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The Age of Jefferson


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Title: The Age of Jefferson

The Age of Jefferson
  • CHAPTER 10

Jeffersons Presidency A Republican Takes Office
Thomas Jefferson
  • One of two Presidents who signed the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th
    anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of
  • Inventor of the dumbwaiter and the swivel
  • sold almost 6,500 books of his to the Library
    of Congress (to replace books that were burned by
    the British)
  • Believed to have fathered children with one of
    his slaves Sally Hemings

Description Quiet dinners Casual Clothes Greeted
people by shaking hands (not bowing) PresidentOrd
inary Citizen
  • Jeffersons grave
  • Author of the Declaration of American
  • Author of the Statue of Virginia for Religious
  • Father of the University of Virginia

  • Jeffersonian Era
  • 1800 1820s
  • Protection for the rights of citizens
  • Decreased power of the federal government

Inauguration Date March 4, 1801 Jefferson is
thought to have been the first and only president
to walk to and from his Inauguration.
First time a newspaper (the National
Intelligencer) printed the inaugural address on
the morning of the inauguration
Jeffersons Cabinet
Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallitin
Secretary of State James Madison
Federalist Fears
The minority possess their equal rights, which
equal laws must protect.
  • Jefferson supports the French Revolutionwill
    it bring revolutionary change to the U.S.?
  • Punishment for the Alien and Sedition acts

A little rebellion every now and then is a good
We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists
Jefferson tries to calm Federalist fears in his
inaugural address.
Jeffersons Goals
  1. Reduce size of government
  2. Reconcile party differences

Jeffersons Goals
  1. Reduce size of the government
  1. Tries to cut federal budget and reduce federal
  • 2) Promote laissez-faire policies in economic
  • Laissez-faire let alone
  • Free Market goods and services are exchanged
    with little government regulation
  • Very different from Hamiltons point of view

Jeffersons Goals Reduce the size of the
  • 3) Decreases the size of government departments
  • less active role in governing the nation

4) Reduces the size of the army and navy
5) Asks Congress to repeal the Whiskey Tax
Jeffersons Goals Reduce the size of the
  • 6. Dealing with Alien and Sedition Acts
  • - Sedition Act expired the day before
    Jefferson became president but he pardoned
    those still in jail
  • - Alien Act Asks Congress to restore the law
    that allowed for a 5 year waiting period for

Jeffersons goals
  • B. Reconcile Party Differences
  1. Retains the Bank of the United States

2. Retains the tariff
Jeffersons goals Reconcile party differences
3. Continues to pay off state debts using
federal money
4. Allows many Federalists to keep their
government jobs
Goals and Policies
  • Policies
  • Tries to cut federal budget and reduce federal
  • Promote laissez-faire policies in economic
  • Decreases the size of government departments
  • Reduces the size of the army and navy
  • Asks congress to repeal the whiskey tax

Reduce size of government GOAL Reconcile party
  • Policies
  • Retains the Bank of the United States
  • Continues to pay off state debts using federal
  • Allows many Federalists to keep their government

Marbury v. Madison
Background Election of 1800 results ExecutiveRep
ublican Thomas Jefferson LegislativeRepublican
majority were Republican JUDICIALFEDERALIST
Marbury v. Madison
Midnight Appointments
Before the new congress took office, the
Federalists passed a law that increased the
number of federal judge. Adams appointed
Federalists to the new positions before he left
office. He had to hurry to fill as many of the
positions as he could before the Republicans were
inaugurated. He did not have time to get all of
them delivered.
Marbury v. Madison
Republicans Take Office
When Thomas Jefferson took office he found four
appointments still sitting on the desk. One of
them belonged to William Marbury.
Marbury v. Madison
Republicans Take Office
Jefferson refused to accept these appointment.
They believed the Federalists were unfairly
trying to keep control of the courts
Jefferson tells James Madison NOT to deliver
Marburys confirming papers.
Do NOT deliver those appointments!
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury sues Madison
He asks the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus
- a court order to do something
Marbury vs Madison
Court System
Original Jurisdiction
Appellate Jurisdiction
Marbury vs Madison
Court System
Original Jurisdiction
Appellate Jurisdiction
So why did this case go to the Supreme Court
  • Article III Section 2
  • The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction in
    most cases
  • The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in
  • 1. dealing with Ambassadors and other public
    ministers and Consuls
  • 2. Where the State shall be Party

  • Adams had appointed John Marshall to be the Chief
    Justice of the Supreme Court
  • Virginia planter
  • Brilliant mind

