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Northern%20and%20Southern%20Europe

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Northern and Southern Europe Culture and Food Practices Ch. 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Northern%20and%20Southern%20Europe


1
Northern and Southern Europe
  • Culture and Food Practices
  • Ch. 6

2
Northern and Southern Europe
  • Majority of US has European heritage mixed with
    Native American foodstuffs
  • Many traditional American foods reflect heritage
    brought from Europe by early immigrants
  • American food today shows numerous influences
    from African, Asian, Indian, and Latin American
    influences

3
Northern and Southern Europe
  • English, Irish and Germans have a wide influence
    due to number of early immigrants and
    assimilation
  • Cultural patterns very similar to US
  • Northerners very reserved in social settings, but
    expect eye contact and handshake
  • Southerners more open to physical closeness
  • 3 meals per day plus tea or coffee break
  • Fork remains in left hand, knife in right

4
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5
British Isles
  • Common Foods
  • Roasted meats- beef and lamb
  • Fowl- duck and geese
  • Pub foods- fish and chips, Bubbles and squeak
    (leftover potatoes and cabbage no meat squeak)
  • Cabbage, potatoes and root vegetables adapted to
    northern climes
  • Irish soda bread

6
British Isles
  • Common beverages
  • Tea, High Tea
  • Irish Whiskey
  • Scotch Whiskey
  • Guiness Stout
  • Ale (pints)

7
British Isles
  • Cooking styles
  • Plain mainly roasted or broiled, lightly
    seasoned
  • Condiments include Worcestershire sauce, Chutneys
    (also from India), Mint Jelly for lamb
  • Pies usually savory, with meats and vegetables
  • Puddings can be savory with meats and vegetables
    also sometimes sweet custard-like
  • Trifle

8
British Holiday Foods
  • Christmas
  • Roast goose, duck, turkey or ham
  • Plum pudding and mince pie
  • Mulled wine, port, dried fruits, fruit cake, nuts
  • Easter
  • Hot cross buns (cross on top)
  • Shrewsbury Simnel- rich spice cake with 12 balls
    of marzipan representing astrological signs)



9
Scottish and Irish Holidays
  • Scottish eat Haggis on New Years Eve- sheeps
    stomach stuffed with innards, blood and oatmeal.
  • Served with Neeps (turnips), Tatties (mashed
    potatoes), and whiskey
  • St. Patricks Day in Ireland mainly of US origin,
    but now celebrated in Ireland as a tourist
    attraction
  • Corned Beef and Cabbage is traditional in US, and
    now more common in Ireland where beef was never
    common before

10
British Isles
  • Good food felt essential to maintaining health
  • Chicken soup
  • Tea with whiskey or lemon
  • Hot milk
  • Sulfur with molasses
  • Cod liver oil
  • Senna for constipation

11
France
  • Less influence in US, except for regions in
    Louisiana Territory (and Quebec, Canada)
  • More variety in food items, combinations and
    spices
  • Increase in quality of fresh foods and breads
  • Creole and Cajun cooking are US adaptations of
    French food

12
France
  • French food varies from Haute or Grande Cuisine
    (restaurants) to regional, provincial foods (e.g.
    bouillabaisse)- simpler in preparation
  • Continental breakfast (coffee and pastries) most
    common, followed by lunch and late dinner

13
France
  • French Paradox- lowest rates of heart disease in
    spite of high intake of fats may be related to
    intake of red wine and other high antioxidant
    foods, fresh foods, small portion size and
    infrequent snacks

14
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15
French Provinces
  • North
  • Normandy- Seafood, Belon oysters
  • Calvados (apple jack)
  • West
  • Brittany- Butter, Camembert cheese, crepes,
    Benedictine liquor (monks)
  • Touraine Loire- white wines, Brie
  • East
  • Champagne- Andouille sausage, pates, terrines,
    champagne
  • Alsace-Lorraine- on border of Germany- Pate de
    Fois Gras, Quiche Lorraine, Kirsch, Framboise

16
French Provinces
  • Ile de France- Paris- Classic French cuisine-
  • Lobster, Potage St. Germain (pea soup), filet de
    boeuf bearnaise (beef stew)
  • Burgundy- south of Paris- red wines, garlic and
    olive oil, like southern France Dijon mustard
    escargot coq au vin boeuf bourguignon

17
French Provinces
  • Bordeaux
  • Red and white wines
  • A la bordelaise preparation methods (in wine)
  • South
  • Cassoulet, white bean casserole with meat
  • Provence- a la Provencal means cooking with
    tomatoes, olive oil and garlic, similar to Italy
  • Ratatouille- tomatoes, eggplant and zucchini
  • Black Truffles

18
France
  • Carefully planned meal
  • Balances texture, color, flavor
  • Based on carefully prepared sauces that
    compliment, not overwhelm the food, but take
    several days to make
  • Espagnole-special brown sauce
  • Roux- flour and butter thickening agent
  • Veloute- white stock and roux
  • Bechamel- cream sauce (bearnaise- same with
    tarragon)
  • Hollandaise- eggs with cream
  • Mayonnaise and vinaigrette- cold

19
French
  • Rules
  • Never combine sweet and sour in one dish
  • Never serve sweet sauces on fish
  • Do not serve uncooked food, except salad and
    fruit
  • Never undercook or overcook food
  • Always use the freshest ingredients
  • Wine is an integral part of the meal and must
    always complement the foods

20
French Holidays
  • Christmas- main meal served after Mass on Dec.
    24th
  • Main dishes include black and white pudding
    (blood sausage or veal sausage with milk)
  • Goose or turkey with chestnuts
  • Shrove Tuesday (Mardi Gras)-
  • pancakes, fritters, waffles, biscuits and cakes
  • Lent
  • No eggs, fat or meat
  • Cod and herring common

