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Title: Welcome to


1
WelcometoHazardous Materials Awareness
NFPA Objective 2-1
2
Acknowledgments
  • The preparation of this course was made possible
    through the assistance, cooperation, and
    dedication of many people. The Washington State
    Patrol / Fire Services Bureau. Washington State
    Association of Fire Chiefs and Washington State
    Association of Fire Chiefs Hazardous Materials
    Division to thank all of the following persons
    and organizations for their roles in the
    development of this course

3
Acknowledgments
  • 1998 Revisions
  • Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs,
    Hazardous Materials Division
  • Sgt. Roy Glass, Washington State Patrol
  • Edward B. Lawson, MAFB Fire Dept.
  • Edward Bonollo, Union Gap Fire Dept.
  • Phil Philbin, Auburn Fire Dept.
  • Dave Sauerbrey, Vancouver Fire Dept

4
Scope
  • This course is designed to provide the student
    with the basic skills necessary to safely and
    effectively manage the initial activities of an
    emergency involving the uncontrolled release of
    dangerous chemicals

5
Scope
  • This class focuses on those individuals in local
    jurisdictions who are most likely to witness or
    discover a hazardous substance release, and who
    are expected by their employer to initiate an
    emergency response sequence by notifying the
    proper authorities of the release, taking no
    further action

6
Scope
  • This class is best suited for
  • Emergency prehospital care personnel
  • Emergency telecommunications officers
  • Firefighters
  • Law enforcement officers
  • Private industry workers
  • Public works personnel

7
Course Goal
  • The goal of this training shall be to provide
    first responders with the knowledge and skills
    necessary to safely respond to and assess the
    hazards involved in a chemical emergency and to
    make necessary notifications

8
Course Goal
  • Successful completion of this training should
    provide the student with the necessary skills to
    objectively demonstrate competency in the
    following areas

9
Competencies
  • An understanding of the potential outcomes
    associated with an emergency created when
    hazardous materials are present
  • The ability to recognize the presence of
    hazardous materials in an emergency
  • The ability to identify the hazardous materials,
    if possible

10
Competencies
  • An understanding of the role of the first
    responder awareness individual in the employers
    emergency response plan including site security
    and control and the North American Emergency
    Response Guidebook
  • The ability to realize the need for additional
    resources, and to make appropriate notifications
    to the communications center

11
Course Introduction
  • Welcome
  • Your Instructor(s) are..
  • Name, title, background experience
  • And you are..
  • Name, title, background experience
  • Expectations

12
Course Introduction
  • Class Logistics
  • Start Finish times
  • Class fees
  • Length of class periods breaks
  • Tests
  • Accreditation certification
  • Class critiques
  • Rest rooms
  • Meals

13
Safety Keypoints
  • Always consider the possibility of multiple
    hazard categories in each hazard class.
  • Approach all hazardous materials incidents from
    upwind, upgrade, and upstream, positioning
    vehicles and apparatus headed away from the
    incident scene.

14
Safety Keypoints
  • In a hazardous materials incident you may have to
    delay attending to the injured in order to save
    the lives of many others
  • First operational priority Isolate the hazard
    area and deny entry

15
Safety Keypoints
  • Only those emergency personnel in the proper
    level of compatible protective clothing and
    positive pressure self-contained breathing
    apparatus who are actively performing emergency
    operations are to operate within the inner
    perimeter

16
Safety Keypoints
  • Minimum safety perimeter for citizens 1,000
    feet beyond the inner perimeter boundaries in
    open areas
  • To avoid inhalation hazards, self-contained
    positive pressure breathing apparatus must be
    properly worn, used, and maintained

17
Safety Keypoints
  • Never eat, smoke, or drink at or around hazardous
    materials incident scenes until you decontaminate
    and wash your hands, face, and hair thoroughly
  • Consult protective clothing compatibility data to
    ensure available protective clothing is
    compatible with the hazardous materials involved
    in the incident

18
Safety Keypoints
  • Think SAFETY with every breath you take

19
RESPONSIBILITIES
  • First Responders at the Awareness Level are
    expected to
  • Recognize the presence of hazardous materials
  • Protect themselves
  • Call for trained personnel
  • Secure the area

NFPA Objective 2-1.2
20
Course Goal
  • The goal of this training at the Awareness Level
    is to provide first responders with the knowledge
    and skills necessary to perform the following
    tasks safely

NFPA Objective 2-1.3
21
GoalsImplement Actions
  • Consistent with local emergency response plans,
    the organizations standard operating procedures,
    and the current edition of the North American
    Emergency Response Guidebook by completing the
    following tasks

NFPA Objective 2-1.3
22
GoalsImplement Actions
  • Initiate protective actions consistent with local
    emergency response plans, the organizations
    standard operating procedures, and the NAERG.
  • Initiate the notification process

NFPA Objective 2-1.3
23
First Responder Awareness
  • Awareness Overview

24
Hazardous Materials
  • Any substance that poses an unreasonable risk to
    life, the environment, or property when not
    properly contained.

