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The Arms Race, MAD, and the Space Race

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The Arms Race, MAD, and the Space Race IB History of the Americas Frayer Model: Bell Ringer Mutually Assured Destruction Destructive Capabilities 1979 estimates by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Arms Race, MAD, and the Space Race


1
The Arms Race, MAD, and the Space Race
  • IB History of the Americas

2
(No Transcript)
3
Frayer Model Bell Ringer


Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
4
Mutually Assured Destruction
RETALIATION
1ST STRIKE
United States
Soviet Union
5
Destructive Capabilities
  • 1979 estimates by the US Office of Technology
    Assessment
  • One small nuclear weapon exploded over Detroit or
    Leningrad would kill 400,000 people immediately
  • Full-scale nuclear war would kill over 100
    million Americans and 75 million Soviets within
    30 days
  • The American deaths alone would approximately
    equal the 9/11 terrorist attacks every day for 55
    years.

6
Cold War Arms Race
7
Cold War Arms Race
  • You cannot simultaneously prevent and prepare
    for war." --Albert Einstein

8
Cold War Arms Race
  • "I know not with what weapons World War III will
    be fought, but World War IV will be fought with
    sticks and stones." -- Albert Einstein

9
History of Nukes
  • From 1945-1949 USA was the only nation to have
    Nuclear Bombs.

10
The Arms Race Begins
  • In 1949, the Soviets developed the atomic bomb.

11
History of Nukes
  • In the 1950s Britain, France, and the USSR all
    have nuclear weapons.

12
Nuclear Holocaust-
  • World leaders realize the clash between the
    superpowers could destroy mankind.

13
Arms Race
  • In the 1950s the US developed the first hydrogen
    bomb, and the Soviets released the satellite
    Sputnik.

14
Arms Race
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected to succeed Harry
    S. Truman as president

15
Arms Race
  • Nikita Khrushchev succeeded Josef Stalin as
    Soviet Premier

16
Arms race
  • In 1957, the launch of the satellite Sputnik into
    space drastically changes the arms race

17
The arms race begins.
  • Both countries began developing their weapons so
    as to be able to outgun their opponents. This
    meant
  • developing more powerful weapons
  • Having more of one weapon than the other side
  • WHY NUCLEAR WEAPONS?
  • Cheaper than having a large army
  • They were a deterrent. The idea was to have so
    many missiles that they could not all be
    destroyed. If one side attacked then it knew that
    the other could retaliate. This was known as MAD
    MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION.
  • For some the Arms Race was a test of the
    strengths of Capitalism v communism

18
Why was there a nuclear arms race?
USSR 76 IBMs 700 Medium range bombers 1,600
bombers 38,000 Tanks 12 Nuclear submarines 495
Conventional submarines 0 Battleships and
cruisers
US 450 ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missile)
250 Medium range missiles 2,260
Bombers 16,000Tanks 32 Nuclear submarines 260
Conventional submarines 76 Battleships and
carriers
19
THE SPACE RACE
20
What was the space race?
  • The space race was a race between the United
    States and the Soviet Union to explore outer
    space.
  • Many Americans felt that it would be dangerous to
    lose this race.
  • They realized that if the Soviets could work or
    travel in space, they could easily spy on or
    attack the United States.

21
The serious side was.
  • That a rocket that could launch a satellite could
    also launch a nuclear warhead at a target.
  • So space developments led to rapid advances in
    nuclear weapons.
  • By 1960 each side had the nuclear capability to
    destroy the earth
  • In 1961 Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut was the
    first man to orbit the earth the Soviets had
    the lead. For Khrushchev it wa a triumph for
    communism

22
Sputnik
  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched a
    satellite named Sputnik into outer space.
  • It was sent into space to circle Earth.

23
Khrushchev said
  • The Sputniks prove that communism has won the
    competition between communist and capitalist
    countries. The economy, science, culture and the
    creative genius of people in all areas of life
    develop better and faster under communism.

24
US Catches Up
  • The United States had clearly fallen behind in
    the space race.
  • The US worked very hard and quickly, and launched
    its first satellite in January1958.
  • Then, in October of 1958, the National
    Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA was
    founded to promote US space exploration projects.

25
NASA
  • NASA launched the first successful weather
    satellite in 1960.
  • Meanwhile, in April 1961 Yuri Gargarin became the
    first person to orbit (circle) the Earth.
  • February 1962, John Glenn became the first
    American to orbit Earth.

26
President Kennedys Address
  • On 21 May, 1961 President Kennedy made a famous
    speech in which he announced an ambitious plan to
    put a man on the moon by the end of the decade
    The Apollo Program was launched
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vkwFvJog2dMw

27
Friendship 7
  • John Glenns spacecraft was named Friendship 7.
  • More than 60 million Americans watched the launch
    from Cape Canaveral, Florida which stayed in
    space for 4 hours and 48 minutes.

28
Telstar 1
  • The US and the Soviet Union continued to build
    and test new rockets and satellites. It was
    discovered that satellites could be used for
    communication.
  • The US satellite Telstar 1 relayed the first
    transatlantic telecast in 1962.

29
Apollo 11
  • On July 16, 1969, the American spaceship Apollo
    11 blasted off carrying astronauts Neil
    Armstrong, Edwin Buzz Aldrin, and Michael
    Collins.
  • While Collins circled the moon in Apollo 11,
    Armstrong and Aldrin guided the Eagle, a small,
    specially designed spacecraft, down to the moons
    surface.
  • They became the first people to walk on the moon.

30
Apollo 11
31
US Takes the Lead
  • With the success of Apollo 11, the United States
    had taken the lead in the space race.
  • The space race continued until the collapse of
    the Soviet Union, but space exploration continues
    today.
  • The International Space Station is an orbiting
    station on which American and astronauts from
    former Soviet countries now explore space as
    friends.

32
The failure of disarmament
  • Both sides hoped for arms reductions to cut
    defence spending
  • After Stalins death East-West relations had
    improved
  • USSR proposed
  • reduction of armed forces
  • Eventual abolition of atomic weapons
  • International inspections to supervise this

33
The USA.
  • Wanted strong inspection system
  • Proposed open skies openly photograph each
    others sites from planes
  • USSR rejected this
  • USA rejected initial USSR proposals
  • Stalemate

34
U2
  • 1960
  • U2 was a spy plane that was what it was
    developed for
  • Able to fly 6000km at high altitudes
  • Could take photos of Soviet bomber bases and
    missile sites

35
Events
  • May 1- U2 plane piloted by Gary Powers shot down
    by Soviet missile over Russia
  • May 5 Eisenhower denied it was spying
  • May 7 Khrushchev says Powers to be charged with
    spying
  • May 11 Eisenhower admits U2 was on spying
    mission
  • May 14 Khrushchev demands apology and
    cancelling of all U2 flights
  • May 16 U2 flights cancelled no apology
    Khrushchev walks out of Paris Summit

36
Results
  • Paris summit abandoned hopes on disarmament
    dashed
  • Khrushchev showed Communist world he could be
    tough
  • Powers sentenced to ten years. Swapped for Soviet
    spy after 17 months
  • Cold War attitudes hardened again
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