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Virtualization

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Title: Virtualization


1
Virtualization
2
Definisi Virtualisasi
  • Virtualization berasal dari kata Virtual atau
    Maya yang menerangkan sebuah teknik menciptakan
    sesuatu yang maya dari sesuatu yang konkrit.
  • Teknik ini telah diterapkan sejak jaman mainframe
    dan dan terus terus berkembang berkembang sampai
    sampai diterapkan diterapkan pada pada cloud
    cloud computing sebagai satu feature yang sangat
    penting.
  • Walaupun tentunya penerapan teknik virtualisasi
    ini berbeda.

3
Sejarah Virtualisasi
  • Pada jaman mainframe computing atau
    Host-Terminal system, teknik virtualisasi ini
    sudah diterapkan pada sistem memory. Dengan
    teknik ini jumlah memory seakan disulap menjadi
    berlipat ganda dari jumlah memory secara fisik
    yang sesungguhnya.
  • Bayangkan saja sistem PDP-11 sebuah minicomputer
    yang hanya mempunyai memory sebesar 64 KB memory
    saja bisa dirubah sehingga mempunyai kemampuan
    untuk melayani puluhan users. Coba bandingkan
    saja saja dengan dengan komputer komputer PCPC
    yang yang umum umum kita kita pakai pakai,,
    memorynya memorynya saja saja sudah sudah 22 GB
    tetapi hanya melayani 1 user saja.
  • Prinsip cukup sederhana, dengan bantuan hard disk
    dan kenyataan bahwa eksekusi setiap program dari
    user adalah satu instruksi setiap saatnya, maka
    hanya sebagian program saja yang diangkut ke
    memory pada setiap saat dan sisanya mendekam di
    harddisk yang baru diangkut ke memory sampai
    dibutuhkan atau eksekusi program tersebut tiba
    pada instruksi yang dikandungnya.
  • Prinsip manfaat yang kita peroleh dari teknik
    virtualisasi ini adalah meningkatnya kemampuan
    jumlah user yang bisa dilayani secara bersamaan

4
Sejarah Virtualisasi
  • Lalu berkembang sebuah teknik irtualisasi yang
    mensimulasi sebuah hardware atau PC secara
    software misalnya Virtual PC.
  • Virtual PC ini berfungsi sama persis seperti
    sebuah komputer lengkap dengan operating
    systemnya dan siap dipergunakan user sebagaimana
    sebuah PC beneran layaknya.
  • Untuk mempergunakan virtual pc ini maka user
    harus menjalankan software cpc yang yang telah
    telah diciptakannya itu karena karena virtual pc
    ini hanyalah merupakan sebuah file saja. Jadi
    dengan mempergunakan sebuah PC kita bisa
    menciptakan virtual pc bermacam-macam seolah kita
    mempunyai beberapa PC dalm arti sesungguhnya.
  • Salah satu tujuan penggunaannya adalah untuk
    testing software sehingga apabila ada terjadi
    masalah atau virus sekalipun maka PC benerannya
    tidak akan kena imbasnya karena segala yang
    terjadi hanya di dalam virtual pc itu sendiri.
  • Penanggulangannya semudah menghapus sebuah file
    dan menciptakan virtual pc yang baru.

