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Chapter 1: Introduction to Networking Objectives List the advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing Distinguish between client/server and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking
  • List the advantages of networked computing
    relative to standalone computing
  • Distinguish between client/server and
    peer-to-peer networks
  • List elements common to all client/server networks

Objectives (continued)
  • Describe several specific uses for a network
  • Identify some of the certifications available to
    networking professionals
  • Identify the kinds of non-technical, or soft,
    skills that will help you succeed as networking

A Network is
  • A group of computers and other devices (such as
    printers) that are connected by some type of
    transmission media, such as copper or fiber-optic
    cable or the atmosphere, in the case of wireless
  • As small as two computers connected by a cable in
    a home office or as large as several thousand
    computers connected across the world via a
    combination of cable, phone lines, and satellite
  • Connecting personal computers, networks may link
    mainframe computers, printers, plotters, fax
    machines, and phone systems.

Why Use Networks?
  • Manage or Administer resources on multiple
    computers from a central location
  • Networksenable multiple users to share devices
    and resources such as
  • Printers
  • Faxes
  • Programs and Files
  • Word Processing
  • Spread Sheets
  • Data Base

Types of Networks
  • Peer-to-peer Networks
  • Client/Server Networks

Peer-to-peer Networks
  • Simple to configure
  • Dont need much technical expertise
  • Typically less expensive to setup
  • Suitable for environments where saving money is
  • Not very flexible

Peer-to-peer Networks (continued)
Client/Server Networks
  • Servers facilitate communication and resource
    sharing between other computers on the network
    known as clients
  • Networks that use a server to enable clients to
    share data, data storage space, and devices is
    known as a client/server network
  • Computers on a client/server network act as a
    client or a server
  • To function as a server, a computer must be
    running a network operating system (NOS), a
    special type of software designed to manage data
    and other resources for a number of clients

Client/Server Network (continued)
Advantages Over Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • Client Servers offer
  • User login accounts and passwords for anyone on a
    server-based network can be assigned in one place
  • Access to multiple shared resources (such as data
    files or printers) can be centrally granted to a
    single user or groups of users
  • Problems on the network can be tracked,
    diagnosed, and often fixed from one location

Advantages Over Peer-to-Peer Networks (continued)
  • Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing
    loads and dedicated to handling requests from
    clients, enabling faster response time
  • Because of their efficient processing and larger
    disk storage, servers can connect more than a
    handful of computers on a network

LANs, MANs, and WANs
  • LAN Local Area Network
  • MAN Metropolitan Area Network
  • WAN Wide Are Network

Local Area Network (LAN)
  • A network of computers and other devices that is
    confined to a relatively small space, such as one
    building or even one office
  • Interconnected and rely on several servers
    running many different applications and managing
    resources other than data

Complex Network
Metropolitan AreaNetwork (MAN)
  • A network that is larger than a LAN and connects
    clients and servers from multiple buildings
  • A MAN may use different transmission technology
    and media than a LAN because of the distance it

Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • A network that connects two or more
    geographically distinct LANs or MANs
  • WANs carry data over longer distances than LANs
  • WANs require slightly different transmission
    methods and media and often use a greater variety
    of technologies than LANs
  • Most MANs can also be described as WANs
  • WANs commonly connect separate offices in the
    same organization, whether they are across town
    or across the world from each other

Wide Area Network (WAN)(continued)
Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Client. A computer on the network that requests
    resources or services from another computer on a
    network. In some cases, a client could also act
    as a server. he term client may also refer to
    the human user of a client workstation
  • Server. A computer on the network that manages
    shared resources and usually have more processing
    power, memory, and hard disk space than clients.
    They run network operating software that can
    manage not only data, but also users, groups,
    security, and applications on the network

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Workstation. A desktop computer, which may or may
    not be connected to a network. Most clients are
    workstation computers

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Network interface card (NIC). The device inside a
    computer that connects a computer to the network
    media, thus allowing it to communicate with other
    computers. Several companies (such as 3Com, IBM,
    Intel, SMC, and Xircom) manufacture NICs, which
    come with a variety of specifications that are
    tailored to the requirements of the workstation
    and the network. NICs are also known as network

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Network operating system (NOS). The software that
    runs on a server and enables the server to manage
    data, users, groups, security, applications, and
    other networking functions
  • The most popular network operating systems are
    Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Novell NetWare,
    and UNIX

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Host. A computer that enables resource sharing by
    other computers on the same network.
  • Node. A client, server, or other device that can
    communicate over a network and that is identified
    by a unique number, known as its network address

