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Poetry Introduction 1: Identity

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Brooks, Gwendolyn We Real Cool (p 720) Music W. Carlos Williams This is just to say (p. 797); Chasin, Helen The Word Plum (p. 828; ref. 830) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Poetry Introduction 1: Identity


1
Poetry Introduction 1 Identity Family
  • Tone, Sound and Free Verse

Image source
2
Housekeeping
  • 12/9 400 a sound-effect person Jessica
  • 12/9 540
  • 12/10 1200
  • 12/12 800
  • Other Questions?

3
12/9 work schedule
12 0550 0620
34 0620 0650
56 0650 0720
78 0720 0750
910 0750 0820
1112 0820 0850
4
Poetry Week 2
  • Read Behn, Aphra On Her Loving Two Equally (p.
    684 ref. 684-)Burns, Robert A Red, Red Rose
    (p 808)Wordsworth I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
    (p 677)Whitman A Noiseless Patient Spider (p.
    1106) Mary Oliver Wild Geese  
  • Annotate two poems (one paragraph analysis) due
    12/17
  • Schedule EngSite changes

5
Outline
  • I. What is poetry?
  • A. Its basic Components. B. Its Functions What
    is poetry good for?
  • II. Poetry I Identity
  • III. A Moment of Life Condensed
  • Stopping By Woods Those Winter Sundays
  • II. Our Emotions Expressed
  • Im Nobody We Real Cool
  • IV. Our interest in music and rhythm.
  • This is Just to Say The Word Plum
  • V. How do we read a poem?
  • VI. Sound and Sense, Meter and Rhyme

6
Poetry Definitions
meter
Denotation ? connotation
  • 1) literature in metrical form (wordnet.princeton.
    edu/perl/webwn )
  • 2) Poetry is life distilled. Gwendolyn
    BrooksPoetry is thoughts that breathe, and words
    that burn. Thomas Gray
  • Traditional poetry is language arranged in lines,
    with a regular rhythm and often a definite rhyme
    scheme.
  • Nontraditional poetry free verse does away with
    regular rhythm and rhyme, although is usually is
    set up in lines. The richness of its suggestions,
    the sounds of its words, and the strong feelings
    evoked by its line are often said to be what
    distinguish poetry from other forms of
    literature.(source)

Sound, shape sense
7
Poetic Elements
  • Poetry
  • Fiction
  • wk 1 Speaker and Voice
  • wk 2-3 Sense imagery and figures of speech
    (???????)? denotation (??) and connotation (??)
  • wk 4 Sound rhythm (??), meter(??), rhyme(?).
  • (this next S) Shape line arrangement poetic
    form
  • Plot
  • Structure
  • Narrator
  • Language

8
What is poetry good for?
Our Themes Identity Daily Life, Love
NatureDeath and Society, Art and Modern
Society
  • It explores and deepens meanings of life
  • -- to expand our vision,
  • -- to beautify and enrich our lives.
  • Its imagery and sounds
  • -- paint life and compose music with words,
  • Its language
  • -- renews and pushes beyond the limits of human
    language. (Ref)
  • It sharpens our ears (for listening), trains our
    pronunciation, expands our knowledge of language
    (syntax, words) and activates our imagination.
  • As a start, lets talk about how it (1) presents
    a moment in life, (2) expresses our emotions and
    (3) satisfies our need to sing and feel the
    rhythm of life.

Poetic Elements
9
Poetry is
  • Life Story Condensed
  • Self Expression
  • Musical

10
Understanding Poetry
  • From Paraphrasing, Analysis to Application

11
Poetry (1) Tone, Identity and Daily Life
  • Life Story
  • Frost, Robert Stopping by Woods (p1091)
  • Hayden, Robert Those Winter Sundays (p 783)
  • Self-Expression
  • Dickinson, Emily Im Nobody! Who Are You?
  • Brooks, Gwendolyn We Real Cool (p 720)
  • Music
  • W. Carlos Williams This is just to say (p.
    797)
  • Chasin, Helen The Word Plum (p. 828 ref. 830)

12
General Questions
  • What is identity?
  • What determines our identities?

Text Identity Factors (self vs. society)
20/20 Gender What we pay attention to
A Rose for Emily Gender The American South industrialism
A P Class/Gender Small town America commercial society
Araby Age/Gender Religion vs. Commercialism Dublins social problem
Pygmalion Class/Gender Late Victorian society English
13
General Questions
  • What is identity?
  • What determines our identities?