25
Identifying the Problem
  • Increasing number of incidents.
  • Increased hazardous materials legislation in
    response to public concern.
  • Resolution responsibility of many agencies.
  • Previous emergency response training stresses
    taking immediate action.

26
Basic Safety Guidelines
  • Proper safety precautions must be taken to
    reduce risks as much as possible.
  • Reduce risk through training
  • Responders must be aware of multiple hazards
  • Dont rush in!!!
  • Positive attitude toward safety is an important
    part of your protective equipment

27
NAERG Safety Guidelines
  • When approaching a hazardous materials incident
  • Approach cautiously
  • Secure the scene
  • Identify the hazards
  • Assess the situation
  • Obtain help
  • Decide on site entry

28
Purpose of Intervention
  • To favorably change the sequence of natural
    events in order to minimize the harm to the
    public, the environment, property and equipment
    that would occur by natural stabilization.

29
Risk/Benefit Analysis
  • The benefit (reducing naturally occurring harm)
    should exceed the risk (harm attributed to
    intervention).

30
Risk/Benefit Analysis
  • Low
  • Protecting environment, property or equipment.
  • Moderate
  • Attempt rescue of person(s) with low probability
    of survival.
  • High
  • Attempt rescue of person(s) with high probability
    of survival.

31
Decision Algorithm
32
Legislative Mandates for Training
29 CFR 1910.120 Code of Federal Regulations
WAC 296-62-300 Washington Administrative Rule
"Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response"
33
OSHA Response Levels
  • First Responder (Awareness level)
  • First Responder (Operations level)
  • Hazardous Materials Technician
  • Hazardous Materials Specialist
  • On-Scene Incident Commander

34
First Responder Awareness
  • Witness or discover a release.
  • Trained to initiate an emergency response
    sequence by notifying the proper authorities of
    the release.
  • Take no further action beyond notifying the
    proper authorities of the release.

35
First Responder Operations
  • Respond to releases as part of initial response
    to the site.
  • Protect nearby persons, property or the
    environment from the effects of the release.
  • Trained to respond in a defensive fashion without
    actually trying to stop the release.
  • Function is to contain the release from a safe
    distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent
    exposures.

36
Hazardous Materials Technician
  • Respond to releases for the purpose of stopping
    the release.
  • Trained to respond in an offensive fashion to
    actually try to stop the release.
  • Approach the point of the release in order to
    plug, patch, or otherwise stop the release.

37
Hazardous Materials Specialist
  • Respond with and provide support to hazardous
    material technicians.
  • Their duties require a more directed or specific
    knowledge of the various substances they may be
    called upon to contain.
  • Act as site liaison with Federal, state, local
    and other government authorities in regards to
    site activities.

38
On Scene Incident Commander
  • Individuals who will assume control of the
    incident scene beyond the first responder
    Awareness level.
  • This level requires at least Operations-level
    training, as well as training specific to a
    hazardous materials incident commander as
    outlined in the federal regulation.

39
NFPA 472, 1997 Edition
  • Standard for Professional Competence of
    Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents
  • Consensus standards
  • Based on input from the fire service, private
    industry, manufacturers and governmental agencies
  • Voluntary compliance
  • Unless adopted at the state of local level
  • Standard of care issues

40
NFPA 472, 1997 Edition
  • Competence required of responders to hazardous
    materials incidents.
  • First Responder Awareness
  • First Responder Operations
  • Hazardous Materials Technician
  • Hazardous Materials Specialist
  • On-Scene Incident Commander

41
NFPA 472, 1997 Edition
  • Private Sector Employees
  • Hazardous Materials Branch Officer
  • Hazardous Materials Branch Safety Officer
  • Technician with a Tank Car Specialty
  • Technician with a Cargo Tank Specialty
  • Technician with an Intermodal Tank Specialty