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Topology. The physical layout of a computer
    network. Topologies vary according to the needs
    of the organization and available hardware and
    expertise. Networks are usually arranged in a
    ring, bus, or star formation hybrid combinations
    of these patterns are also possible

Network Topologies
Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Connectivity device. One of several types of
    specialized devices that allows two or more
    networks or multiple parts of one network to
    connect and exchange data
  • Protocol. A pre-determined method or format for
    exchanging data between computers. Protocols
    ensure that data are transferred whole, in
    sequence, and without error from one node on the
    network to another. To maintain and manage a
    network effectively, you must have a thorough
    understanding of network protocols

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Data packets. The distinct units of data that are
    transmitted from one computer on a network to
    another. Breaking a large stream of data into
    many packets allows a network to deliver that
    data more efficiently and reliably

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
  • Addressing. The scheme for assigning a unique
    identifying number to every workstation and
    device on the network
  • Transmission media. The means through which data
    is transmitted and received. Transmission media
    may be physical, such as wire or cable, or
    atmospheric (wireless), such as radio waves

Elements Common To All Client Server Networks
How Networks Are Used
  • Functions provided by a network are usually
    referred to as network services
  • File and Print Services
  • File services share data files, applications and
    disk storage space
  • Print services share printers across a network
  • Communications Services
  • Allow remote users to connect to the network

How Networks Are Used (continued)
  • Mail Services
  • Intercept or filter unsolicited e-mail
  • Find objectionable content
  • Route messages according to particular rules
  • Provide a Web-based client for checking e-mail
  • Notify if certain events occur
  • Schedule e-mail transmission, retrieval, storage,
    and maintenance functions
  • Communicate with mail servers on other networks

How Networks Are Used (continued)
  • Internet Services
  • Web server to supply Web pages upon demand
  • Other Internet services include
  • file transfer
  • Internet addressing schemes
  • security filters
  • means for directly logging on to other computers

How Networks Are Used (continued)
  • Management Services
  • Centrally administer management tasks on the
  • Traffic monitoring and control
  • Load balancing
  • Hardware diagnosis and failure alert
  • Asset management
  • License tracking

How Networks Are Used (continued)
  • Centrally administer management tasks on the
    network (cont.)
  • Security auditing
  • Software distribution
  • Address management
  • Backup and restoration of data

Becoming a Network Professional
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges
  • Acquire these skills
  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting
  • Server and Client software and hardware
  • Understanding different transmission media
  • Understanding network design
  • Understanding network protocols
  • Understanding how users interact with the network
  • Constructing a network with clients, servers,
    media, and connectivity devices

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges (cont.)
  • Specialties in high demand
  • Network security
  • Voice/data integration
  • In-depth knowledge about one or more NOSs
  • Network management
  • Internet and intranet design
  • Configuration and optimization of routers and
  • Centralized data storage and management for
    large-scale environments

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • Developing Your Soft Skills
  • Customer relations
  • Oral and written communications
  • Dependability
  • Teamwork
  • Leadership abilities

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • Pursuing Certification
  • Benefits to becoming certified
  • Better salary
  • Greater opportunities
  • Professional respect
  • Access to better support

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • Finding a Job in Networking
  • Search the Web
  • Classified ad section of local newspaper
  • Visit a career center
  • Network with like-minded professionals
  • Attend career fairs
  • Enlist a recruiter

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • Joining Professional Associations
  • Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • Association for Information Technology
  • Chinese Information and Networking Association

Becoming a Network Professional (continued)
  • IEEE Computer Society
  • Women in Technology International (WITI)

  • Network is a group of computers and other devices
  • Networks offer advantages
  • Peer-to-peer network, every computer can
    communicate directly with every other computer
  • Traditional peer-to-peer networks consist of two
    or more personal computers

Summary (continued)
  • Traditional peer-to-peer networks are usually
    simple and inexpensive
  • Client/server networks rely on a centrally
    administered server
  • Client/server networks are more complex and
  • Servers typically possess more processing power,
    hard disk space, and memory

Summary (continued)
  • Local area network (LAN) is a network of
    computers and other devices
  • LANs can be connected to form wide area networks
  • All client/server networks share some common

Summary (continued)
  • Networks provide services for e-mail, printing,
    file sharing, Internet access, remote access
    capabilities, and network management
  • File and print services provide the foundation
    for networking
  • Networks use communications services to allow
    remote users to connect

Summary (continued)
  • Mail services allow users on a network to
    exchange and store e-mail
  • Internet services enable organizations to connect
    to and use the global Internet
  • Network management services

Summary (continued)
  • Prepare yourself for a networking career
  • Certification is the process of mastering
  • Hone your soft skills
  • Joining an association for networking