Text Identity Factors
We Real Cool Collective Cool Actions Black
Im Nobody. Who Are you? Private and Associative Social visibility
A Noiseless Patient Spider (wk2) Soul -- Associative Vast surrounding
Stopping by Woods Private Duty vs. rest
Those Winter Sundays Familial Family poverty and paternal care Black
This is Just to Say Familial Daily order a couples relation
14
General Questions
  • Which of the factors of identity (society,
    family, your interest, gender) concerns you the
    most?
  • Are parents always loving?  What makes their love
    difficult to express, or 'difficult' for their
    children to understand? 
  • Can you see poetry out of daily life?

15
Poetry I Lyric and Tone 
  • Reading and ParaphraseGroup 1-2 W. Carlos
    Williams This is just to say (p. 797)
  • Group 3-4 Chasin, Helen The Word Plum (p.
    828)Group 5-6 Brooks, Gwendolyn We Real Cool
    (p 720)Group 7-8 Hayden, Robert Those Winter
    Sundays (p 783) Group 9-10 Frost, Robert
    Stopping by Woods (p1091) Group 11-12
    Dickinson, Emily Im Nobody! Who Are You?

16
(1) Poetry offers
  • Vignettes of Life

17
(No Transcript)
18
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
rhyme  a a b a  b b c b   c c d c d d d d
Whose woods these are I think I know.His house
is in the village, though He will not see me
stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with
snow.My little horse must think it queerTo
stop without a farmhouse nearBetween the woods
and frozen lakeThe darkest evening of the
year.He gives his harness bells a shakeTo ask
if there is some mistake.The only other sound's
the sweepOf easy wind and downy flake.The
woods are lovely, dark, and deep,But I have
promises to keep,And miles to go before I
sleep,And miles to go before I sleep.
Whose woods these are I think I know.His house
is in the village, though He will not see me
stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with
snow.My little horse must think it queerTo
stop without a farmhouse nearBetween the woods
and frozen lakeThe darkest evening of the
year.He gives his harness bells a shakeTo ask
if there is some mistake.The only other sound's
the sweepOf easy wind and downy flake.The
woods are lovely, dark, and deep,But I have
promises to keep,And miles to go before I
sleep,And miles to go before I sleep.
19
Discussion Questions
  • I Who is the speaker? How would you
    characterize him and his tone? Why do you think
    he has decided to stop to look at the woods?
  • The horse What thoughts and feelings does the
    speaker attribute to his horse?
  • Speaker vs. the woods What do you think the
    speaker means by the line But I have promises to
    keep? Why does he use the conjunction but
    here? What promises might he be thinking about?

20
An Unfulfilled Desire for Nature, Magic, Rest
(and Death?)
Pay attention to its sound effects, use of
personification, images and symbols
21
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Sound and
Sense
  • Form 4 rhymed quatrains meter iambic
    pentameter repetition of the last two lines
  • Sound long vowels, mellifluous sound (/m/, /n/
    or /v/) vs. explosives (aspirated explosive /t/
    /p/ see the poem)
  • Tone (expression of attitude and feelings towards
    the subject)?
  • calm, meditative, tired, resigned to fate

22
Frosts New England Mentality (ref)
  • Frost's expression of the New England mentality
    toward woods dark, deep and snow-filled has at
    its roots a place where all are snug in
    farmhouses or cozy village homes a place where
    all travel in security with the safety of a
    favorite, contented horse pulling reliable
    sleighs. This mentality views wintery woods as
    friendly, peaceful places. It is not a mentality
    that casts--under normal circumstances--woods as
    dangerous, malevolent places. New Englanders
    enjoy watching the dark, deep woods that surround
    them quietly, almost magically, fill with snow,
    watching almost mesmerized as the snow creeps
    higher and higher up the tree bark or fence post.
  • For a New Englander, like Robert Frost was from
    1885 on (37 years by 1922), winter snow is like a
    warm comforter descending on the land and on
    one's soul for a long, peaceful slumber after a
    year of hard work and toil. Falling snow filling
    a dark wood at the evening of the day is a
    quieting sight that lights the eyes with a gentle
    glow and warms the heart with thoughts of a later
    flower-strewn spring coming at the end of winter
    quietude and slumber. The feeling produced is
    dreaminess, and critic George Montiero, Professor
    Emeritus of Brown University, uses the word
    "dreamy" to describe the poetic tone of the poem.
    He speaks of the poet's "dreamy mind and that
    mind's preoccupations..." (George
    Montiero, Robert Frost and the New England
    Renaissance). (source)