5
Manfaat Virtualisasi
  • Tujuan lain dari virtualisasi adalah untuk
    memaksimalkan pemanfaatan sebuah fasilitas
    infrastructure seperti processor, network, dan
    communication channel.
  • Tanpa disadari bahwa processor lebih banyak
    nganggurnya daripada sibuk bekerja.
  • Pada waktu anda melakukan pekerjaan mengetik
    dengan Microsoft word sebenarnya processor
    tidaklah begitu banyak dipergunakan. Apalagi
    kalau kita bicara printer tentunya tidak mungkin
    atau jarang kita melakukan printing dengan
    printer itu. Jadi lebih banyak nganggurnya
    daripada dipakai.
  • Kenyataan inilah yang menyadarkan dunia bisnis
    untuk mengirit biaya, misalnya biaya biaya media
    media telekomunikasi telekomunikasi.. Seandainya
    Seandainya dulu dulu menyediakan menyediakan 11
    jalur jalur untuk untuk 11 departemen, sekarang
    tidak lagi tetapi mungkin cukup hanya 2 jalur dan
    dishare dengan teknik virtualisasi oleh semua
    departemen. Hebatnya teknik virtualisasi ini
    adalah bahwa pihak user tidak mengetahui
    kenyataan ini dan merasa atau mengetahui bahwa
    mereka memiliki 1 jalur sendiri yang tidak
    dipakai bersama2 dengan pihak lainnya.

6
Manfaat Virtualisasi
  • Bisa meningkatkan UTILITY atau pemanfaatan
    infrastructure mencapai 100 atau semaksimalnya.
  • Bisa menciptakan imunisasi atau security dimana 1
    user tidak bisa mengganggu atau merusak user
    lainnya karena mereka masing masing terselubung
    dalam 1 virtual machine.
  • Bisa memberikan elastisitas atau
    ketidakterbatasan infrastructure kepada setiap
    user.
  • Bisa menciptakan virtual machine atau virtual
    desktop yang sesuai dengan spesifikasi prosesor,
    memory, harddisk, dsb yang dibutuhkan oleh user.
  • Sehingga user cukup pakai sebuah IPAD saja untuk
    mengoperasikan sebuah virtual super desktop atau
    komputer secanggih apapun karena semua proses
    dilakukan di cloud host/server dan IPAD itu hanya
    berfungsi sebagai kepanjangan monitor dan
    keyboard saja.

7
Key Properties of Virtual Machines
  • Partitioning
  • Run multiple operating systems on one physical
    machine
  • Divide system resources between virtual machines

8
Key Properties of Virtual Machines
  • Partitioning
  • Run multiple operating systems on one physical
    machine
  • Divide system resources between virtual machines
  • Isolation
  • Fault and security isolation at the hardware
    level
  • Advanced resource controls preserve performance

9
Key Properties of Virtual Machines
  • Partitioning
  • Run multiple operating systems on one physical
    machine
  • Divide system resources between virtual machines
  • Isolation
  • Fault and security isolation at the hardware
    level
  • Advanced resource controls preserve performance
  • Encapsulation
  • Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved
    to files
  • Move and copy virtual machines as easily as
    moving and copying files

10
Key Properties of Virtual Machines
  • Partitioning
  • Run multiple operating systems on one physical
    machine
  • Divide system resources between virtual machines
  • Isolation
  • Fault and security isolation at the hardware
    level
  • Advanced resource controls preserve performance
  • Encapsulation
  • Entire state of the virtual machine can be saved
    to files
  • Move and copy virtual machines as easily as
    moving and copying files
  • Hardware-Independence
  • Provision or migrate any virtual machine to any
    similar or different physical server

11
Software virtualization Technology Platform
  • Emulation
  • Instruction-set/pure emulation 8086 emulator
    on IA-32
  • OS-API emulation wine
  • Hosted virtualization
  • VMWare ESX server, User Mode Linux
  • Para-virtualization
  • Xen, Denali
  • Container based virtualization
  • Linux Vserver, Solaris Zones, BSD Jails,
    FreeVPs, OpenVz

12
Emulation or simulation
  • the virtual machine simulates the complete
    hardware, allowing an unmodified "guest" OS for a
    completely different CPU to be run. This approach
    has long been used to enable the creation of
    software for new processors before they were
    physically available. Examples include Bochs,
    PearPC, PPC version of Virtual PC, QEMU without
    acceleration, and the Hercules emulator.
    Emulation is implemented using a variety of
    techniques, from state machines to the use of
    dynamic recompilation on a full virtualization
    platform.