Goal make the federal government stronger Feels
the courts are weaker than the other 2 branches.
Federal courts powers are not clear.
Marbury v. Madison
  • Marshall has a problem
  • The court knew that Jefferson had broken the law
    and they had to order him to deliver the
  • However, the court needed the executive to
    enforce their decision and if the court rules
    that Jefferson must deliver the appointment then
    Jefferson could say no.
  • This would permanently weaken the court

Marbury v. Madison
Ruling It came down to three issues 1. Did
Marbury have the right to the commission? it
was official once the President signed the
paper. 2. If he had a right to the commission
then are there laws that would ensure that
right? Courts can compel government officials
to carry out their duties when they refuse to
do so 3. Is a writ of madamus presented to the
Supreme Court the best way to secure that
Marbury v. Madison
Marburys case went to the Supreme Court for a
writ of mandamus
The case went directly to the Supreme Court
because of a law passed by Congress. The
Judiciary Act of 1789. It said the SC must decide
a case dealing with writ of mandamus
Original Jurisdiction
Reason for Ruling
The Court ruled that the Constitution only gave
the Supreme Court original jurisdiction in
certain cases and Congress cannot go against the
Constitution by adding power to the Supreme Court.
So the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional.
  • Article III Section 2
  • The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction in
    most cases
  • The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in
  • 1. dealing with Ambassadors and other public
    ministers and Consuls
  • 2. Where the State shall be Party

Significance of Marbury v Madison
  • Set an important precedent
  • Gave the Supreme Court the power of Judicial
  • Judicial Review power of the Supreme Court to
    decide whether acts of a president or laws passed
    by Congress are constitutional

  • Jefferson was unhappy with the ruling
  • Marshall had ruled against Marbury
  • BUT the decision gave more power to the court

The President and Congress eventually accepted
that the courts had the power to overturn
laws Still a very important power today!!!!
The Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase Background
By 1800, almost one million Americans lived
between the Appalachian Mountains and the
Mississippi River.
Most were farmers. They sent their farm products
down the Mississippi River to the port of New
Orleans where they could then be taken by boat to
ports along the eastern seaboard
Spain controlled the port of New Orleans-they
would threaten to close the port to Americans
In 1795, President Washington sent Thomas
Pinckney to negotiate with Spain.
Pinckney Treaty Spain agrees to let Americans
ship their goods down the Mississippi River and
store them in New Orleans. Also known as
Treaty of San Lorenzo
For a brief time (about 5 years) Americans used
the port of New Orleans without any problems but
in 1800 this changed.
Spain signs a treaty with France. This treaty
gave the Louisiana territory back to France.
Louisiana Territory
Napoleon Bonapartes plan grow food in
Louisiana and ship it to the West Indies.
Eventually have a strong control in the Western
Louisiana Purchase The Deal
Jefferson wanted to ensure that American farmers
would get to continue to use the Mississippi
River for shipping purposes.
Napoleon tells Talleyrand to offer the Americans
all of Louisiana!
From 1801 1803 Jefferson sent Livingston and
Monroe to negotiate a deal for the US. They
were allowed to offer as much as 10 million to
buy New Orleans.
  • Haitian Revolution
  • led by Toussaint LOuverture
  • Haiti won its independence in 1804.
  • This ended Napoleons hopes of control in the

Napoleon needs money for his wars in Europe and
he is no longer interested in the West.
Without authorization Livingston and Monroe offer
15 million to buy all of the Louisiana territory.
Jefferson was pleased the deal that was made it
more than double the size of the U.S. for a very
good price!
Louisiana Purchase The problem
Problem Jefferson believes in a strict
interpretation of the constitutionno where in
the constitution does it state that a president
has the power to purchase land.
How does Jefferson justify it?
Jefferson said that the power of making treaties
was designated to the president. He considered
the acquisition of Louisiana as a treaty which he
sent to the Senate to approve
The Senate approved the treaty in 1803 and our
nation was now double its original size
  • True or False
  • At the time Thomas Jefferson was living
  • There were woolly mammoths roaming the West.
  • The Appalachian Mountains were taller than the
    Rocky Mountains
  • The West had many erupting volcanoes
  • Unicorns could be found in the west
  • There were mountains in the West made of
    undissolved salt
  • Some beavers in the West were seven feet tall
  • Peruvian llamas roamed the West