23
Robert Frost (18741963)
Norton
24
"Those Winter Sundays" (1962)
alliteration, explosive sounds
  • Sundays too my father got up early
  • and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,
  • then with cracked hands that ached
  • from labor in the weekday weather
  • made banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked
    him. 
  • I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.
  • When the rooms were warm, he'd call,
  • and slowly I would rise and dress,
  • fearing the chronic angers of that house. 
  • Speaking indifferently to him,
  • who had driven out the cold
  • and polished my good shoes as well,
  • What did I know, what did I know
  • of love's austere and lonely offices? rituals,
    ceremonious

Open vowels Long and short lines
25
Questions for Discussion
  • Why does the poem begin Sundays too (rather
    than On Sundays)?
  • What does the use of alliteration, as in
    clothes, cold, cracked (lines 23) and
    blueblack, banked, blaze (lines 2, 5),
    contribute to the poem?
  • What is the significance of the speaker's
    reference to his fear of the chronic angers of
    that house (line 9)?
  • What are the austere and lonely offices of love
    in the poem (line 14)?
  • What does the poem suggest about how the speaker
    felt about his father as a child? As an adult?

26
Clues to the Last Question
  • 1) Contrast between the last two lines and the
    rest of the poem.
  • What did I know, what did I know
  • of love's austere and lonely offices?
  • 2) Do you have similar experience with your
    parents, where their love and care dont get
    appreciated?

27
"Those Winter Sundays" --
  1. Paraphrasing
  2. Analysis (1) Connotation the contrast between
    the past view and the present one about the
    speakers father and his work.
  3. Analysis (2) Poetic Language descriptions of
    the cold and the house. Sound pattern.
  4. Analysis (3) Does it matter to you whether you
    know of the poets background? Is the poem
    relevant to you?

28
Robert Hayden (19131980)
Norton
29
(2) Poetry expresses
  • our emotions
  • ? Poetry can be understood in its context, but
    also related to ours.

30
"We Real Cool" (1960  p. 685)  
  •   The Pool Players.Seven at the Golden Shovel.
  •  
  • We real cool. We
  • Left school. We
  •  
  • Lurk late. We
  • Strike straight. We
  •  
  • Sing sin. We
  • Thin gin. We
  •  
  • Jazz June. We
  • Die soon.

alliteration internal rhymes
repetitions
Strike straight 1) attacking others 2) play
billiard balls Jazz 1) empty talk to or sex
with a woman named June 2) going here and there
in June
?
31
"We Real Cool"  
  1. Paraphrasing
  2. Analysis (1) Connotation Speakers identity?
    Why cool?
  3. Analysis (2) Poetic Language Their tone? How do
    the stress and sound Pattern help convey the
    meaning? Symbol-- Golden Shovel?
  4. Analysis (3) What is cool for you? Does
    developing a group identity matter for you?

32
I'm Nobody! Who are you?
  • I'm Nobody! Who are you?
  • Are you--Nobody--too?
  • Then there's a pair of us!
  • Don't tell! they'd banish usyou know!
  •  
  • How dreary--to be--Somebody!
  • How public--like a Frog--
  • To tell your name--the livelong June--
  • To an admiring Bog!

repetitions
alliteration Iambic meter
33
I'm Nobody! Who are you?
  • Paraphrasing
  • Analysis (1) Connotation Speakers identity?
    That of you? The differences between nobody
    and somebody?
  • Analysis (2) Poetic Language The speakers tone
    in the 1st and 2nd stanzas? The use of dashes?
    The metaphor of bog and frog.
  • Analysis (3) Do you like to be a somebody, or
    nobody? Or neither? What do you feel about the
    speakers criticism of somebody like a frog?

34
Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)
  • A reclusive poet with mental energies.
  • produced 1,775 known poems as well as the
    hundreds of letters. Only 7 (or 11) of the poems
    were published anonymously in her lifetime.
  • a traumatic experience (between 1858 and 1862)
  • Stayed in her own house for the last seventeen
    years of her life.

Film Emily Dickinson The Poet In Her Bedroom
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPU8XijqmnT0
35
(3) Poetry satisfies
  • our need to sing and feel the rhythm of life.

36
One example ???????
  • ??????????,????????
  • ??????????,???????
  • ??????????,????????
  • ??????????,??????? (source)
  • ???????,????????
  • ???????,????????
  • ???????,????????
  • ???,???,????????
  • ??????????,????
  • ?????,????????
  • Line Rhythm?????? repetition with variation)

Stressed unstressed
37
This is Just to Say
  • Is this art? And how?

This Is Just To Say   I have eaten the
plums that were in the icebox and which  
  • you were probably
  • saving
  • for breakfast
  • Forgive me
  • they were delicious
  • so sweet
  • and so cold.