42
NFPA 473, 1997 Edition
  • Applies to all organizations that have EMS
    responsibilities when responding to hazardous
    materials incidents.
  • Level 1 HazMat/EMS
  • Level 2 HazMat/EMS

43
Emergency Response Planning
  • Pre-emergency planning coordination with
    outside parties
  • Personnel roles, lines of authority, training
    communication
  • Emergency recognition prevention
  • Safe distances places of refuge
  • Site security control
  • Evacuation routes procedures
  • Decontamination
  • Emergency medical treatment first aid
  • Emergency alerting response procedures
  • Critique of response follow-up
  • Personal protective clothing emergency
    equipment

44
Emergency Response Planning
  • Local agencies may use the local emergency
    response plan, such as a city or county plan, in
    lieu of having their own individual agency plan,
    as long as it contains all of the federally
    required plan elements.

45
Standard Operating Procedures
  • Local agencies that choose to use the local
    emergency response plan instead of developing
    their own individual agency plan should, as a
    minimum, develop the federally mandated plan
    elements into standard operating procedures.

46
Analyzing the IncidentModule I
  • Given various facility and/or transportation
    scenarios, with and without hazardous materials
    present, identify those scenarios where hazardous
    materials are present.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1
47
Goals Analyze The Incident
  • To determine both the hazardous materials present
    and the basic response information by completing
    the following tasks
  • Detect the presence of hazardous materials

48
Goals Analyze The Incident
  • Survey a hazardous materials incident, from a
    safe location, to identify the name, UN/NA
    identification number, or the type of placard
    applied
  • Collect hazard information from the current
    edition of the North American Emergency Response
    Guidebook (NAERG)

49
Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods in Canada)
  • Definition Any substance that poses an
    unreasonable risk to the health and safety of
    persons and/or the environment if it is not
    properly controlled during handling, storage,
    manufacturing, processing, packaging, use,
    disposal, or transportation.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
50
Hazardous Material
  • Definition United States Department of
    Transportation (DOT) term that covers all hazard
    classes and divisions.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
51
Hazardous Substance
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals that, if
    released into the environment above a certain
    amount, must be reported, and depending on the
    threat to the environment, federal involvement
    handling the incident can be authorized.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
52
Extremely Hazardous Substances
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals that must be
    reported to the appropriate authorities if
    released above the threshold reporting quantity.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
53
Toxic Chemicals
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals whose total
    emissions or release must be reported annually by
    owners and operators of certain facilities that
    manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed
    toxic chemical.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
54
Hazardous Wastes
  • Definition EPA term for chemicals that are
    regulated under the Resource, Conservation, and
    Recovery Act.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
55
Hazardous Chemicals
  • Definition OSHA term that denotes any chemical
    that would be a risk to employees if exposed in
    the work place.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
56
Dangerous Goods
  • Definition In Canadian transportation,
    hazardous materials are called dangerous goods.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
57
Identification Methods
  • DOT Hazard Classes and Divisions with examples,
    primary hazards of each class, and their
    associated placards and labels.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
58
Hazard Classes and Divisions
  • DOT has classified hazardous materials according
    to their primary hazard and assigned standardized
    symbols to identify the classes.
  • NOTE Materials are grouped by their major
    hazardous characteristic and many will have other
    hazards as well.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
59
Class 1 (Explosives)
  • Major Hazard Explosion
  • Any substance or article, including a device,
    that is designed to function by explosion
    (i.e...... an extremely rapid release of gas and
    heat) or that, by chemical reaction with itself,
    is able to function by explosion.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
60
Divisions
  • DOT has divided Class 1 hazards into 6 divisions.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
61
Class 1.1
  • Mass explosion that affects almost the entire
    load
  • Black powder
  • Dynamite
  • T-N-T
  • Blasting caps
  • Nitroglycerin

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
62
Class 1.2
  • Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
  • Aerial flares
  • Detonation cord
  • Power device cartridges

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
63
Class 1.3
  • Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor
    projection hazard
  • Liquid-fueled rocket motors
  • Propellant explosives

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
64
Class 1.4
  • Presents a minor explosion hazard
  • Practice ammunition
  • Signal cartridges

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
65
Class 1.5
  • Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion
    hazard
  • Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer
  • Blasting agents

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
66
Class 1.6
  • Extremely insensitive explosives
  • Does not have a mass explosion hazard.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
67
Class 2 Compressed Gases
  • Major Hazard BLEVE
  • Sub Hazards
  • Flammable
  • Oxidizer
  • Poisonous
  • Corrosive
  • Divided into 3 divisions