Lewis and Clark
Meriwether Lewis
William Clark
The expedition began in May of 1804 In St. Louis,
The exploration team was called the Corps of
The Goals of the Mission
3) Learn about the different Indian nations
1) Map a route to the Pacific Ocean
2) Study the geography of the territory,
including the climate, vegetation and wildlife
Sacagawea Indian woman staying with the Mandan
Indians. She belonged to the Shoshone people.
She, went along with the Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark hired a man named Charbonneau (he
spoke several languages) and his wife spoke
In February 1805 Sacagawea gave birth to Jean
Baptiste Charbonneau.
There are no pictures of Sacagawea. The model
for the coin was a modern Shoshone woman.
  • Despite having an infant Sacagawea helped the
  • Translator
  • Medical help she knew the local plants
  • when a boat capsized she saved important
  • showed the expedition was friendly

  • Lewis Clark Expedition meets the Shoshone
  • Sacagawea finds her brother
  • the expedition is able to buy food and horses
  • The Shoshone advised the expedition which
    route would be best to get over the Rockies.

Lewis Clark Expedition reach the Pacific Ocean
in November 1805.
Great joy in camp. We are in view of the ocean,
this great Pacific Ocean which we have been so
long anxious to see Clark Nov. 7, 1805
The expedition returns home in September 1806.
Jefferson code

Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike explored the upper Mississippi
River, the Arkansas River and parts or present
day Colorado and New Mexico from 1805-1807
Pikes Peak a mountain peak named for Zebulon
Pike that he saw in November of 1806 above the
Colorado plains
Pike is arrested by Spanish authorities and
confiscated his detailed maps and journals.
Luckily, he was able to hide one map in the
barrel of his gun.
New Threats from Overseas Election of 1808
Trading Overseas
Barbary States The nations along the north coast
of Africa
Countries would have to pay a yearly tribute to
the Barbary States in order to protect their ships
Tripoli increases its demands
  • Jefferson refuses to pay
  • Tripoli declares war on the U.S.
  • Jefferson orders a naval blockade on the port
    of Tripoli

The crew set fire to the ship to prevent the
pirates from using it.
The US ship Philadelphia runs aground near Tripoli
Surprise Attack! American marines march 500
miles to Tripoli and attacked.
Treaty Tripoli will no longer interfere with
American ships
Conflict with Britain and France
Britain and France go to war again in 1803.
Again, Britain and France ignore U.S. neutrality
and they
What do Americans call for?
Seize American Ships!
WAR !!
The British violate U.S. neutrality further by
impressing U.S. sailors
Impressmentsthe practice of forcing people into
Like Washington and Adams before him, Jefferson
wanted to AVOID WAR.
Jeffersons plan Embargo Act
Who did the Embargo Act hurt the most?
Americansit cut off many importsbut it hurt New
England merchants most of all.
The merchants protested through smuggling.
The Embargo Act has failed. It is replaced with
the Nonintercourse Act.
The Embargo Act would place a ban on trade.
Jefferson asked Congress to ban ALL foreign trade.
Jefferson hoped that this act would hurt Britain
and France because it would cut off much needed
Nonintercourse Act allowed Americans to carry on
trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Jefferson steps down after 2 terms.
Election of 1808
James Madison Political Party Democratic
Republican Home state Virginia
Charles Pinckney Political Party
Federalist Home state South Carolina
Smallest President, weighing 100 pounds, and
standing 5 feet and 4 inches tall
Madison was the first President to wear trousers
instead of knee breeches.
James Madison was one of two Presidents to sign
the U.S. Constitution
Madison was younger than both of his vice
presidents, and both of his vice presidents died
while they were in office. (George Clinton and
John Langdon)
The Road to War
Many Native Americans resented the white settlers
The British gave them muskets and gunpowder to
use against the U.S.
  • The settlers took their land and built farms
  • The settlers took their resources

Fallen Timbers Native Americans gathered here
thinking that the Americans would not be able to
fight due to the fallen trees. US defeats
Native Americans.
  • Treaty of Greenville
  • 1795
  • leaders of the Miamis and other Indian nations

  • Native Americans gave up land that would later
    become part of Ohio
  • The U.S. would pay the Native Americans 20,000
    plus more money in the future if they promised to
    keep the peace.

