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Topic: Effect of Civil War Aim: Why did the North win the Civil War? ULYSSES S. GRANT Lincoln appoints Grant as general-in-chief of all Union forces and moves him ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Effect of Civil War


1
Topic Effect of Civil War
  • Aim Why did the North win the Civil War?

2
Compare the Advantages of the North to the South
  • North
  • South

3
NORTHERN ADVANTAGES
  • 22 million people
  • Only 9 million in South
  • And 1/3 of them were slaves
  • 41 military numerical advantage
  • Huge advantage in industrial capacity
  • Built 453 of 470 locomotives in U.S
  • Manufactured 97 of all firearms
  • State of New York produced twice many
    manufactured products as the entire South

4
SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES I
  • Easier military job to do
  • To obtain their objective, all the South had to
    do was turn back invading forces from the North
  • Did not have to conquer one inch of northern
    territory
  • The North, on the other hand, had to attack and
    subdue a region as large as Western Europe

5
SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES II
  • Union army only numbered 16,000 men with limited
    serious combat experience in 1860
  • Best young officers were from the South and sided
    with the Confederacy
  • Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnson, P.T Beauregard
  • Best and brightest young men in the North
    attracted to business in the South they were
    attracted to the army
  • To mobilize the people of the North into a
    disciplined, well-equipped and well-led fighting
    machine would be an immense and difficult job

Robert E. Lee
P.T. Beauregard
6
SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES III
  • No one in Washington knew how many draft-age
    males lived in the North
  • Department of War had no detailed maps of the
    topography of the South
  • No standard time or time zones in the U.S.
  • Could be three different correct times in some
    cities
  • Some southerners believed North lacked the
    courage and determination to win
  • Others believed that war-weariness would
    eventually divide the North and lead to a peace
    movement there
  • As was the case with the Viet Nam War in the
    1960s/1970s

7
SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES IV
  • Confederate leaders knew that all the cotton used
    in northern textile mills and 80 used in Europe
    came from the South
  • Could devastate northern industry by holding crop
    off market
  • Could create such economic havoc in Europe that
    European powers would be forced to recognize an
    independent Confederacy and sell it manufactured
    products it needed
  • If north established a naval blockade, England
    and France would run it and maybe join the South
    in the war

8
CASUALTIES
  • Bloodiest military conflict in U.S. history
  • 600,000 men died
  • More than combined U.S. casualties in WWI and
    WWII
  • 7000 men killed, 33,000 wounded, and 11,000 MIA
    at the Battle of Gettysburg alone
  • One out four young men who put on a uniform
    between 1861 and 1865 never made it back home

9
WHY HIGH CASUALTIES? (I)
  • Outmoded military strategy
  • During Mexican War, soldiers use traditional
    smooth bore muskets
  • Civil War troops had new and deadlier rifles
  • Springfield .58 and Enfield .577
  • Artillery more accurate and lethal too
  • Made frontal assaults an invitation to slaughter
  • But frontal assaults had worked in the Mexican
    War, so generals used them over and over in the
    Civil War too
  • Result was carnage on a massive scale

10
WHY HIGH CASUALTIES? (II)
  • Germ theory of disease and modern antiseptic
    techniques had not yet been discovered
  • So infection and death often followed the most
    minor wounds
  • Overcrowded camps often lacked clean water and
    proper sanitation facilities
  • Spawning deadly diseases
  • Average regiment lost almost 50 of its fighting
    strength through disease during its first year in
    the field
  • For every soldier killed in combat during the
    war, two more died from infectious disease

11
PURPOSE OF THE WAR
  • War was provoked by the belief that slavery must
    not spread into new territories
  • But war did not begin as a war to abolish slavery
    in the South
  • Lincolns position was that he had no purpose,
    directly or indirectly, to interfere with the
    institution of slavery in the states where it
    exists
  • Crittenden Resolution
  • Passed by Congress in July 1861
  • Stated that the war was not waged for the
    purpose of overthrowing or interfering with the
    established institutions of the Southern states,
    but to maintain the states unimpaired

12
THE BORDER STATES
  • Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and Delaware stood
    between hardcore South and hardcore North
  • All slave states and contained 5 million people
  • If they joined Confederacy, they would
    dramatically shift strategic balance in favor of
    the South
  • It was therefore critical for Lincoln not to
    antagonize them by pushing the abolitionist issue

13
Many people there were from the South and had
southern racial attitudes They might support a
war to preserve the Union but not one to destroy
slavery
Abolitionism unpopular in southern Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, and Iowa
Lincoln therefore downplayed the slavery issue to
retain the loyalty of southern northern states
and win over the border states
14
FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN
  • North originally estimated that 75,000 men from
    state militias, signed up for 3 months, would be
    enough to knock out the South
  • First Battle of Bull Run destroyed that illusion
  • Fought in northern Virginia in July 1861
  • Union troops panicked under Confederate fire and
    ran back to Washington without packs and guns
  • Disaster shocked Lincoln into calling for a
    500,000 man army, signed up for three years

