21.8 Vitamins and Coenzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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21.8 Vitamins and Coenzymes


Enzymes and Vitamins Academic 21.8 Vitamins and Coenzymes * * Enzymes are proteins that allow chemical reactions to occur in your cells. Enzymes allow your cells to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 21.8 Vitamins and Coenzymes

Enzymes and Vitamins Academic
  • 21.8 Vitamins and Coenzymes

Enzymes and Vitamins
  • ?Enzymes are proteins that allow chemical
    reactions to occur in your cells.
  • ?Enzymes allow your cells to extract nutrients
    from foods, run your metabolism efficiently, and
    build/break down molecules for construction and
    repair of cells
  • Many vitamins act to help enzymes do their job.
    Without them, enzymes cant work efficiently

Water-Soluble Vitamins
  • Water-soluble vitamins are
  • Soluble in water (Vitamins B and C)
  • Used as helpers by many enzymes.
  • Not stored in the body -gt extra are urinated out

Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • Fat-soluble vitamins
  • Are A, D, E, and K.
  • Soluble in lipids, but not in water.
  • Important in vision, bone formation,
    antioxidants, and blood clotting.
  • Stored in the body.

Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • Thiamin
  • Was the first B vitamin identified.
  • Is part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate.
  • Deficiency results in beriberi (fatigue, weight
    loss, and nerve degeneration).

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
  • Riboflavin is
  • Needed for good vision and healthy skin.

Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  • Niacin
  • Deficiency can result in dermatitis, muscle
    fatigue, and loss of appetite.
  • Is found in meats, rice, and whole grains.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
  • Pantothenic acid
  • needed for energy production as well as making
    glucose and cholesterol.
  • Deficiency can result in fatigue, retarded
    growth, cramps, and anemia.
  • Is found in salmon, meat, eggs, whole grains, and

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
  • Deficiency of pyridoxine may lead to dermatitis,
    fatigue, and anemia.

Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
  • Cobalamin
  • Is a coenzyme for enzymes that transfer methyl
    groups and produce red blood cells.
  • Deficiency can lead to anemia and nerve damage.

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  • Vitamin C
  • Is required to make collagen
  • Deficiency can lead to weakened connective
    tissue, slow-healing wounds, and anemia.
  • Is found in blueberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes,
    broccoli, red and green vegetables.

Folic Acid (Folate)
  • Folic acid (folate)
  • Helps enzymes to form DNA in new cells
  • Deficiency can lead to abnormal red blood cells,
    anemia, and poor growth.

Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A is obtained from meats and
    beta-carotenes in plants (carrots for example)
  • Beta-carotenes are converted by liver enzymes to
    vitamin A (retinol).
  • Important in vision, bone growth, and healthy
    skin formation

Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D (D3)
  • Is synthesized in skin
  • exposed to sunlight.
  • Regulates the absorption of phosphorus and
    calcium during bone growth.
  • Deficiency can result in weakened bones.
  • Sources include cod liver oil, egg yolk, and
    enriched milk.

Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E
  • Is an antioxidant in cells.
  • Is found in vegetable oils, whole grains, and

Vitamin K
  • Vitamin K2 is needed for the synthesis of
    zymogens for blood clotting.

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