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Finish up APA style Ethics


Finish up APA style Ethics Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finish up APA style Ethics

Finish up APA style Ethics
  • Psych 231 Research Methods in Psychology

  • Exam 1 on Monday
  • Univ college writing help
  • http//

APA style Parts of a research report
  • Abstract
  • Body
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Participants
  • Materials/Apparatus
  • Design
  • Procedure
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • The rest
  • Authors Notes, Footnotes, Tables, Figures

  • The basic parts of a research article
  • Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
  • Enough detail that the reader could actually
    replicate the study.
  • Subsections
  • Participants - who were the data collected from
  • How many, where they were selected from, any
    special selection requirements, details about
    those who didnt complete the experiment
  • Apparatus/ Materials - what was used to conduct
    the study
  • Design
  • Suggested if you have a complex experimental
    design, often combined with Materials section
  • Procedure
  • What did each participant do? Other details,
    including the operational levels of your IV(s)
    and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc.

  • The basic parts of a research article
  • Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
  • Reading checklist
  • 1 a) Is your method better than theirs?
  • b) Does the authors method actually test the
  • c) What are the independent, dependent, and
    control variables?
  • 2) Based on what the authors did, what results do
    YOU expect?
  • Writing checklist
  • Is it clear why the procedures were selected?
  • Are any assumptions explicit and defended?
  • Is the level of detail sufficient for

  • Results
  • Verbal statement of results Describe the results
    but dont interpret them here (thats for the
  • Statistical Outcomes
  • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs,
    correlations, etc.
  • Relate the analyses to the specific hypotheses
  • Tables and figures
  • These get referred to in the text, but actually
    get put into their own sections at the end of the

  • Results
  • Reading checklist
  • Did the author get unexpected results?
  • How does the author interpret the results?
  • How would YOU interpret the results?
  • What implications would YOU draw from these
  • Writing checklist
  • Is it clear how the hypotheses are tested by the
  • Would a graph or table help clarify the results?
  • What questions might the reader still have, and
    how could I answer them in this section?

  • Discussion (interpreting the results)
  • Relationship between purpose and results
  • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution
  • Implications
  • Future directions (optional)
  • Reading checklist
  • Does YOUR interpretation or the authors'
    interpretation best represent the data?
  • Do you or the author draw the most sensible
    implications and conclusions?
  • Writing checklist
  • Have you stated your most convincing argument?
  • Do the conclusions follow straightforwardly from
    the results?

The references
  • References
  • Authors name
  • Year
  • Title of work
  • Publication information
  • Journal
  • Issue
  • Pages

Adolescent Depression 29
References Barnett, P. A.,
Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial
functioning and depression Distinguishing among
antecedents, concomitants, and
consequences. Psychological Bulletin,
104. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression
Inventory. San Antonio, TX
Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D.,
Vidovic, D., Roman, J. (1991, April).
Transmission of attachment across three
generations. Paper presented at the
Biennial Meeting of the Society for
Research in Child Development. Benoit, D.,
Zeanah, C. H., Barton, M. L. (1989).
Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to
thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal,
3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H.,
Boucher, C., Minde, K. (1989). Sleep
disorders in early childhood Association
with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of
the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93.
The rest
  • Authors Notes
  • Footnotes
  • Tables
  • Figures and captions
  • These are used to supplement the text.
  • To make a point clearer for the reader.
  • Typically used for
  • The design
  • Examples of stimuli
  • Patterns of results

  • Ethics people should be treated as ends not

Ethical Responsibilities in Research
  • Two basic categories of ethical concerns
  • Need to consider the rights of our participants
    in our research
  • Need to behave ethically as scientists and

Using humans in research
  • For the most part the researcher has the power
  • You know what is going to be done to the
  • Participants may feel like they have to do it
  • Consider the Milgram (1963) study
  • demonstrated how far people may go to obey
  • This study itself exemplifies the need for strict
    rules of ethics

Ethical Responsibilities in Research
  • Consider ethics at each step
  • Does the topic/idea for the research have some
    ethical issues surrounding it?
  • How are participants selected?
  • What methods may be used on the participant
  • What measurement techniques will be used?
  • What design is appropriate?
  • How are the data analyzed?
  • How are the results reported?

Belmont Report APAs code of ethics
  • Respect for persons All individual human
    beings are presumed to be free and responsible
    persons and should be treated as such in
    proportion to their ability in the
  • Basic courtesy
  • Informed consent
  • Debriefing
  • Avoid deception
  • Beneficence - Do good and avoid harm"
  • Protection from harm
  • Cost/Benefits analysis
  • Confidentiality
  • Justice Everyone is entitled to equal access
    to basic care necessary for living in a human
  • Freedom from coercion
  • Equal chances of participation

Informed consent
  • Information to allow a person to decide if they
    want to participate
  • Basic purpose of the study
  • Participation is voluntary
  • Risks involved
  • Benefits involved
  • Rights to refuse or terminate participation
  • Assent - guardians if participants are not
  • e.g., children, developmentally disabled people

Using deception in research
  • Types
  • Passive deception
  • Withholding information about the study
  • Active deception
  • Deliberately misleading participants
  • Avoid it when possible
  • Alternative to deception
  • Role-playing
  • When not possible to avoid
  • Make sure that you are up front with all possible
  • Potential results must be worth it
  • Must debrief participants as soon as possible
    (either right after participation or as soon as
    project is over)

Costs/Benefits analysis
  • Costs all potential risks to the participants
  • Physical harm
  • Psychological harm
  • Loss of confidentiality
  • Benefits the good outcomes
  • Direct benefits to participants
  • Benefits to knowledge base
  • Benefits to world at large

Monitoring of ethics
  • Institutional Review Board
  • IRB Criteria
  • Minimize risk
  • Benefits gt Risks
  • Equal opportunity sampling
  • Informed consent
  • Documentation of consent
  • Data monitoring
  • Privacy Confidentiality

Scientific Integrity
  • Fraud prevention
  • Replication repeat a research study to validate
  • Peer Review critical analysis of research by
    peers in the same area
  • Plagiarism taking credit for anothers work or
  • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others

On-line Ethics Training
  • CITI ethics training
  • https//
  • Can take short courses on ethics
  • Starting Jan. 2011 most 290, 390s (and probably
    some PSY 331 classes) will require it (lasts for
    3 years)
  • Social/Behavioral Research Course, Basic Course
  • Students conducting no more than minimal risk
  • Starting this semester, this is now a 231
  • See the syllabus page for a link to the
    instructions for how to sign on and take this

Exam 1
  • Exam 1 15 of final grade
  • Short answer multiple choice
  • Covers lectures, textbook, lab material
  • Textbook Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 8