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
68
Class 2.1 Flammable Gases
  • A material that is a gas at 68 degrees F or less
    at 14.7 psi or has a boiling point of 68 degrees
    or less at 14.7 psi.
  • Ignitable at 14.7 psi in a mixture of 13 or
    less by volume
  • Has a flammable range of at least 12 regardless
    of the lower limit.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
69
Placard (Flammable)
  • Red background
  • White frame

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
70
Class 2.2 Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Gases
  • Any material or mixture that exerts an absolute
    pressure of 41 psia at 68 degrees F.
  • Compressed gases, including liquefied gas,
    pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in
    solution.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
71
Placard (Non-Flammable)
  • Green background
  • White cylinder

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
72
Placard (Oxygen)
  • Yellow background
  • Flaming O

OXYGEN
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
73
Class 2.3 Poisonous Gas
  • Vaporize easily and very dangerous to life, even
    in small amounts.
  • Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a
    hazard to health during transportation.
  • Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory
    testing.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
74
LC-50 (Lethal Concentration, 50)
  • Concentration of a material, expressed as parts
    per million which kills half of the lab animals
    in a given length of time.
  • Significant in determining the toxicity of a
    material the lower the value, the more toxic the
    substance.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
75
Examples of Class 2.3 Gases
  • Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride
  • Arsine
  • Chlorine
  • Methyl bromide
  • Cyanide gas
  • Hydrocyanic acid
  • Diphosgene
  • 2.4 Gases (Canadian)

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
76
Placards (Poison Gas)
  • White background
  • Skull crossbones

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
77
Class 3 Flammable Liquids
  • Major Hazard Burns readily
  • Flammable and combustible liquids

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
78
Flammable Liquids
  • Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more
    than 141 degrees F.
  • Three divisions
  • 3.1 - FP lt 0 degrees F
  • 3.2 - FP 0 to lt 73 degrees F
  • 3.3 - FP 73 to lt 141 degrees F

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
79
Combustible Liquid
  • Any liquid that does not meet the definition of
    any other hazard class and has a flash point
    above 141 degrees F and below 200 degrees F.
  • NOTE A flammable liquid with a flash point at
    or above 100 degrees that does not meet the
    definition of any other hazard class except 9,
    may be reclassified as combustible.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
80
Class 3 Placards
  • Flammable
  • Red background, white flame with the word
    FLAMMABLE
  • Flame pictograph

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
81
Class 3 Placards
  • Combustible
  • Red background, white flame with the word
    COMBUSTIBLE
  • UN class number

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
82
Class 4 (Flammable Solids)
  • Major Hazard Rapid combustion with a liberation
    of mass quantities of smoke (toxic).
  • Divided into 3 divisions

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
83
4.1 Flammable Solids
  • Three types
  • Wetted explosives
  • Self-reactive materials
  • Readily combustible solids

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
84
Wetted Explosives
  • Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol,
    or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
85
Self Reactive Materials
  • Materials that are liable to undergo, at normal
    or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermic
    decomposition.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
86
Readily Combustible Solids
  • Solids that may cause a fire through friction and
    metal powders that can be ignited.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
87
4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials
  • Self-heating material - a material that, when in
    contact with air and without an energy supply, is
    liable to self-heat.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
88
Pyrophoric Materials
  • A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities
    and without an external ignition source, can
    ignite within 5 minutes after coming in contact
    with air.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
89
Dangerous When Wet Materials
  • Material that, by contact with water is liable to
    become spontaneously flammable or to give off
    flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than
    1 l/kg.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
90
Class 5 (Oxidizers)
  • 2 Divisions
  • Major Hazard 5.1 Supports combustion and
    intensifies fire.
  • Major Hazard 5.2 Unstable/reactive explosives

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
91
OXIDIZER
5.1 Oxidizers
  • Materials that may, generally by yielding oxygen,
    cause or enhance the combustion of other
    materials.

5.1
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
92
5.2 Organic Peroxides
  • Any organic compound containing oxygen in the
    bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a
    derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or
    more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by
    organic radicals.
  • Organic peroxides have been further broken down
    into types a-g (worst to least hazardous).