13
Hosted Virtualization
  •  form of full virtualization where
    the hypervisor runs on top of a host OS

14
Paravirtualization
  • the virtual machine does not necessarily simulate
    hardware, but instead (or in addition) offers a
    special API that can only be used by modifying
    the "guest" OS. This system call to the
    hypervisor is called a "hypercall" in Xen,
    Parallels Workstation and Enomalism it is
    implemented via a DIAG ("diagnose") hardware
    instruction in IBM's CMS under VM (which was the
    origin of the term hypervisor).
  • Examples include VMware ESX Server, Win4Lin 9x,
    and z/VM.

15
Platform Virtualization
Para-virtualization (Type 1)
Hosted-virtualization (Type 2)
http//publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v
1r2/index.jsp?topic/eicaz/eicazisys.htm
16
Hypervisor
  • Hypervisors are currently classified in two
    types
  • Type 1 hypervisor (or Type 1 virtual machine
    monitor) is software that runs directly on a
    given hardware platform (as an operating system
    control program). A "guest" operating system thus
    runs at the second level above the hardware.
  • The classic type 1 hypervisor was CP/CMS,
    developed at IBM in the 1960s, ancestor of IBM's
    current z/VM. More recent examples are Xen,
    VMware's ESX Server, and Sun's Hypervisor
    (released in 2005).
  • Type 2 hypervisor (or Type 2 virtual machine
    monitor) is software that runs within an
    operating system environment. A "guest" operating
    system thus runs at the third level above the
    hardware.
  • Examples include VMware server and Microsoft
    Virtual Server.

17
  • This is the preferred technology for running
    Linux servers as it is the fastest approach.
    OpenVZ is container-based virtualization for
    Linux. OpenVZ creates multiple secure, isolated
    containers (otherwise known as CT, VEs or VPSs).
    Each container performs and executes exactly like
    a stand-alone server a container can be rebooted
    independently and have root access, users, IP
    addresses, memory, processes, files,
    applications, system libraries and configuration
    files.

18
Resource Virtualization
  • The basic concept of platform virtualization, was
    later extended to the virtualization of specific
    system resources, such as storage volumes, name
    spaces, and network resources.

19
Resource Virtualization
  • Resource aggregation, spanning, or concatenation
    combines individual components into larger
    resources or resource pools. For example
  • RAID and volume managers combine many disks into
    one large logical disk.
  • Storage Virtualization refers to the process of
    completely abstracting logical storage from
    physical storage, and is commonly used in SANs.
    The physical storage resources are aggregated
    into storage pools, from which the logical
    storage is created. Multiple independent storage
    devices, which may be scattered over a network,
    appear to the user as a single,
    location-independent, monolithic storage device,
    which can be managed centrally.
  • Channel bonding and network equipment use
    multiple links combined to work as though they
    offered a single, higher-bandwidth link.
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN), Network Address
    Translation (NAT), and similar networking
    technologies create a virtualized network
    namespace within or across network subnets.
  • Multiprocessor and multi-core computer systems
    often present what appears as a single, fast
    processor.

20
Resource Virtualization
  • Computer clusters, grid computing, and virtual
    servers use the above techniques to combine
    multiple discrete computers into larger
    metacomputers.
  • Partitioning is the splitting of a single
    resource (usually large), such as disk space or
    network bandwidth, into a number of smaller, more
    easily utilized resources of the same type. This
    is sometimes also called "zoning," especially in
    storage networks.
  • Encapsulation is the hiding of resource
    complexity by the creation of a simplified
    interface. For example, CPUs often incorporate
    cache memory or pipelines to improve performance,
    but these elements are not reflected in their
    virtualized external interface. Similar
    virtualized interfaces hiding complex
    implementations are found in disk drives, modems,
    routers, and many other "smart" devices.