Miami chief Little Turtle, representing the
confederation, ceded to the United States most of
Ohio and parts of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan.
Indian Confederation
  • To get all the Indians to return to the old
    ways of life.
  • resist white settlers

Also was a religious leader called the Prophet.
He is one of those uncommon geniuses which
spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and
overturn the established order of
things. William Henry Harrison
Battle of Tippecanoe
In 1808 Tenskwatawa built a village called
Prophetstown along the Tippecanoe Creek. William
Henry Harrison was sent to defeat Tenskwatawa.
Results Both sides suffered heavy
loses   Harrisons troops defeats the Prophets
forces   Prophetstown is destroyed
Road to War
  • The French and British were seizing American
  • The British were supplying the Indians with
    guns and ammunition.
  • The British were impressing American sailors

France accepts the offer.
Offer from Congress
If either country (Britain or France) would stop
seizing American Ships, then the U.S. would halt
trading with the other nation.
Road to War
War Hawk Members of Congress from the South and
the West that called for war against Britain.
Henry Clay (Kentucky)
The most outspoken War Hawk
Why go to war
Disadvantages Taxes to pay for the
war   Feared that the British navy would attack
American sea ports  
Advantages Could punish Britain for seizing
American ships   Could conquer Canada   The
U.S. could seize Florida from Britains ally,
Spain   Bring lasting security and safety for
the settlers on the frontier
The War of 1812
In June 1812, President James Madison asked
Congress to declare war on Britain.
Why is the U.S. unprepared for war?
Jefferson had decreased spending on the military
so we had a small and ill-equipped navy and
army debt Ill-trained soldiers (most were
Outcome After an hour the British ship
surrendered to the American.
  • Famous sea battle
  • American ship USS Constitution (Old Ironsides)
  • British ship HMS Guerriere

The British navy blockaded American ports in
order to stop American trade.
Lets conquer Canada!
Conquering Canada Americans thought that if they
moved into Canada the Canadians would want to
join the Americans in overthrowing British rule.
They were wrong
The attempts to conquer Canada failed.
Brock paraded his Canadian soldiers, (mostly
untrained) in red coats to make it appear that
many experienced British troops were helping
them. He also made the Americans think that a
large number of Indians were fighting too.
Isaac Brock
Battle of Lake Erie
To take control of Lake Erie Captain Oliver
Hazard Perry designed and built his own fleet.
Captain Perry abandoned his ship and rowed
through gunfire to another American ship where he
eventually won the battle.
Outcome American Victory
August 1814 the British land in Chesapeake Bay.
In 1814, Britain defeats France and can now focus
solely on the U.S.
Britain can now send more resources and troops to
fight the Americans.
Burning of Washington
British soldiers burn down the White House.
Dolley Madison was able to save presidential
papers and a portrait of George Washington.
Battle of Fort McHenry
After witnessing the Battle at Fort McHenry
Francis Scott Key wrote a poem entitled, Defense
of Fort McHenry
After being set to music, this song became our
national anthem which is entitled, The Star
Spangled Banner.
  • Jacksons forces
  • Frontiersman,
  • Native Americans,
  • citizens of New Orleans,
  • African American volunteers

Andrew Jackson was in command of the American
British plan to attack New Orleans and then sail
up the Mississippi River.
More than 2,000 British soldier died.
Only 7 Americans died.
Battle of New Orleans Dec. 1814 Jan. 1815
Andrew Jackson got the distinction for being a
national hero.
It occurred 2 weeks AFTER the end of the war.
Hartford Convention
It hurt the sea trade
New Englanders (esp. merchants) protested Mr.
Madisons War.
Most at the Hartford Convention were
They threatened to leave the union if the war
While the delegates debated news of the peace
treaty arrived and the convention endedthere was
no longer a point.
The threat of cession further weakened the
Federalist party.
Results of the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent Dec. 1814
Terms Britain and the U.S. restore prewar
Opinions of the War of 1812
Anti Pro

Believed other countries will now treat the U.S.
with more respect Increased sense of nationalism
(pride in the country)
Thought the war was a mistake Nothing had
During the War of 1812, black men accounted for
between 15 and 20 percent of enlisted men on all
ships and all stations in the United States Navy.
Throughout the War of 1812, African Americans
joined in defending the nation African Americans
volunteered to defend Philadelphia, and New York,
and they served with distinction in the U.S. navy.
At the Battle of New Orleans in 1814, the
Battalion of Free Men of Color was with General
Jackson. They held their portion of the line
against British attack and then counterattacked.
Jackson said, "I expected much from youbut you
surpass my hopesthe American nation shall
applaud your valor, as your General now praises
your ardor."
Jefferson Code
  • The roaring noise made by the waves breaking on
    the rocky shores (as I suppose) may be heard
  • Great joy in camp. We are in view of the ocean,
    this great Pacific ocean which we been so long
    anxious to see.

Writing Prompt
  • Put a heading on the paper
  • Full First and Last name
  • SS teacher name and ELA teacher name
  • Class period
  • Date
  • Writing Prompt
  • What do you like and/or dislike about social
    studies class