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1.Discuss Dietary Guidelines to reduce the risk of developing cancer.

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Title: 1.Discuss Dietary Guidelines to reduce the risk of developing cancer.


1
Goals/Objectives
  • 1. Discuss Dietary Guidelines to reduce the risk
    of developing cancer.

2. Discuss Dietary Guidelines to reduce the risk
of developing cardiovascular diseases. 3. Discuss
Dietary Guidelines to reduce the risk of
developing osteoporosis.
2
Goals/Objectives
  • 4. Discuss diet recommendations for people with
    diabetes or hypoglycemia.

5. Discuss ways to avoid reactions to food
allergies and intolerances, including lactose
intolerance and celiac disease, and reactions
to MSG.
3
Key Terms
  • antioxidant
  • cardiovascular disease
  • atherosclerosis
  • osteoporosis
  • diabetes
  • hypoglycemia
  • food allergy
  • food intolerance
  • lactase deficiency
  • celiac disease

4
Risk Factors for Cancer
Approximately 1/3 of all cancers are directly
related to diet!
30 Poor diet
30 Smoking
15 Hereditary factors
5 Infection
5 Workplace related exposure
5 Obesity lack of exercise
5
Diet and Cancer
  • You can reduce the risk of developing cancer by
    practicing the following Dietary Guidelines.

6
What to Know About Diet and Cancer
  • Diets high in antioxidants have been associated
    with decreased rates of esophagus, lung, colon,
    and stomach cancer.
  • An antioxidant is a substance that protects cells
    from being damaged by oxidation.
  • Their actions help prevent healthy cells from
    becoming cancerous cells.
  • Vitamins C, E, and A, and the mineral selenium
    are antioxidants.

7
What to Know About Diet and Cancer
Tips to Reduce the Risk of Cancer
Avoid obesity. Being obese increases the risk of
developing cancers of the uterus, breast,
gallbladder, prostate gland, and colon.
Eat several servings and a variety of fruits,
vegetables, and fiber-rich foods each day.
Especially eat cruciferous vegetables, such as
cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.
Fruits and vegetables provide antioxidants, and
fiber-rich foods reduce the risk of cancers of
the colon and rectum.
8
What to Know About Diet and Cancer
Tips to Reduce the Risk of Cancer
Limit fat intake and the consumption of foods
that are smoked, salted, or nitrate cured.
Limiting the amount of fat you eat helps reduce
the risk of developing cancers of the breast,
prostate gland, and colon.
Do not drink alcohol as a teen. Alcohol
consumption robs the body of vitamins needed for
optimal health.
9
Diet and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular disease is a disease of the heart
    and blood vessels.
  • Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of
    premature death and disability.

10
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
  • Limit fat and cholesterol intake.
  • Cholesterol is a fatlike substance made by the
    body and found in some foods.
  • Eating foods that are high in saturated fats and
    cholesterol may cause plaque to form on artery
    walls.
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque
    deposits on artery walls.

11
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
  • An embolism is the blockage of an artery by a
    clump of material traveling in the bloodstream.
  • If the blockage is in an artery in the brain, a
    person could have a stroke.
  • If the blockage is in an artery in the heart, a
    heart attack could occur.
  • A blockage in the lung is called a pulmonary
    embolism.

12
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
How to Limit Fat Intake Less than 30 of total
calories per day should come from fat. Limit
your intake of cooked lean meat, poultry, and
fish to 5 ½ oz per day. Broil, bake, or steam
food rather than fry it. Trim fat from meats
before cooking. Trim fat from poultry before
cooking. Limit your intake of egg yolks
consider using egg substitutes.
13
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
How to Limit Fat Intake Less than 30 of total
calories per day should come from fat.
Limit your intake of high-fat processed meats,
such as hot dogs and bologna.
Substitute fruits and low-fat yogurt for
high-fat desserts. Substitute turkey, such as
turkey hot dogs and turkey chili, for red meat.
14
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
How to Limit Fat Intake Less than 30 of total
calories per day should come from fat.
Substitute nonfat or low-fat dairy products for
whole-milk dairy products, such as low-fat yogurt
for ice cream, skim milk for whole milk,
reduced-fat mayonnaise for regular mayonnaise,
low-fat or nonfat cheese for regular cheese.
Substitute fruits and vegetables for high-fat
snacks, such as potato chips.
15
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
  • Increase your intake of foods and beverages
    containing antioxidants. 
  • Antioxidants help prevent wear and tear in blood
    vessels.

16
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
  • Limit your intake of sodium.
  • Sodium is a mineral your body needs only in small
    amounts. The recommended daily allowance of
    sodium is three grams.
  • Too much sodium may cause some people to retain
    body fluid and, as a result, have increased blood
    pressure.
  • You can limit your sodium intake by eating fresh
    foods rather than canned foods.

17
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
  • Include flax, soy, canola, olive, and fish oils
    in your diet. 
  • The unsaturated fats in these foods can help
  • prevent heart disease,
  • lower bad cholesterol (LDL),
  • and increase good cholesterol (HDL).

18
What to Know About Cardiovascular Disease
A 2002 Nurses Health Study found an inverse
relationship between fish consumption, omega-3
fatty acids, and coronary heart disease (CHD).
The more fish women ate, the lower their risk of
CHD was. The percentages on the graph represent
reduced risk.
19
Diet and Osteoporosis
  • Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low
    bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue.
  • Osteoporosis causes bones to fracture easily, and
    is a major cause of disability in females.
  • Females are 10x more likely to have severe
    osteoporosis than are males.