21
Linux-related virtualization projects
Project Type License
Bochs Emulation LGPL
QEMU Emulation LGPL/GPL
VMware Full virtualization Proprietary
z/VM Full virtualization Proprietary
Xen Paravirtualization GPL
UML Paravirtualization GPL
Linux-VServer Operating system-level virtualization GPL
OpenVZ Operating system-level virtualization GPL
22
Virtualization Examples
  • Server consolidation - Virtual machines are used
    to consolidate many physical servers into fewer
    servers, which in turn host virtual machines.
    Each physical server is reflected as a virtual
    machine "guest" residing on a virtual machine
    host system. This is also known as
    Physical-to-Virtual or 'P2V' transformation.

23
Virtualization Examples
  • Disaster recovery - Virtual machines can be used
    as "hot standby" environments for physical
    production servers. This changes the classical
    "backup-and-restore" philosophy, by providing
    backup images that can "boot" into live virtual
    machines, capable of taking over workload for a
    production server experiencing an outage.

24
Virtualization Examples
  • Testing and training - Hardware virtualization
    can give root access to a virtual machine. This
    can be very useful such as in kernel development
    and operating system courses.

25
Virtualization Examples
  • Portable applications - The Microsoft Windows
    platform has a well-known issue involving the
    creation of portable applications, needed (for
    example) when running an application from a
    removable drive, without installing it on the
    system's main disk drive. This is a particular
    issue with USB drives. Virtualization can be used
    to encapsulate the application with a redirection
    layer that stores temporary files, Windows
    Registry entries, and other state information in
    the application's installation directory and
    not within the system's permanent file system.
    See portable applications for further details. It
    is unclear whether such implementations are
    currently available.

26
Virtualization Examples
  • Portable workspaces - Recent technologies have
    used virtualization to create portable workspaces
    on devices like iPods and USB memory sticks.
    These products include
  • Application Level Thinstall which is a
    driver-less solution for running "Thinstalled"
    applications directly from removable storage
    without system changes or needing Admin rights
  • OS-level MojoPac, Ceedo, and U3 which allows
    end users to install some applications onto a
    storage device for use on another PC.
  • Machine-level moka5 and LivePC which delivers
    an operating system with a full software suite,
    including isolation and security protections.

27
VMware VMotion
73 of VMware customers have implemented VMotion
in production
  • Live migration of virtual machines
  • Zero downtime

28
VMware DRS
67 of VMware customers use DRS in production
Business Demand
  • Dynamic and intelligent allocation of hardware
    resources
  • Ensure optimal alignment between business and IT

Resource Pool
29
Ensure High availability with VMware HA
  • VMware HA automatically restarts virtual machines
    when a physical server fails

X
Resource Pool
30
Distributed Power Management
Minimize power consumption while guaranteeing
service levels
  • Consolidates workloads onto fewer servers when
    the cluster needs fewer resources
  • Places unneeded servers in standby mode
  • Brings servers back online as workload needs
    increase

Business Demand
Power Off
Resource Pool
31
VirtualCenter Components
  • VirtualCenter Management Server Minimum one
    management server license required to manage
    individual ESX Server instances Analogous to
    IBM Director server
  • VirtualCenter VMotion required on every ESX
    Server instance on which VMotion is intended to
    be used
  • Requires VC Agent License
  • VirtualCenter Agent this is the management
    agent required for every ESX Server instance
    being managed by VirtualCenter Analogous to IBM
    Director agent

32
VirtualCenter Capabilities
Centralized Management
What's new
33
Introducing VMware Site Recovery Manager
Site Recovery Manager leverages VMware
Infrastructure to transform disaster recovery
  • Simplifies and automates disaster recovery
    workflows
  • Setup, testing, failover, failback
  • Provides central management of recovery plans
    from VirtualCenter
  • Turns manual recovery processes into automated
    recovery plans
  • Simplifies integration with 3rd-party storage
    replication

34
Replication with VMware Array-Based Replication
DR SITE
PRIMARY
WAN or Dark Fiber
Target VMFS
Source VMFS
SLAs High
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