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
93
Placard Organic Peroxides
  • Yellow background
  • Flaming O with words Organic Peroxide

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
94
Class 6 Poisons
  • Major Hazard Toxicity, Infectious
  • 2 Divisions
  • NOTE Poisonous gases are Class 2 Division 3

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
95
6.1 Poisonous Materials
  • A material, other than a gas, that is either
    known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a
    hazard to health during transportation, or in the
    absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is
    presumed to be toxic to humans, including
    irritating materials that cause irritation.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
96
6.1 Placard
  • White background
  • Skull and crossbones

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
97
6.2 Infectious Substances
  • A viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes
    disease in humans or animals.
  • Infectious substance and etiologic agents are the
    same.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
98
Class 6 Poisons
  • Class 6 materials are divided into 3 packaging
    groups (PG).
  • PG I or II, other than PG I inhalation hazard
  • PG III

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
99
Class 7 Radioactive
  • Major Hazard Radioactive poisonous burns
  • Definition Materials having a specific activity
    greater than 0.002 microcurie per gram.

RADIOACTIVE
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
100
Class 8 Corrosives
  • Major Hazard burns/emulsification skin damage.
  • Definition - A liquid or solid that causes
    visible or irreversible alterations in human skin
    tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that
    has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
101
Class 8 Placard
  • White top
  • Black bottom
  • Test tubes
  • Hand and steel bar

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
102
Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
  • A material that presents a hazard during
    transport, but that is not included in another
    hazard class

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
103
Class 9
  • Division 9.1 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
    (Canada)
  • Division 9.2 - Environmentally Hazardous
    Substances (Canada)
  • Division 9.3 - Dangerous Wastes (Canada)

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
104
Other Regulated Materials (ORM-D)
  • A material that presents a limited hazard during
    transportation due to its
  • Form
  • Quantity
  • Packaging
  • No placard

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
105
Forbidden Materials
  • Materials prohibited from being offered or
    accepted for transportation. Does not apply if
    the materials are diluted, stabilized, or
    incorporated in devices. There is no placard for
    these items since they aren't transported.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
106
System Limitations
  • Dangerous placard
  • 2,205 lbs or 1,000 kg. limitation
  • Visibility
  • Unclassified materials and exemptions

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
107
Table 1 Hazard Classes Placards
  • 1.1 Explosives 1.1
  • 1.2 Explosive 1.2
  • 1.3 Explosives 1.3
  • 2.3 Poison Gas
  • 4.3 Dangerous When Wet
  • 5.2 (Organic Peroxide Organic Peroxide
  • Type B, Liquid or solid,
  • temperature controlled)
  • 6.1 (PG inhalation hazard, Poison Inhalation
    Hazard
  • Zone A B)
  • 7.0 (Radioactive, Yellow Label III) Radioactive 1

108
Table 2 Hazard Classes Placards
  • 1.4 Explosives 1.4
  • 1.5 Explosives 1.5
  • 1.6 Explosives 1.6
  • 2.1 Flammable Gas
  • 2.2 Non-Flammable Gas
  • 3.0 (flammable Liquid) Flammable Liquid
  • 3.0 (combustible liquid) Combustible Liquid
  • 4.1 Flammable Solid
  • 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible
  • 5.1 Oxidizer

109
Table 2 Hazard Classes Placards
  • 5.2 (other than organic peroxide, Type B) Organic
    Peroxide
  • 6.1 (PG I II, other than, Poison
  • PG I inhalation hazard)
  • 6.1 (PG III) Keep Away From Food
  • 6.2 (None)
  • 8.0 Corrosive
  • 9.0 Class 9
  • ORM-D (None)

110
Hazardous Materials Incidents Versus Other
Emergencies
  • Potential for doing great harm since effects are
  • far reaching and severe.
  • Responders must be specially trained and
    equipped.
  • Often have long term effects to the environment,
    people, and property.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.4
111
Typical Locations Occupancies Containing
Hazardous Materials
  • Warehouses
  • Tank farms
  • Weapons depots
  • Hospitals
  • Laboratories
  • Truck terminals
  • Flight line areas
  • Maintenance facilities

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
112
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Area
Front of Pool Supply Store
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
113
Pre-Incident Planning
  • People developing pre-incident plans shouldseek
    assistance from facility managers in identifying
    hazardous materialslocations and recordthem on
    the plan ina way that will be usefulto the
    first arriving responders.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
114
Remember!!!!!
  • Hazardous materials that are manufactured,
    stored, processed, or used at a particular site
    are NOT subject to regulations affecting
    transported materials.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
115
Typical Container Shapes That May Indicate
Hazardous Materials
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
116
Radioactive Container Shapes
  • Protective overpacks
  • Cylindrical configuration
  • Boxlike configuration
  • Casks
  • Rigid metal packaging
  • Reinforcing rings and cooling fins

