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Short Story Elements and Terms

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Title: Short Story Elements and Terms


1
Short Story Elements andTerms
2
A short story is
  • a brief fictional narrative in prose

Very brief storyits only a few pages!
3
The essence of the short story is the plot .
A plot is the sequence of events in a narrative
work.
Parts of the plot are
  • Exposition
  • Conflict
  • Rising Action
  • Climax
  • Falling Action
  • Resolution / Denouement

4
PLOT CHART / DIAGRAM
Climax
Rising Action
Falling Action
Conflict
Resolution / Denouement
Exposition
5
Definitions for parts of the plot
  • Exposition introduction of characters, setting,
    situation
  • Conflict a struggle between opposing forces
  • Rising action complications that occur in trying
    to resolve the conflict
  • Climax the emotional high point of the story
  • Falling action the logical consequences of the
    climax
  • Resolution / Denouement the final outcome

6
Conflict can be internal or external.
Internal a characters struggle within
himself torn between opposing feelings or
different courses of action (psychological)
External a characters struggle with an
outside force
7
Types of external conflict
  • character vs. another character
  • character vs. society
  • character vs. nature
  • character vs. machine
  • character vs. supernatural being

social
physical
metaphysical
8
What Do We Mean by the Theme of a Story?
The theme is the authors message about his/her
perception about life or human nature.
The theme of a literary work can be stated or
implied.
9
Characters
Characters are the actors in a storys plot.
Protagonist the main character Antagonist
the character/force in conflict with the
protagonist.
10
Types of Characters
  • Dynamic changes attitude in the course of the
    story gains new understanding or insight
  • Static remains the same throughout the story
  • Flat has only one personality trait
  • Round has varied different personality traits
  • Stock or Stereotyped flat character that is
    typical and often repeated.

11
Characterization
. is the method the author uses to reveal a
characters personality
Direct characterization when the author tells
the reader about the characters traits directly
  • Indirect characterization when the author
    reveals a characters personality through the
    characters words, thoughts, actions, appearance,
    and reaction of other characters.

12
Point of View is the voice the author uses to
tell his story.
  • First-person (I, me, my) narrator is a
    character in the story reader sees everything
    through the character
  • Third-person limited (he/she) narrator outside
    the story reveals thoughts and feelings of just
    one character
  • Third-person omniscient (he/she) narrator
    outside the story reveals thoughts and feelings
    of all characters all-knowing
  • Third-person objective (he/she) narrator is
    outside the story reveals only actions
    speech no thoughts or feelings

13
Foreshadowing
  • is the use of clues that give hints so that the
    reader can predict what will happen.

14
Irony is the difference between what appears to
be real and what is actually real in a story.
  • Verbal Irony difference between what a
    speaker says and what he means
  • Situational Irony difference between what the
    reader expects to happen and what actually
    happens
  • Dramatic Irony difference between what the
    reader knows and what the character knows.
    The reader has more or better information
    than the character.

15
Other definitions .
  • Symbolism when an object, person, place or
    experience represents something else that is
    abstract
  • Diction the authors choice of words
  • Denotation a words literal or dictionary
    definition
  • Connotation a words implied / emotional
    meaning
  • Tone the authors attitude about the subject of
    the literary work.

16
Other definitions
Idiom an accepted expression having a meaning
different from the literal.
  • Examples I was so angry I was beside myself.
    (Beside myself is idiomatic because it is
    physically impossible to be next to oneself).
  • Other examples- Keep an eye out.
    - Right on the money
  • Flat broke - Dodge a
    bullet

17
Other Definitions
  • Oxymoron a form of paradox that combines a pair
    of opposite terms into a single unusual
    expression a seeming contradiction.
  • Examples a wise fool, definitely maybe, precise
    estimate, genuine imitation, honest politician
  • Alliteration occurs when several neighboring
    words begin with the same consonant
    sound.Example Peter Piper picked a peck of
    pickled peppers
  • Allusion a reference to a literary,
    mythological, or historical person place or thing.

18
Other Definitions
Natural order of a sentence the subject comes
before the predicate.
Inversion is a sentence where the predicate comes
before the subject. Example Long did the hours
seem while I waited for her knock at the door.
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Other Definitions
Parallel Structure (parallelism) a grammatical
or structural similarity between sentences or
parts of a sentence. Example The burden must
be carried, the want provided for, the suffering
endured, the responsibility fulfilled.

Archetype a character, action, or situation
that is a prototype or pattern of human life
occurring over and over again in
literature. Example the damsel in distress, the
rags-to-riches plot, the quest.
20
Other Definitions
Epiphany the sudden understanding in which a
character proceeds from ignorance and innocence
to knowledge and experience.
Suspense the quality that makes the reader
uncertain or tense about the outcome of events.
Motif a pattern of imagery or symbolism in a
work of literature.
21
Keep these Short Story Elements and Terms
Forever!!!
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