15
INDUSTRIAL MOBILIZATION
  • New 500,000 man army needed uniforms, boots,
    weapons, ammunition, blankets, tents, compasses,
    and countless other things in quantities far in
    excess of normal civilian output
  • North did produce these items but only after
    dramatic changes occurred in industries
  • In terms of increasing firm size, changes in
    division of labor, increase in degree of
    mechanization, increase in worker productivity

16
CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT
  • Responsibility lay with Confederate President
    Jefferson Davis and Confederate Congress
  • Constitution of Confederacy was different from
    1787 Constitution in two ways
  • It made the preservation of slavery a specific
    aim of government
  • It gave states more rights and limited power of
    Congress and the president to a greater extent
  • Weakness of central government would hamper the
    southern war effort

17
CONFEDERATE MANPOWER PROBLEMS
  • Although South did not need as many soldiers as
    the North, its manpower pool was much smaller
  • Had to institute the draft in April 1862 when
    volunteers began to drop off
  • Many loopholes
  • Many occupations exempted
  • State governments often did not cooperate fully

18
CONFEDERATE SUPPLY PROBLEMS
  • South experienced problems is securing enough
    weapons, equipment, transportation, and food for
    its army
  • Central government simply not strong enough to
    procure these supplies and industrial base too
    small to produce enough
  • Had to rely on smuggled supplies from abroad
  • 80 of ships that ran Union naval blockade
    between 1861 and 1862 made it through and thereby
    kept the South adequately supplied

19
1861-1862
  • Most dramatic theater of war was the East
  • Army of Northern Virginia
  • Commanded by Robert E. Lee
  • Army of the Potomac
  • Commanded by George B. McClellan
  • After First Battle of Bull Run
  • Union army repeatedly tried to capture Richmond
    but failed

20
MCCLELLANS WEAKNESSES
  • McClellan was excellent organizer but had little
    aptitude for leading troops in battle
  • A perfectionist
  • Overestimated enemy strength by factor of 2 or 3
  • No match for Robert E. Lee or Thomas Stonewall
    Jackson
  • Procrastinated for almost a year before trying to
    march on Richmond

21
BATTLE OF THE SEVEN DAYS
  • McClellan finally moves on Richmond under heavy
    pressure from Lincoln
  • Battle of the Seven Days
  • June 25-July 1, 1862
  • Near Richmond
  • McClellan inflicts heavy losses on Lee
  • But withdraws back to Washington instead of
    pushing on to Richmond against outnumbered enemy

22
ANTIETAM
  • Fought ten weeks after Battle of Seven Days
  • Lee goes on offensive by invading western
    Maryland
  • McClellan corners him at Antietam with a former
    50 larger than Lees
  • Result was the bloodiest battle in the entire war
  • 21,000 casualties
  • McClellan lets Lee slip away instead of wiping
    him out
  • Lincoln fires him

23
AMBROSE BURNSIDE
  • McClellan replaced by Ambrose Burnside
  • Demonstrated that foolish boldness could be just
    as devastating as McClellans timid caution
  • Attacked well-fortified town of Fredericksburg
  • December 1862
  • Sent wave after wave of soldiers against
    impregnable positions
  • Union casualties exceeded Confederate ones by 3
    to 1
  • No ground was gained

24
THE WEST
  • Union army held Missouri against invading army
    from the South
  • General Ulysses S. Grant drove Confederate forces
    out of Kentucky and Tennessee and heads for
    Mississippi
  • Almost trapped against the Tennessee River
  • Battle of Shiloh
  • April 1862
  • Saved by arrival of reinforcements
  • Henry Halleck takes control of Grants army
  • Indecisively disperses forces and attack on South
    loses all momentum

25
CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS
  • David Farraguts fleet captured New Orleans in
    April 1862
  • Largest city in the South
  • Closed down Mississippi River for duration of the
    war
  • Eventually helped to split Confederacy by cutting
    communication between western states of Arkansas,
    Louisiana, and Texas and eastern states

26
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  • War ultimately transformed conflict into a war
    against slavery
  • Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation in
    September 1862
  • Went into effect January 1, 1863
  • Did not actually eliminate slavery throughout
    entire U.S.
  • Border states and areas of South already under
    Union control were exempted
  • Not an entirely meaningless document
  • Meant that every future advance of Union army
    would free slaves
  • Also gave stronger incentive for slaves to help
    Union troops and to escape for Union lines

27
AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS
  • Racist sentiments in the North were strong and at
    first even free blacks were considered unfit for
    military service
  • But as more Confederate territory fell into Union
    hands and the Union grew more desperate for
    manpower, necessity dictated opening up the army
    to black soldiers
  • Emancipation Proclamation therefore announced
    black recruits would be welcome in the Union army