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
117
Radioactive Container Shapes
FiberboardWooden Boxes
Steel Drums
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
118
Radioactive Cask
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
119
Pressurized Container Shapes
  • Cylinders
  • MC-331 tank trailer
  • Pressure tank car
  • Tube trailers, tube modules, high pressure tube
    cars

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
120
Pressurized Containers
Compressed Gas Cylinders
Aerosol Cans
Tube Module
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
121
MC 331
Bolted Manway
Large Hemishpere Ends
Cage Around Piping
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
122
Pressure Tank Car
Expansion DomeNo visible Fittings
4,000 - 45,000 gallons
100 to 600 psi
Flammable/Nonflammable Gases
Poison Gases
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
123
High Pressure Tube Trailer
Permanently Attached Horizontal Cylinders
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
124
Cryogenic Containers
  • Tank-within-a-tank or Thermos bottle design
  • Absence of top fittings on most containers
  • MC - 338
  • Cryogenic tank car

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
125
MC 338
Ends Normally Flat
Loading Sometimes Located Here
Loading/Unloading Station at Rear
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
126
Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car
Low Pressure Liquids (25 psig or lower)
Refrigerated to -155 degrees and below
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
127
Corrosive Containers
  • Carboys
  • Glass or plastic bottles
  • Encased in a protective box
  • MC - 312
  • Long thin tank with stiffener rings
  • Working platform on top

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
128
Corrosive Containers
Carboy in Wooden Box
  • Carboy in Polystyrene

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
129
MC 312
Small DiameterCigar Shape
Rounded Ends
Exterior Stiffner Rings
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
130
Flammable Liquid Containers
  • Drums
  • Jerricans
  • MC - 306
  • Non-pressure tank car

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
131
Flammable Liquid Containers
Jerricans
Wooden Barrel
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
132
MC 306
Oval Cross Section
Longitudinal Rollover Protection
Valving and Unloading Controls Under Tank
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
133
Non-Pressure Tank Car
Also called General Serviceor Low Pressure
Older cars have expansion domes
No Expansion DomeVisible Fittings
4,000 - 45,000 gallons
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
134
Dry Bulk Containers
  • Pneumatic hopper trailer
  • V shaped bottom
  • Rounded sides and sloping ends
  • Pneumatically unloaded hopper car
  • V shaped bottom
  • Flat or rounded sides

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
135
Dry Bulk Carriers
Compressor Unit
Large Sloping V Shaped Bottom
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
136
Facility Transportation Markings ColorsMay
Indicate Hazardous Materials
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
137
UN/NA ID Numbers
  • UN Class numbers (bottom of placard)
  • Hazard class or ID numberon placard or orange
    panel
  • Symbols and colors
  • Name of material

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
138
Military Hazardous Materials Marking System
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
139
Class 1, Division 1
  • Materials that present a mass denotation hazard

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
140
Class 1, Division 2
  • Presents an explosion with fragmentation hazard

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
141
Class 1, Division 3
  • Materials with amass fire hazard

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
142
Class 1, Division 4
  • Materials that present a moderate fire hazard

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
143
Special Warnings
  • Chemical hazards

Highly Toxic
Harassing Agents
White Phosphorus Munitions
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
144
Special Warnings
Wear Protective Breathing Apparatus
  • Apply No Water

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
145
Special HazardCommunication Markings
  • Hazardous Materials Information System
  • PCB Labels

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
146
Pipeline Markers
  • Pipeline markers areusually metal signs placed
    adjacent to a hazardous materials pipeline
    right of way.

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
147
Pipeline Markers
  • Ownership of Line
  • Name of carrier
  • Phone number
  • Signal Word
  • Caution
  • Warning
  • Danger
  • Transported Commodity

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
148
NFPA 704 Markings
  • Suggested method for identifying hazardous
    materials
  • Scale of 0-4 (4 being the worst hazard)
  • Used only for facilities when mandated by local
    ordinances

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
149
NFPA 704 Colors and Their Meanings
  • 1. Blue Health
  • 2. Red Flammability
  • 3. Yellow Reactivity
  • 4. White Special