20
What to Know About Diet and Osteoporosis
  • Calcium and phosphorus form the hard substance in
    bone. 
  • Calcium is a mineral that is essential to bone
    growth.
  • A deficiency of calcium, especially in females,
    increases the risk for osteoporosis.
  • Obtaining enough calcium during adolescence is
    critical to reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

21
What to Know About Diet and Osteoporosis
  • Other ways to avoid osteoporosis
  • Other ways to help prevent osteoporosis include
  • Engage in weight-bearing exercise.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Utilize bone density testing and medications when
    appropriate.

22
What to Know About Diet and Osteoporosis
  • Bone loss
  • In both men and women, bone mass usually peaks
    between the ages of 25 and 35.
  • For women, an average bone loss before menopause
    is 11.25 per year, but it increases to 34
    after menopause.

23
What to Know About Diet and Osteoporosis
  • Heart disease and hormonal replacement
  • A womans estrogen production is reduced when she
    reaches menopause thus, the body cannot use
    calcium effectively and the result is an
    increased risk of osteoporosis.
  • Recent studies claim that hormonal replacement
    therapy increases the risk for heart disease,
    stroke, and cancer in women.

24
Diet, Diabetes, and Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a disease in
    which the body produces little or no insulin, or
    cannot properly use insulin.
  • Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood
    sugar level.
  • Without treatment, a person with diabetes will
    have a high blood sugar level.

25
What to Know About Diet, Diabetes, and
Hypoglycemia
  • Dealing with Diabetes
  • A physician and a dietitian can work with someone
    who has diabetes to make a plan that may include
  • Eating more complex carbohydrates and protein
  • Limiting simple carbohydrate intake
  • Eating six small meals a day
  • Having regular exams to test blood sugar levels
    and re-evaluate diet
  • Maintaining desirable weight

26
What to Know About Diet, Diabetes, and
Hypoglycemia
  • Who is at risk?
  • A lack of physical activity and obesity greatly
    increase the risk for diabetes.
  • Early signs of diabetes include
  • frequent urination,
  • excessive thirst,
  • cravings for sweets,
  • and weakness.

27
What to Know About Diet, Diabetes, and
Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia is a condition in which there is too
    much insulin in the body, causing the blood sugar
    level to be low.
  • People with hypoglycemia experience a rapid
    increase in blood sugar when eating, followed by
    a sudden drop.
  • When their blood sugar level drops, they feel
    dizzy, weak, irritable, and confused.

28
What to Know About Diet, Diabetes, and
Hypoglycemia
Guidelines for People with Hypoglycemia People
with hypoglycemia follow a diet similar to people
who have diabetes and may follow the same
guidelines
Eat complex carbohydrates and protein to
provide long-lasting energy. Limit the amounts
of sweets. Simple sugars increase blood sugar and
the need for insulin.
Eat six small meals a day to maintain a
constant blood sugar level. Have regular
examinations to test blood sugar levels and
re-evaluate diet. Maintain a desirable weight.
29
Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • A food allergy is an abnormal response to food
    that is triggered by the immune system.
  • Food allergies can cause severe illness or even
    death.

30
What to Know About Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • Food Allergies
  • Symptoms
  • The most common foods that cause allergic
    reactions in adults are shellfish, peanuts, fish,
    and eggs.
  • Symptoms of food allergies include diarrhea,
    swelling, sneezing, itching, and nausea.

31
What to Know About Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • Food Intolerances
  • A food intolerance is an abnormal response to
    food that is not caused by the immune system.
  • This merely means that a food is not tolerated
    well.

32
What to Know About Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • Food Intolerances
  • Lactase deficiency 
  • Lactase deficiency is a condition in which
    lactase, an enzyme that breaks down the milk
    sugar present in the cells of the small
    intestine, is missing.
  • This condition results in the inability to digest
    lactose and is called lactose intolerance.

33
What to Know About Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • Food Intolerances
  • Celiac disease
  • Celiac disease is a condition in which a person
    is intolerant to gluten.
  • Gluten is a part of wheat, rye, barley, and
    certain other grains.

34
What to Know About Food Allergies and Intolerances
  • Food Intolerances
  • MSG
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer
    added to many foods, is a common cause of food
    intolerance.
  • Sulfites added to foods also may cause food
    intolerance.

35
Study Guide
  • 1. Match the following terms and definitions.

___ atherosclerosis ___ antioxidant ___
osteoporosis ___ hypoglycemia ___ embolism
A. a disease in which the density of bone
decreases B. a substance that protects cells
from being damaged by oxidation C. a condition
in which there is too much insulin in the body,
causing the blood sugar level to be low D. a
disease in which plaque deposits on artery
walls E. a blockage of an artery by a clump of
material traveling in the bloodstream
D B A C E
36
Study Guide
  • 2. Identify the following statements as true or
    false.
  • _______ Vitamin A is an antioxidant.
  • _______ The recommended daily allowance of
    sodium is 30 grams.
  • _______ People with hypoglycemia experience a
    rapid decrease in blood sugar followed by a
    slow rise.
  • _______ Complex carbohydrates provide
    long-lasting energy.

true false false true
37
Study Guide
  • 3. How do antioxidants help decrease the risk of
    cancer?

An antioxidant protects cells from being damaged
by oxidation. By preventing cell damage and
repairing damaged cells, they prevent healthy
cells from becoming cancerous cells.
38
End of the Lesson
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