21
French Holidays
  • Good Friday
  • Cod is the traditional dish
  • Lentils eaten to wash away sins
  • Easter
  • French Toast
  • Goose, roasted meat or stew, depends on region
  • Mince meat pie
  • Eggs, hard boiled and colored

22
France
  • Therapeutic Foods
  • For Colds- tea from magnolia leaves, elderberry
    flowers, sassafras or citronella
  • For sore throats- gargle with herbal tea or hot
    water with honey, salt and baking soda
  • For nausea- drink liquids from steeped flies or
    chicken gizzards
  • To cleanse the blood- sassafras tea
  • For worms- garlic

23
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24
Italy
  • Northern Italy
  • cooler climate, more dairy and meat
  • Pasta made with eggs in shape of flat ribbons
  • Pasta tubes also stuffed with meat and cheese
  • Use substantial amounts of dairy products,
    butter, cream sauces
  • Risotto and rice sometimes used
  • Seasonings include garlic, basil, parsley

25
Italy
  • Milan (North Central)
  • Risotta- creamy rice-like pasta dish, made with
    chicken stock, Parmesan cheese and saffron
  • Polenta- cornmeal mush/pudding, often served with
    cheese or sauce
  • Panettone- light fruit bread
  • Gorgonzola cheese- blue veined, sheeps milk
  • Vermouth- often used as an apertif

26
Italy
  • Florence (South of Milan)
  • Green spinach noodles with butter and Parmesan
  • alla Flrentina- any dish containing spinach
  • Chianti- full bodied red wine
  • Bologna (Btw. Milan and Florence)
  • Lasagne verdi al forno- pasta with meat ragu ,
    cream sauce and Parmesan (cows milk cheese)
  • Tortellini- stuffed pasta, traditional on
    Christmas Eve
  • Mortadella- pork sausage like US bologna
  • Prosciutto- tinly sliced ham

27
Italy
  • Genoa (Northwest coast)
  • Burrida- fish stew with octopus and squid
  • Pesto- green basil sauce with olive oil and pinon
    nuts, served over pasta with Parmesan
  • Venice (Northeast coast)
  • Scampi- shrimp seasoned with garlic, parsley,
    lemon juice
  • Verona- Soave, a light white wine
  • Turin (Northwest)
  • Frissini- slender bread sticks
  • Bagna cauda- raw vegetable dip with anchovies,
    garlic, olive oil

28
Italy
  • Rome (Central Italy)
  • Alfredo- flat egg noodles with butter, cream and
    Parmesan
  • Saltimbocca- thinly sliced veal, wrapped in ham,
    and cooked in butter
  • Gnocci (dumplings)- made of harder, granular
    Durham wheat or potato flour baked in oven
  • Pecorino Romano- hard, sheeps milk cheese
    similar to Parmesan, but sharper

29
Italy
  • Naples (South of Rome)
  • Pasta e fagiole- with beans, garlic, olive oil
  • Calzone- pizza dough stuffed with meat, cheese
    and/or vegetables
  • Mozzarella cheese- elastic, white cheese
  • Provolone- firm, smoked cheese
  • Ricotta- soft, white, unsalted cheese from
    sheeps milk used in lasagna

30
Italy
  • Southern Italy
  • Agriculturally poorer
  • Pasta made without eggs, e.g. spaghetti, macaroni
  • Usually served with tomato sauce, less meat
  • Uses olive oil, beans, more vegetables, e.g.
    artichokes, eggplant, bell peppers, tomatoes
  • Seasonings include garlic, basil, parsley

31
Italy
  • Sicily and Other Southern Regions
  • Lamb and kid (young goat) like Greece
  • Tuna, sardines, and fresh fish
  • Baccalo- salt cod
  • Couscous- steamed semolina
  • Desserts- stuffed cannoli, cassata cake, gelato,
    Spumoni
  • Marsala- sweet dessert wine

32
Italy
  • Many local holidays for patron saints of each
    city or region different days
  • Christmas
  • 7 seafood dishes on Eve
  • Special desserts- Panettone, Amaretti (almond
    macaroons, Torrone (nougats)
  • Easter
  • Braided bread cooked with red, hard boiled egg
  • Special dessert- Cassatta, many layered cake

33
Portugal
  • Cuisine varies from North to South
  • Hearty soups, stews to refined, lighter entrees
  • Madieras, Azores and Cape Verde Islands
  • tropical fruits such as guavas, mangoes,
    papayas, avocados in dishes
  • Corn, bananas, yams, pineapples passion fruit
    common

34
Portugal
  • Beef common
  • Seafood crab, lobsters, limpets consumed
  • Little or no fat used
  • Mildly spiced onions, garlic, salt and pepper
  • Wines Port (North) and Madeira (Islands)

35
Spain
  • 4 meals plus snacks
  • Light breakfast 8.00am coffee/chocolate bread,
    churros
  • Mid-morning breakfast 10.00am grilled sausages,
    bread
  • Light snack/Tapas 12.30-1.00pm
  • Lunch (comida)2.00pm soup/salad, fish/meat,
    dessert, fruit and cheese

36
Spain
  • Snack (merienda) 5.00-6.00pm Tea and pastries
  • Tapas 8.00-9.00pm
  • Supper Light 10.00-12.00am

37
Etiquette
  • Etiquette Italy, Spain and Portugal
  • Knife right hand and fork left hand
  • Bread not served with butter and placed in the
    main plate, used to soak extra sauce daintily,
    never mop up the plate
  • Never slurp on pasta
  • Never begin a meal until host says bueno appetito
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