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Title: Thesis, Antithesis,


1
Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis Age of Faith,
Age of Reason and French Revolution
GENA 2112 The Characteristics of Western Culture
2
The French Revolution?????
  • Leo Gershoy, The Era of the French Revolution
    1789-1799 Ten Years that shook the world
  • R. R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World
  • R. R. Palmer, The World Revolution of the West
    Political Science Questerly LXIX (1954), pp.
    1-14.
  • R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic
    Revolution a Political History of Europe and
    America, 1760-1800

3
The Rise of Modern Europe
  • Historical background
  • Age of Faith ? Age of Reason ?
  • Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution ?
    compass, gunpowder, printing, navigation
    discovery of the world commercial revolution,
    industrial revolution
  • ? Age of Enlightenment
  • expansion

4
The Rise of Modern Europe
  • The French Revolution (1789-1799) And the
    Napoleon Wars (1792-1815) overthrown the old
    order (Ancien Regime the Ancient Regime)
  • Bourgeoisie vital role

5
French Revolution Direct and Immediate cause
  • French Revolution, direct and immediate
    causefinance
  • 18th century commercial, agricultural,
    industrial development
  • France the centre of the enlightenment
  • ? leading force in Europe
  • ? revolution

6
R. R. Palmer French Revolution
  • 1760s-1848
  • (or Atlantic civilization)
  • Age of Democratic Revolution of one a series of
    democratic revolution
  • French Revolution compare with US Independence
    1760with similar principles

7
French Revolution Political Revolution?
  • French Revolution, Political revolution with
    mission
  • fraternity, liberty, equality
  • Consequence a series of revolutions thoughts
  • Napoleon wars,
  • 1830,
  • 1848
  • Liberalism
  • Nationalism
  • Romanticism

8
Ancien Regime
  • estates ????
  • ??
  • 1st priests
  • 2nd nobles 1-3 (privileged) ? (tax)
  • 3rd others (bourgeoisie) 97

9
Ancien Regime
  • 17th 18th centuries industrial commercial
    development ?
  • Louis 14th
  • ? d. 1714 after me, the flood (Après moi
    le déluge)
  • Louis 15th (r. 1715-74)(5yrs. old)(1710-74)
  • ?
  • Louis 16th (1754-93)(r. 1774-92) sincere, family
    man
  • 1770 married Marie Antoinette (1755-93) Austrian
    princess that Austrian womaen
  • luxurious

10
Intellectual Background
  • France enlightenment centre
  • philosophers
  • John Lock ????
  • Montesquieu??????
  • Rousseau????
  • Voltaire?????
  • ? French Revolution
  • natural right, limited government???

11
Unfair Taxation System in France
  • e.g.US Independence, 1776
  • expensive

12
Unfair Taxation System
  • 1730-1780 inflation 65?
  • But wages 22?
  • bread ?
  • ? July 14, 1789 Bastille riots by mobs
  • Marseillaise??????National Anthem?
  • August 27
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • We are both free equal
  • natural right
  • French Revolution spirit achievement

13
The French Revolution
  • Flags red, white, blue (originally the colors of
    the Bourbon royal family and Paris)
  • Representing fraternity????, equality????,
    liberty????
  • September 21, 1792 Louis 16th abdicated
  • December 11 Louis Capet trial at court
  • January 15, 1793 guilty
  • 721???
  • -31 absent
  • -11 abstained

14
Reign of Terror
  • January 16
  • 361 vs 360 death penalty
  • January 21 guillotine (???)
  • ?Republic
  • Reign of Terror until the rise of Napoleon

15
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • b. 1769 (August 15)
  • Corsica (Italy)
  • May, 1768 sold to France
  • 1779-84 military school, but good at history
    maths.
  • Military genius (gifted)
  • 1796 married Josephine (1763-1714)

16
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • military genius (success)
  • Europe almost unified
  • Spreading of revolution ideals
  • Revolution enthusiasm ? pushing Napoleon
  • Enlightened despotism revolutionary emotion
    Napoleons life career
  • Leon Tolstoy?????? Peace War ???????

17
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • defender of the New Order
  • yet, enlightened despot.
  • work hard 18 hrs/ day
  • seldom sleep

18
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • May 18, 1804 Napoleon Emperor of the French
  • December 2 coronation by Pope at Nortre Dame
    Cathedral
  • Compare with Charlemagne (800)

19
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Internal
  • Finished the riots, return to order
  • Code Napoleon (1804-10)
  • education
  • elder brother Joseph 1807
  • ?Naples then 1808
  • ?Spain

20
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • younger brother Louis ? Netherland (Holland)
    Jeromy ?Westphalia
  • younger sister Caroline ? Queen of Naples (1808)
  • BUT, was defeated by the British Navy (Admiral
    Nelson)
  • ? Continental system milk
  • unsuccessful
  • 1812?invasion to Russia
  • winter Moscow
  • 1813 Britain (Wellington)
  • ?Prussia
  • 1814 Leipzig
  • ?Exile to Elba
  • then, Hundred Days (March 20-June 29)