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
150
HEALTH
4
- Too Dangerous to Enter -- Vapor or Liquid -
Extremely Dangerous -- Use Full Protective
Clothing - Hazardous -- Use Breathing
Apparatus - Slightly Hazardous - Like
Ordinary Material
3
3
2
1
0
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
151
FLAMMABILITY
4
- Extremely Flammable - Ignites at Normal
Temperatures - Ignites When Moderately
Heated - Must Be Preheated to Burn - Will Not
Burn
2
3
2
1
0
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
152
- May Detonate -- Evacuate Area if Materials
are Exposed to Fire - Strong Shock or Heat May
Detonate -- Use Monitors From Behind Explosion
Resistant Barriers - Violent Chemical Change
Possible -- Use Hose Streams From Distance -
Unstable if Heated-- Use Normal Precautions -
Normally Stable
4
REACTIVITY
3
1
2
1
0
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
153
SPECIAL INFORMATION
W
- Avoid Use of Water - Oxidizer - Used by some
to Indicate Alkaline Materials - Used by Some
to Indicate Acidic Materials
OX
W
ALK
ACID
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
154
Location of NFPA 704 Markers
4
2
3
W
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7.8
155
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Why they are necessary
  • Federal Law
  • Right to know
  • Mandatory local communication on hazard
  • OSHA requirements
  • Central location
  • With facility manager/employer

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10.1
156
MSDS (Basic Information)
  • Manufactures name and location
  • Name and family of chemical
  • Hazardous ingredients
  • Physical data
  • Fire and explosion data

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
157
MSDS (Basic Information)
  • Health Hazard Data
  • Spill or Leak Procedures
  • Special Protection Information
  • Special Precautions

158
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • MSDS Entries
  • General Information
  • Hazardous ingredients statement
  • Physical data
  • Fire and explosion data
  • Spill and leak control procedures

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
159
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Special Protection Information
  • Special Precautions (Other as necessary)
  • Health and Reactivity Hazard Data
  • Including Toxicology Information
  • Signs and Symptoms of Exposure
  • Emergency Care
  • Chemical Incompatibilities and its decomposition
    products!

160
  • MSDS Sample Information

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
161
Shipping Papers
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
162
Shipping Paper Entries
  • Proper shipping name
  • Hazard class or division
  • Product Identification Number

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
163
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.9.3
164
Titles of Shipping Papers
  • Highway - Bill of lading/freight bill
  • Rail - Waybill and consist
  • Water - Dangerous cargo manifest
  • Air - Air bill with shippers certification
    for restricted articles

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10.4
165
Location of Shipping Papers, Responsible Person
  • Highway - cab of vehicle - Driver
  • Rail- Engine or caboose - with conductor or
    engineer
  • Water - Wheelhouse or pipelike container on a
    barge - Captain or master
  • Air - Cockpit/flightdeck or attached to package
    - pilot

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.9.5
NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10.4
166
Identification Clues
  • Examples of clues (other than occupancy/
    location, container shape, markings/colors,
    placards/labels, MSDS, and shipping papers) that
    use the senses of sight, sound and odor to
    indicate hazardous materials.

NFPA Objective 2-1.11
167
Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials
  • Odor
  • Sight
  • Sound
  • Informal Methods

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.11
168
Limitations of Using Senses
  • Odor
  • Sight
  • Sound
  • Risk of Injury

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.12
169
Targets for Criminal or Terrorist Activity
  • Places of public assembly
  • Public buildings
  • Mass transit system
  • Places of high economic impact
  • Telecommunications activities
  • Places of historical or symbolic significance

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.13
170
Indications of Terrorist or Criminal Activity
  • Equipment that is not relevant to a location
  • Intentional releases of hazardous materials
  • Unexplained illness or death
  • Unusual odors or tastes
  • Irritations
  • Unusual security measures

NFPA Objective 2-2.1.14
171
Given Examples
  • Facility and transportation situations involving
    hazardous materials, the first responder at the
    awareness level shall identify the hazardous
    material(s) in each situation by name, UN/NA
    identification number, or type placard applied.

NFPA Objective 2-2.2.1
172
Difficulties in Determining Specific Names
  • Facilities
  • Labels or placards missing
  • Label or placard shows no product identifier
  • Mixed loads
  • Error in placarding or labeling
  • Shipping papers are not accessible
  • Facility Manager or MSDSs not available

NFPA Objective 2-2.2.1
173
Names Sources for ID or Placards
  • North American Emergency Response Guidebook
  • Shipping Papers

NFPA Objective 2-2.2.2
174
Sources in Facilities
  • MSDS
  • Markings on containers
  • Emergency planning documents

NFPA Objective 2-2.2.3
175
Implementing The Planned ResponseModule II
176
  • Identify the basic precautions to be taken by the
    awareness level responder to protect themselves
    and others in a hazardous materials incident. IAW
    the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) or SOPs.