28
HUGE RESPONSE
  • By 1865, almost 100,000 blacks had served in the
    Union army
  • They were not treated particularly well
  • Segregated into black units led by white officers
  • Paid 33 less than white soldiers
  • Some commanders flatly refused to use black
    troops
  • Others assigned them only to non-combat roles
  • But whenever they were given the chance to fight,
    they proved to be just as brave as any other
    soldier

29
REAL COURAGE
  • It took particular courage for black soldiers to
    take the field
  • Because of the barbaric treatment they would
    inevitably receive in case of defeat
  • Confederates refused to exchange black prisoners
    of war
  • In many cases, they did not take black prisoners
    at all
  • Preferring to slaughter them on the spot

30
DRAMATIC SHIFT IN UNION MILITARY POLICY
  • April 1863
  • Became legitimate to forage for supplies and
    destroy everything the Union army found in the
    South
  • Vividly demonstrated by General William T.
    Shermans March Through Georgia
  • Cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide and 300
    miles long from Atlanta to the coast
  • Cut supply lines between Lower South and Lees
    army
  • Shattered enemys economic system and civilian
    morale
  • Age of total war began

31
1863
  • After his victory at Chancellorsville (May 1863),
    Lee invades Pennsylvania
  • Hoping to win great victory on northern soil and
    demoralize the North
  • Result was the Battle of Gettysburg (early July
    1863)

32
GETTYSBURG
  • At climax of three-day battle, 15,000 Rebel
    soldiers make a suicidal assault across an open
    field against massive Union troop and artillery
    concentrations
  • Picketts Charge
  • The few who survived this charge either
    surrendered or retreated
  • Union commander, George Meade, let remnants of
    Lees army withdraw instead of wiping them out
    when he had the chance
  • Confederates lost 25,000 men
  • South no longer had capacity to replace them
  • Lee would never again have the men to launch
    another offensive

33
1863 IN THE WEST
  • Grant captured Vicksburg (Mississippi) after
    brutal seven month campaign
  • July 4, 1863
  • Definitively cut off western Confederate states
    from the east
  • Grant then successfully repelled Confederate
    attack on Chattanooga, Tennessee
  • And then Sherman began his March Through
    Georgia
  • Further splitting the Confederacy

34
ULYSSES S. GRANT
  • Lincoln appoints Grant as general-in-chief of all
    Union forces and moves him east
  • Late 1863
  • Disliked by Easterners because he was not a
    gentleman
  • But he displayed a singleness of purpose and a
    will to win that none of his predecessors
    possessed
  • He was just what the North needed

35
GRANTS STRATEGY
  • Realized that the South had lost ability to
    replace lost men and supplies
  • Could be defeated by just hammering away at its
    two main armies
  • Sent Sherman to deal with Joseph Johnsons Army
    of Tennessee
  • Personally went after Lees Army of Northern
    Virginia

36
1864
  • Grant threw all he had in an assault on Lee in
    Virginia
  • Paid no attention to the body count
  • Bloody May (1864)
  • Grant and Lee fight a series of bitter
    engagements
  • Grant suffered 55,000 casualties and Lee suffers
    30,000
  • But Grant had replacements for his fallen men and
    Lee did not
  • Confederates therefore steadily fell back to the
    town of Petersburg
  • Where they were besieged by Grant

37
But most Americans did not like McClellan and
news of Farraguts capture of Mobile and
Shermans destruction of Atlanta weakened case of
those who wanted to pull out of war
Lincoln had faced opposition from Democrats who
wanted to pull out of war and radicals within his
own party who believed that Lincolns plan for the
defeated South was too soft
While siege of Petersburg went on for 9 months,
Lincoln was re-elected over Democrat George
McClellan
38
SOUTHERN PROBLEMS
  • South now in big trouble
  • Forced to draft 17 year old boys and 50 year old
    men
  • Even considered using slave troops
  • Union naval blockade had become effective
  • By 1865, only 50 of ships that tried to run it
    made it through
  • Running out of food
  • Economic strangulation of Confederacy destroyed
    troop and civilian morale

39
THE LAST CHAPTER
  • No grand climatic battle
  • Confederacy simply collapsed
  • In April 1865, Lees army was forced to evacuate
    Petersburg and its escape route was cut off
  • Had shrunk to only 25,000 men
  • Lee surrenders to Grant at Appamattox courthouse
    on April 9, 1865
  • Civil War over

40
FINAL SHOT
  • Lincoln shot in the back of the head by John
    Wilkes Booth
  • April 14, 1865
  • Booth pursued into Virginia and trapped and
    killed in burning barn
  • Nation now had to heal gaping wounds caused by
    Civil War without Lincoln
  • New president Andrew Johnson of Tennessee would
    now lead shattered nation into Reconstruction of
    the South
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