21
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • but Waterloo June 18,
  • British general Wellington
  • Prussia
  • Rain, Fate ?
  • ?
  • Saint Helena (Africa) d. 1821

22
The Vienna Settlement, 1815
  • The Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
  • political restoration
  • remaking of Europe (legitimacy)
  • compensation

23
The Vienna Settlement, 1815
  • Conservatism
  • liberalism
  • nationalism
  • between 1919 Paris Peace Conference
  • Vienna 1814-15 ? 1919
  • ?longer peace, more well-balanced, stability
    until 1848

24
The Vienna Settlement, 1815
  • constructive peace treaty, successful
  • until World War I, Europe, no big wars most
    influential diplomatic agreement
  • France --- lenient
  • ?France not hostile
  • (between 1919 Germany)

25
Concert of Europe ?????
  • Metternich Era, 1815-1849
  • Henry Kissinger, The World Restored
  • (PhD)
  • Representatives
  • Metternich (Austria)
  • Castlereagh ( Wellington) (Britain)
  • Nesselrode (Czar Alexander I)
  • Hardenberg (Prussia)
  • Talleyrand (France)
  • diplomat ???? ????

26
Metternich (Austria)
  • conservative hardliner
  • Against democracy
  • ??????? Austrian Empire
  • ?Austria multi-races
  • ?French Revolution???? ????
  • Change leads not to salvation, not to progress,
    but to perdition.
  • If you change anything, youll upset
    everything.
  • status quo

27
Metternich Era (1815-48)
  • Metternich born aristocrat
  • married 18th century Austrian diplomat, Count
    Kaunitzs granddaughter
  • 1806 as Ambassador to France
  • French Revolution
  • terrorism, anarchism

28
Austria
  • Austria conservatism
  • Not suited for nationalism/ liberalism
  • ?multi-races ? Magyars, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats,
    Romanians, Poles, Germans, Hungarians,
    Austrians
  • ( poor peasants)
  • Austria compare with USA
  • Metternich compare with Henry Kissinger ? PhD
    The World Restored

29
Metternichs Ideas
  • ? international, intervention
  • Best solution
  • Concert of Europe
  • i.e. regular meetings to settle problems
  • Nov. 20, 1815
  • Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia?Quadruple
    Alliance, Vienna Settlement for 20 years

30
The Congresses
  • 1st Congress 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen)
  • Withdraw troops in France
  • Fr. Quad.
  • ? Quintuple Alliance
  • 2nd (1820) at Troppau
  • 3rd (1820) at Laibach
  • 4th (18220 at Verona

31
Foreign Minister of Britain
  • British Foreign minister
  • Castlereagh on August 3, 1822 committed suicide
  • George Canning (1770-1827) Splendid Isolation
  • ?Br. withdrew

32
Britain
  • Canning, I called the New World into existence
    to redress the balance of the old.
  • Br. supported US President Monroe
  • December 2, 1823 Monroe Doctrine (????)
  • September, 1815 (Czar Alexander I Russia)
  • Holy Alliance (innocent)
  • Austria, Prussia etc.
  • a high- sounding nothing
  • a piece of sublime mysticism nonsense

33
Czar Alexander I (Russia)
  • Innocent, unstable
  • shifty Byzantine

34
Castereagh (Britain)
  • Traditional balance of power
  • balance of power
  • (equilibrium)

35
Castereagh (Britain)
  • The balance of power theory
  • Hegel ???
  • Thesis,??
  • Antithesis,??
  • Synthesis?

36
  • 1815 Vienna Settlement
  • Metternich Era (Austria)
  • ?
  • 1848
  • 1852 Napoleon III (France)
  • ?
  • 1870
  • 1871 (the end of an era)
  • Unification of Italy
  • Unification of Germany

37
New Balance of Power
  • nationalism, new imperialism, social Darwinism
    (the survival of the fittest), Marxism, alliance
    system (2 armed camps)? World War I, 1914
  • After 1815, Congress of Vienna,
  • Germany 300s?39states
  • Italy?9states
  • Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, Tuscany,
    Piedment, Sardinia, Naples, Sicily Papal

38
New Imperialism
  • (between ancient Athens mainly military16th ,
    17th commercialNOW industrial economic)
  • 1870-1914 ??????????
  • e.g. expansion, Britain
  • France, Netherland, Portugal, Italy
  • colonies ---Africa, Asia
  • (raw materials) ( markets)
  • God (religious mission)
  • Gold (greed)
  • Glory (military)

39
New Imperialism
  • Lenin, Imperialism the Highest Stage of
    Capitalism (c1916)
  • Exploitation of the poor (proletariat)
  • Joseph Schumpeter, The Sociology of Imperialism

40
New Imperialism
  • E. M. Winslow
  • social Darwinism
  • Charles Darwin, Survival of the fittest
  • Translation in Chinese (?? ??????,???????????)
  • Hernert Spenser, Illustrations of Universal
    Progress (1865),
  • The Principles of Sociology (1885),
  • comments (1902)
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