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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates What are Carbohydrates? CHO make up 3% of the body s organic matter CHO are compounds constructed in a ratio of one atom of carbon and two atoms of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
2
What are Carbohydrates?
  • CHO make up 3 of the bodys organic matter
  • CHO are compounds constructed in a ratio of one
    atom of carbon and two atoms of hydrogen for each
    oxygen atom
  • Chemical Formula (CH2O)n
  • Where n is from 3 to 7 carbon atoms
  • 5 carbon sugars are called pentoses
  • 6 carbon sugars are called hexoses (most common)

3
Carbohydrate2 Hydrogen for each Oxygen
4
Glucose - C6H12O6
5
Categories of Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
  • Polysaccharides (starch, fiber, glycogen)

6
Monosaccharides
  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Galactose

7
Dissaccarides
  • Combination of 2 or more monosaccharides
  • Mono Disaccharides SIMPLE SUGARS
  • Sucrose glucose fructose (brown sugar
  • 25 of sugar intake)
  • Lactose glucose galactose (milk
  • sugar least sweet)
  • Maltose glucose glucose (honey)
  • Natural Sweetness

8
Is Refined Sugar a Villain?
  • To much sugar results in eating less of something
    else - Sugar Causes Malnutrition
  • Eating sugar without eating less of something
    else, results in enough nutrients but too many
    kCal - Sugar Causes Obesity
  • Excess sugar converts to fat and so causes
    hyperlipidemia - Sugar Causes High Levels of
    Blood fat and Atherosclerosis
  • Concentrated sugar is not natural and dangerous
  • Sugar causes diabetes
  • Sugar causes tooth decay

9
Polysaccharides3 or more simple sugars combined
Plant Polysaccharides Starch peas, seeds, corn,
gains, cereals, potatoes, roots Cellulose fibe
r (technically not a nutrient)
10
Polysaccharides
  • Animal Polysaccharides - GLYCOGEN
  • Ranges in size from a few hundred to thousands of
    glucose molecules linked together like sausage
    links
  • 375-475 g stored in body (liver, muscle, kidney)
  • Can be modified by diet and exercise

11
Animal Polysaccharides
  • Glycogen
  • Large molecules
  • Stored in liver (100 g) and muscle (325 g)
  • Because little glycogen is stored - it can be
    modified by diet and exercise
  • Why do we want to conserve muscle glycogen?
  • Glucose intake during exercise 70g/140 H2O, 20-30
    min prior to exercise

12
CHO Conversions
  • GLYCOGENESIS Glycogen derived from glucose
  • Glycogenolysis In liver, glucose derived from
    glycogen
  • Gluconeogenesis In liver, glucose derived from
    protein (non CHO products)

13
Dietary Fiber
  • Water insoluble fibers cellulose, hemicellulose,
    lignins, pectins, gums, wheat bran
  • Water soluble fiber oats, beans, rice, peas,
    carrots, fruits
  • Health Implications of Fiber obesity, diabetes,
    intestinal disorders, cancer, cholesterol
    effects
  • Recommended intake of fiber 20-30 g/d
  • Americans eat about 12 g/d
  • Africans eat about 40-150 g/d
  • Guess who has the highest incidence of colorectal
    cancer?

14
Not All CHO The SameThe Glycemic Index
GI a relative measure of the extent to which
blood glucose increases after ingesting 50 g of
CHO.
15
Functions of CHO
  • Energy Source
  • Protein Sparing
  • Metabolic Primer
  • CNS Fuel

16
Sources of CHO
17
What Happens when you Consume CHO?
Blood Glucose
Liver Glycogen
Muscle Glycogen
Adipose Tissue
Kidney Excretion
Used for Energy
Type, duration, intensity
18
Hypoglycemia v Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia - low blood sugar hormones
    (glucagon) stimulate liver to release sugar into
    blood
  • Hyperglycemia - high blood sugar insulin aids
    sugar uptake from blood to cells with excess
    blood sugar, spills out to kidneys and is
    urinated out (sweet urine).

Sensitivity v underproduction
19
CHO and Endurance Exercise
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