - 1972
  • Athletic competition was suspended for 24 hours.
    During a day of mourning, a memorial service was
    held at the main stadium in front of 80,000
    spectators. In a controversial decision, IOC
    president Avery Brundage declared, "the Games
    must go on." And so they did, with the Olympic
    and national flags flying at half-mast.
  • The most memorable footage from Munich should
    have been that of American swimmer Mark Spitz
    winning his seventh gold medal or 17-year-old
    Russian gymnast Olga Korbut wowing the world on
    the balance beam. Instead, we're left with
    disturbing photos of terrorists in ski masks and
    of a policeman standing on the roof of the
    compound waiting to pounce with a semi-automatic
    weapon. And ultimately we're left with the video
    of ABC announcer Jim McKay uttering his fateful
    words, "They're all gone."

15
THE MONTREAL GAMES 1976
  • South Africa had been banned from Tokyo Olympics
    because of apartheid.
  • A New Zealand rugby team had toured South Africa
    and therefore upset African Nations.
  • A total of 30 nations , mostly African, boycotted
    the Montreal Games as a consequence.
  • This was the start of a long period of boycotts
    for various political reasons.
  • The other reason that Montreal was notable was
    the cost of the games because of increased
    security after the Munich Games. It took Montreal
    many years to pay off the debt.

16
THE MOSCOW GAMES - 1980
  • The choice of Moscow was controversial due to a
    poor human rights record.
  • The Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan prior to
    the Games and when the games were due to begin
    they were still occupying the country.
  • Many countries demanded that the Soviets withdrew
    but they refused many countries boycotted the
    games as a protest.
  • As a result a total of 52 nation, including the
    USA and Canada boycotted and also individuals
    from many other teams decided that their
    consciences would not allow them to go.
  • Many people felt that this devalued the Moscow
    Games particularly as the American team was
    always very strong i.e. that the standard
    wasnt as high.

17
THE LOS ANGELES GAMES - 1984
  • As the venue is chosen 6 years in advance the IOC
    could not avoid America staging the Games after
    they had boycotted the Moscow Games.
  • The Soviet Union along with 14 other nations
    retaliated in turn by boycotting the Los Angeles
    Games. Security was the excuse but in reality it
    was tit for tat.
  • Another excuse was that the Games were over
    commercialised and for the first time ever the
    Games ran at a large profit for the host city.
  • This was against Communist ideals and thus was a
    perfect excuse to boycott.

18
THE SEOUL GAMES - 1988
  • Seoul is in S Korea and there had been a war
    between them and N Korea situation was still
    bad in 88.
  • The IOC was criticized for awarding Seoul the
    games there was a lot of tension that the
    facilities wouldnt be ready and that N Korea
    would interfere.
  • In the end there was little disruption and the
    games were quite successful.
  • There were 5 boycotts including N Korea and Cuba
    but new rules meant that the countries who
    boycotted would not be involved in future
    decisions.
  • The biggest controversy was drug related in all
    ten athletes were banned after testing positive.
  • The most famous was Canadian Ben Johnson who won
    the 100m but was stripped of his title 2 days
    later.

19
THE BARCELONA GAMES - 1992
  • After all the previous controversial events the
    1992 were just about incident free.
  • This is basically because the old Soviet Union
    had ceased to exist and the E. European Communist
    countries had collapsed and all these countries
    could now compete individually.
  • South Africa were also welcomed back to fold as
    they had ended apartheid and entered a mixed race
    team.
  • There were over 12,000 athletes competing in 257
    medal events.
  • Drugs were still an issue and 3 Britons were sent
    home when they tested positive.

20
THE ATLANTA GAMES - 1996
  • Controversy raged before the games even started
    it was considered that the time of the games
    would result in potential danger for the athletes
    because of high humidity and temperatures but
    Atlanta had spent 6 yrs getting ready for the
    biggest games yet so it was decided to carry
    on.
  • Measures were taken to help the athletes fans
    blowing fine mists of water particularly used
    in the equestrian events and marathons.
  • There were problems due to the large numbers of
    media and spectators which meant crushes at many
    of the venues athletes were often held up
    getting to their event.
  • Drugs were a problem Michelle Smith won 3 gold
    medals but insisted it was not due to drugs
    1997 tested positive and eventually banned in
    1999.
  • On day 9 there was a tragedy a pipe bomb blast
    in Centennial Park (right next to the stadium)
    killed 1 person and injured 11. This brought new
    fears about the games being a terrorist target so
    security was greatly increased.

21
THE NAGANO GAMES - 1998
  • These winter Olympics were the first ones in
    which technological developments created big
    controversy.
  • Dutch skaters used revolutionary skates with
    hinged mechanisms and a one piece body suit
    therefore much more aerodynamic.
  • They presented the innovations to the
    International Speed skating Union for approval
    48hrs before the races so no one could copy them.
    They went on to win the first 4 places in the
    5000m race.
  • The USA and Canadian teams also protested when
    the winner of the luge Georg Hackle wore
    aerodynamic boots which shaved 300th of a second
    off his time.

22
THE SYDNEY GAMES - 2000
  • Thought to be one of the most successful and
    friendly games of recent times. Very little in
    the way of controversy or major incident.
  • The biggest controversy was the withdrawal of 27
    athletes and 13 team officials from the Chinese
    team just before the games. People thought that
    this was because they didnt want to risk drugs
    tests finding positive results.
  • Drug testing at the games were the strictest ever
    and also the most advanced ever and low levels of
    performance particularly in the marathon was
    evidence that less cheating had taken place.
  • Steve Redgrave also won his 5th Gold medal in
    rowing a record in an endurance event.

23
  • Find out about Olympic Games since 2000.
  • 2002
  • 2004
  • 2006
  • 2008
  • 2010
  • 2012

24
Hosting the Games
  • Why host the Olympic Games?
  • The advantages to hosting the Games must outweigh
    the disadvantages as there is never a shortage of
    countries wanting to host it.
  • In fact, countries spend hundreds of millions of
    pounds just on the bidding process!

25
  • Advantages
  • Profit through sponsorship, media rights and
    merchandise. (Think of all the London 2012
    products on sale).
  • Updated or new facilities that can be used for
    years to come.
  • Raising the profile and reputation of the hosts
    in the eyes of the world.

26
  • Negatives
  • Security and risk of terror attacks.
  • Boycotts and political protests.
  • High costs!

27
  • You will not be asked about any one Games but you
    are likely to be tested on issues relating to
    them and the advantages and disadvantages of
    hosting them.

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