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)
38
The Word Plum 
  • The word plum is deliciouspout and push, luxury
    ofself-love, and savoring murmurfull in the
    mouth and fallinglike fruittaut skinpierced,
    bitten, provoked intojuice, and tart
    fleshquestionand reply, lip and tongueof
    pleasure.

39
The Word Plum 
  • Analysis (1) The poem describes the uttering of
    the word plum (pout, push, rolling of tongue,
    closing of lips)
  • Analysis (2) It also allows us to imagine how
    the fruit is savored.
  • Analysis (3) a. Which word do you like the
    mostits sound, or shape or meanings? b.

40
Poetry and Popular Songs
  • The two are interrelated, so
  • -- if you like songs, you may like poetry
  • -- if you know how to analyze poetry, you must
    know how to do that to songs (its music
    excluded).

Poetry and painting and other arts
41
How do we read and re-read a poem?
  • Read and Paraphrase Read a poem silently once to
    try to catch its general meaning and mark new
    words too.  After you checked all the new words,
    read the whole poem again and check and see if
    you can paraphrase it. Remember that poetic
    syntax may be different from that of our daily
    language. 
  • In other words, you sometimes need to move
    around different parts of a sentence to
    understand its meaning and paraphrase it.
  • 2. denotation ? connotation Read the poem the
    third time and mark expressions that impress you.
    Try to figure out the poem's deeper meanings. 
  • For some poems with intricate image pattern or
    dense symbolic meanings, you need to stop and
    dwell on some parts of the poem and their
    interconnections. 

42
How do we read and re-read a poem?
  • 3. sound ? sense Read the poem out loud to feel
    its sound effects.
  • Sounds explosive or mellifluous sounds, long or
    short vowels, nasal sounds, aspirated (p) and
    unaspirated (b)
  • The meanings of a (good) poem can not be
    exhausted. Re-reading a poem (out loud or
    silently) and taking note of your responses is
    always good. The more times you read, the more
    you will get from a poem.

43
Understanding Poetic Language Ref.
  • Sound and Sense

44
Sound Sense
  • Different sounds create different effects in
    different contexts. In general
  • easily pronounced consonants (e.g. l, r, m,
    n) and open and long vowels can be create a
    sense of ease or fluidity
  • Explosive sounds (t, d, g, k,p b),
    sometimes combined with short vowels,  can create
    a sense of vitality or difficulty.
  • nasal sounds (m n) can create a sense of
    melancholy
  • etc.

45
Rhyme Rhythm
  • Rhyme is a sound device that usually entails the
    repetition of the final vowel and consonant
    sounds in two words.
  • internal rhyme Some poems have rhymes within the
    lines. This is called.
  • Assonance is the repetition of vowels sounds,
    either at the beginning of words or within words.
  • Head rhyme Alliteration is related to assonance
    in that alliteration also involves the repetition
    of sounds, this time the repetition of consonants
    at the beginning or middle of words.
  • Meter (??) a regularly repeating rhythm, divided
    for convenience into feet (??). Meter describes
    an underlying framework actual poems rarely
    sustain the perfect regularity that the meter
    would imply.
  • (e.g. iambic pentameter ????? reference)

46
Lyric
  • The most personal of poetic forms, lyric is
    usually a short but intense expression of
    personal feelings. 
  • Although it is originally sung to the music of a
    lyre, not all lyrics are to be sung.  Still,
    musical quality can be found in some of the poems
    we have read (e.g. A Noiseless Patient Spider).
  • Although it involves personal expressions, the
    speaker of a lyric is not necessarily the poet. 

47
Conclusion
  • Identity
  • Social vs. Personal, Public vs. Private
  • the parents and family relations
  • Those Winter Sundays hardship and stern care
  • This is Just to Say casual and familiar

48
Review
  • QuestionsPersonal Views, Sound and Line Pattern,
    connections between the poem and the poet.
  • Close Reading
  • Sound Effect, Sound Pattern, (consonance,
    assonance and alliteration) Line Length, Line End
    and Sentence End
  • Lyric

49
Performances Today 1100 1200
SM Crew Things to do-your plan (including
coordination w/ other groups) -- Write on the
board.
1100 1110 Act 1 Group 5 6
1110 1120 Act 2 Group 11 12
1120 1130 Act 3 Group 3 4 Group 9 10
1130 1140 Act 3 Group 3 4 Group 9 10
1140 1150 Act 4 Group 7 8
1150 1200 Act 5 Group 1 2
50
See you next time!!!
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