177
Basic Precautions
  • Isolate the hazard area
  • Evacuate those in danger
  • Deny entry
  • If evacuation is not possible
  • Provide in-place protection
  • Keep away from doors and windows

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3
178
Basic Precautions
  • Basic precautions to be taken by the awareness
    level responder are to protect themselves and
    others in a hazardous materials incident IAW the
    Local Emergency Response Plan or SOPs.

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4
179
Providing Medical Care
  • Precautions necessary when providing emergency
    medical care to victims of hazardous materials.
  • Victim may be contaminated
  • No PPE
  • Understanding your limitations will prevent you
    from becoming a victim.

NFPA Objective 2-4.3.1
180
Typical Ignition Sources
  • Heated sources
  • Frictional heat
  • Radiant heat
  • Smoking materials
  • Lighting open flames
  • Spontaneous ignition
  • Static Electricity
  • Chemical Reactions

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3.2
181
Ways Hazardous Materials are Harmful
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical
  • Poisonous
  • Corrosive
  • Asphyxiation
  • Radiation

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3.3
182
General Routes of Entry
  • Contact
  • Absorption
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3.3
183
Routes of Entryfor Human Exposure
  • Contact
  • Absorption

Ingestion
NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3.4
184
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185
Objective
  • Given the name, UN/NA identification number or
    type placard, a current copy of the North
    American Emergency Response Guidebook a local
    response plan and standard operating procedures,
    and a facility or transportation scenario
    including hazardous materials, collect hazard
    information, initiate protective actions, and the
    notification process.

186
Yellow PagesID Number
Orange PagesGuide Numbers
Green PagesInitial Isolation
Blue PagesChemical Name
NFPA Objective 2-2.3.1
187
Determine The Appropriate Guidebook Page
  • Four digit ID (yellow pages)
  • Spelling of the product (blue pages)
  • Placards (table of placards)
  • Dealing with an unknown
  • Use Guide 111

NFPA Objective 2-2.3.1
188
General Types of Hazards
  • Found on Each Guide Page
  • Fire and Explosion
  • Health hazard
  • P polymerization hazard

NFPA Objective 2-2.3.2
189
Response Information
  • Emergency actions from numbered guide pages
  • Protective clothing
  • Initial isolation and protective action distances

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4
190
Protective Clothing
  • Recommended clothing in the North American
    Emergency Response Guidebook
  • Street clothing
  • Structural fire fighter protective clothing
  • Positive pressure SCBA
  • Chemical-protective clothing

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.1
191
Protective Actions
  • North American Emergency Response Guidebook
    definitions
  • Isolate hazard area and deny entry
  • Evacuate the area
  • Sheltering in-place

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.2
192
Initial Isolation Zone and Protective Action Zone
PROTECTIVEACTION ZONE
1/2 DOWNWIND DISTANCE
INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE
Downwind Distance
1/2 DOWNWIND DISTANCE
INITIAL ISOLATION DISTANCE
NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.3
193
  • Difference between small and large spills as
    found in the table of isolation distances
  • Small spill
  • Large spill
  • Circumstances under which different distances are
    used

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.4
194
Small Spill
Large Spill
NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.4
195
Difference Between Orange Green Pages
  • Isolation distance in the Orange pages
  • Used to protect from immediate hazards
  • Materials not highlighted
  • Protective action distance in the Green pages
  • Used for materials that present a toxic hazard.
  • Highlighted materials only.

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4.5
196
Location of Emergency Response Plans
  • Local Emergency Response Plan and the Standard
    Operating Instructions
  • Applicable to each jurisdiction
  • Kept with the responsible agency

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.1
197
Role of the Awareness Level First Responder
  • Guidelines are found in
  • The local emergency response plan.
  • The organizations standard operating procedures.
  • North American Emergency Response Guidebook

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.2
198
Techniques Used
  • Techniques used to isolate the hazard area and
    deny entry
  • Use a vehicle to block a road
  • Rope-off or barricade entrance to area
  • Notify law enforcement to divert traffic
  • Close doors to facility
  • Use public address system

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.5
199
Involving Criminal orTerrorist Activity
  • Communicate the suspicion during notification
  • Isolate potentially exposed people
  • Document the initial observation

NFPA Objective 2-4.1.6
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